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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320660/nicotine-replacement-therapy-for-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy
#1
Yael Bar-Zeev, Ling Li Lim, Billie Bonevski, Maree Gruppetta, Gillian S Gould
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended in current Australian clinical guidelines for pregnant women who are unable to quit smoking unassisted. Clinicians report low levels of prescribing NRT during pregnancy, due to safety concerns and low levels of confidence in their ability to prescribe NRT. Animal models show that nicotine is harmful to the fetus, especially for brain and lung development, but human studies have not found any harmful effects on fetal and pregnancy outcomes. Studies of efficacy and effectiveness in the real world suggest that NRT use during pregnancy increases smoking cessation rates...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290999/impact-of-neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-radiotherapy-on-disease-specific-survival-in-patients-with-stages-ii-iv-rectal-cancer
#2
Yinying Wu, Haiyang Liu, Xianglin L Du, Fan Wang, Jing Zhang, Xiaohai Cui, Enxiao Li, Jin Yang, Min Yi, Yunfeng Zhang
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine whether neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy affected disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with rectal cancer and whether stratification by tumor stage affected the results. Results: 55.5% patients had neoadjuvant-radiotherapy (NRT), and 18.3% patients had adjuvant- radiotherapy (ART). Multivariable models showed that treatment type was independently associated with DSS. Patients with stages III/IV tumors who received ART plus chemotherapy had significantly worse DSS than did those who received NRT plus chemotherapy (NCRT) (P = 0...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275492/comprehensive-inter-comparison-of-insat-multispectral-rainfall-algorithm-estimates-and-tmpa-3b42-rt-v7-estimates-across-different-climate-regions-of-india-during-southwest-monsoon-period
#3
Shruti Upadhyaya, Raaj Ramsankaran
The main objective of this study is to validate and inter-compare two Near-Real-Time Satellite Rainfall Estimates (NRT-SREs): INSAT Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (IMSRA, simple blended product) and TMPA 3B42-RT V7 (3B42-RT, multisatellite product) across India. This study aims to provide some insight into the error characteristics of both the NRT-SREs to the algorithm developers and end users by inter-comparing the daily rainfall estimates during the southwest monsoon period of 2010-2013. This study utilizes various volumetric statistics and categorical statistics to understand and evaluate the performance of NRT-SREs in terms of both spatial and volumetric error characteristics (hit, miss, and false error) at different rainfall thresholds across different Köppen-Geiger climate regions of India using the gridded gauge data provided by Indian Meteorological Department as reference dataset...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250815/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-cessation-of-tobacco-smoking
#4
Nieves Gómez-Coronado, Adam J Walker, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent after one year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, affording a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated...
December 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220743/the-cigarette-dependence-scale-and-heaviness-of-smoking-index-as-predictors-of-smoking-cessation-after-10weeks-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-and-at-6-month-follow-up
#5
Laurie Zawertailo, Sabrina Voci, Peter Selby
INTRODUCTION: The reliability and validity of the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS) has been tested in online studies and compared with other tobacco dependence measures. Findings regarding its ability to predict smoking cessation have been mixed. We examined whether the CDS predicted cessation among a sample that received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) at a community workshop and assessed the incremental predictive validity of the CDS-5 and CDS-12 over the 2-item Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI)...
November 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196725/pharmacogenetic-study-of-seven-polymorphisms-in-three-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-smoking-cessation-therapies
#6
Giulia Pintarelli, Antonella Galvan, Paolo Pozzi, Sara Noci, Giovanna Pasetti, Francesca Sala, Ugo Pastorino, Roberto Boffi, Francesca Colombo
Smoking-cessation therapy reduces the risk of smoking-related diseases, but is successful only in a fraction of smokers. There is growing evidence that genetic variations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits influence the risk of nicotine dependence and the ability to quit smoking. To investigate the role of polymorphisms in nAChR genes on smoking quantity and the outcome of smoking-cessation therapies, we carried out an association study on 337 smokers who underwent pharmacotherapy with varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone, or NRT plus bupropion...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181399/mri-based-estimation-of-scalar-cochlear-implant-electrode-position
#7
A Stratmann, P Mittmann, G Rademacher, G Grupe, S Hoffmann, S Mutze, A Ernst, I Todt
The position of the cochlear-implant electrode is important to audiological outcomes after cochlear implantation. The common technique to evaluate the intracochlear electrode's position involves the use of ionized radiation in MSCT, DVT, or flat-panel tomography (FPT). Recent advances in knowledge regarding the handling of MRI artifacts in cochlear implantees indicate that estimating the intracochlear electrode's position with an MRI could be possible. This study's aim was to evaluate the ipsilaterally position of electrodes using MRI at 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180549/family-physicians-perceived-prevalence-safety-and-screening-for-cigarettes-marijuana-and-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-ends-use-during-pregnancy
#8
Thomas F Northrup, Michelle R Klawans, Yolanda R Villarreal, Adi Abramovici, Melissa A Suter, Joan M Mastrobattista, Carlos A Moreno, Kjersti M Aagaard, Angela L Stotts
OBJECTIVE: Assess perceptions of prevalence, safety, and screening practices for cigarettes and secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe), marijuana (and synthetic marijuana), electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; eg, e-cigarettes), nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT), and smoking-cessation medications during pregnancy, among primary care physicians (PCPs) providing obstetric care. METHODS: A web-based, cross-sectional survey was e-mailed to 3750 US physicians (belonging to organizations within the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance)...
November 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175360/efficacy-of-acupuncture-is-noninferior-to-nicotine-replacement-therapy-for-tobacco-cessation-results-of-a-prospective-randomized-active-controlled-open-label%C3%A2-trial
#9
Ying-Ying Wang, Zhao Liu, Yuan Wu, Li Yang, Lang-Tao Guo, Hao-Bin Zhang, Jin-Sheng Yang
BACKGROUND: We designed and conducted this multicenter randomized active-controlled open-label trial to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture, auricular point pressing, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on tobacco cessation in the Chinese population. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in seven hospitals in China between October 2013 and February 2016. Eligible participants were recruited and randomly assigned to receive acupuncture or auricular point pressing or NRT via a central randomization system with a 1:1:1 ratio...
November 23, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173283/using-lean-quality-improvement-tools-to-increase-delivery-of-evidence-based-tobacco-use-treatment-in-hospitalized-neurosurgical-patients
#10
Laurel Sisler, Oluwaseun Omofoye, Karina Paci, Eldad Hadar, Adam O Goldstein, Carol Ripley-Moffitt
BACKGROUND: Health care providers routinely undertreat tobacco dependence, indicating a need for innovative ways to increase delivery of evidence-based care. Lean, a set of quality improvement (QI) tools used increasingly in health care, can help streamline processes, create buy-in for use of evidence-based practices, and lead to the identification of solutions on the basis of a problem's root causes. To date, no published research has examined the use of Lean tools in tobacco dependence...
December 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164344/theoretical-investigation-on-the-covalence-in-agrnx-and-xagrn-x%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-i
#11
Li Xinying
CCSD(T) calculations were performed to investigate the stabilities and interaction mechanisms of the AgRnX and XAgRn (X = F - I) series. Dissociation energies and frontier orbital properties demonstrate an increased trend of stabilities. Ag spd hybrids and Rn/X sp hybrids come into the σAg-Rn and σAg-X bonding orbital. The nature of Ag-Rn, Ag-X and Rn-X interactions were investigated by atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. The negative energy density and positive Laplacian values, as well as small electron densities at bond critical points (BCPs), characterize the moderate strength with partial covalence of interactions...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159018/the-relationship-between-type-of-telephone-service-and-smoking-cessation-among-rural-smokers-enrolled-in-quitline-tobacco-dependence-treatment
#12
Julianna M Nemeth, Sarah Cooper, Amy Wermert, Abigail Shoben, Mary Ellen Wewers
Quitlines are successful tools for smoking cessation, but no known study has examined whether type of phone service (cell phone only (CPO) vs. landline (LL)) impacts quitline utilization, quit attempts, and sustained cessation. This report details an observational study examining the association between phone service and quitline utilization and cessation among Ohio Appalachian adults willing to quit smoking and enrolled in a cessation trial from 2010 to 2014. A secondary analysis was conducted with data obtained from smokers enrolled in the Ohio Tobacco Quitline arm of a group randomized trial (n = 345)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149048/quit-methods-used-by-american-smokers-2013-2014
#13
Brad Rodu, Nantaporn Plurphanswat
This report describes the quit methods used in the past 12 months by current and former smokers in the baseline Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study during 2013-2014. Descriptive statistics were used to report the use of single and two or more quit methods; survey weights were used to compute population estimates. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between past year former smokers and single quit method, including individual characteristics. RESULTS: Of 11,402 current smokers and 4919 former smokers, 4541 had tried and 839 had quit in the past 12 months...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146649/what-are-older-smokers-attitudes-to-quitting-and-how-are-they-managed-in-primary-care-an-analysis-of-the-cross-sectional-english-smoking-toolkit-study
#14
Hannah Jordan, Mira Hidajat, Nick Payne, Jean Adams, Martin White, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age is associated with access to smoking cessation services. DESIGN: Data from the Smoking Toolkit Study 2006-2015, a repeated multiwave cross-sectional household survey (n=181 157). SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Past-year smokers who participated in any of the 102 waves stratified into age groups. OUTCOME MEASURES: Amount smoked and nicotine dependency, self-reported quit attempts and use of smoking cessation interventions...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106852/postoperative-objective-detecting-techniques-for-cochlear-implant-children-with-inner-ear-malformation
#15
Xiao-Feng Qiao, Xin Li, Qiang-Wei Zhang, Tong-Li Li, Dong Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the changing characteristics and rules of electrically-evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), electrically-evoked stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and neural response telemetry (NRT) after cochlear implant in children with inner ear malformation, and guide postoperative equipment debug. METHODS: A total of 88 children with either normal cochlea (control group) or inner ear malformation (test group) received Australian 24 multi-channel cochlear implants...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059367/nicotine-metabolism-informed-care-for-smoking-cessation-a-pilot-precision-rct
#16
Quinn S Wells, Matthew S Freiberg, Robert A Greevy, Rachel F Tyndale, Suman Kundu, Meredith S Duncan, Stephen King, Elizabeth Scoville, Dawn Beaulieu, Vanessa Gatskie, Hilary A Tindle
Introduction: Varenicline doubles cessation over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch for "normal," but not "slow," nicotine metabolizers, as assessed by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). Metabolism-informed care (MIC) could improve outcomes by matching normal metabolizers with non-nicotine medication (e.g., varenicline) and slow metabolizers with NRT patch. Methods: We conducted a feasibility randomized controlled trial of MIC vs. guideline based care (GBC) among 81 outpatient adult daily smokers with medical comorbidity...
October 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059345/state-tobacco-policies-as-predictors-of-evidence-based-cessation-method-usage-results-from-a-large-nationally-representative-dataset
#17
Jennifer Dahne, Amy E Wahlquist, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter
Introduction: Evidence-based cessation methods including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), non-NRT medications, quitlines, and behavioral treatments are underutilized by smokers attempting to quit. Although a number of studies have demonstrated a relationship between state-level tobacco policies (eg, taxation, appropriations) and cessation, whether such state-level factors influence likelihood of using an evidence-based treatment is unclear. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were: (1) to describe evidence-based cessation method utilization by state and (2) to examine the effect of state-level factors on cessation method utilization above and beyond individual-level predictors...
September 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045191/the-efficacy-of-resistance-training-in-hypoxia-to-enhance-strength-and-muscle-growth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Brendan R Scott, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
Recent studies have reported that resistance training in hypoxia (RTH) may augment muscle size and strength development. However, consensus on the effects of RTH via systematic review and meta-analysis is not yet available. This work aimed to systematically review studies which have investigated using RTH versus normoxic resistance training (NRT) to improve muscular size and strength, and to perform a meta-analysis to determine the effect of RTH on these adaptive parameters. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception until 17 June 2017 for original articles assessing the effects of RTH on muscle size and strength versus NRT...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040555/the-effectiveness-of-varenicline-versus-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-long-term-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-electronic-medical-records
#19
Gemma M J Taylor, Amy E Taylor, Kyla H Thomas, Timothy Jones, Richard M Martin, Marcus R Munafò, Frank Windmeijer, Neil M Davies
Background: There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for long-term smoking cessation in primary care, or whether the treatment effectiveness differs by socioeconomic position (SEP). Therefore, we estimated the long-term effectiveness of varenicline versus NRT (> 2 years) on smoking cessation, and investigated whether effectiveness differs by SEP. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 654 general practices in England, within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using three different analytical methods: multivariable logistic regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032420/cochlear-implantation-with-the-nucleus-slim-modiolar-electrode-ci532-a-preliminary-experience
#20
Domenico Cuda, Alessandra Murri
To combine the benefits of perimodiolar stimulation with minimal insertion trauma, a thin, pre-curved electrode (CI532) was recently developed by Cochlear Ltd. (Sidney). This array is held straight prior to insertion by an external polymer reloadable sheath that is removed after full electrode insertion. Sixty-seven patients suffering from severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 42.2 years; mean duration of the hearing loss 19.6 years; mean PTA thresholds at 250-2000 Hz 92.4 dB HL) were implanted with the CI532...
December 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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