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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911358/performance-of-nested-rt-pcr-on-csf-for-tuberculous-meningitis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#1
F A S Gualberto, M G Gonçalves, L O Fukasawa, A M Ramos Dos Santos, C T Sacchi, L H Harrison, D R Boulware, J E Vidal
SETTING: Timely diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a challenge. Despite the current scale-up of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, other molecular diagnostic tools are necessary, particularly in referral centres in low- and middle-income countries without Xpert testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) in HIV-infected TBM patients categorised according to standardised clinical case definitions...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898403/healthcare-financing-systems-for-increasing-the-use-of-tobacco-dependence-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Floor A van den Brand, Gera E Nagelhout, Ayalu A Reda, Bjorn Winkens, Silvia M A A Evers, Daniel Kotz, Onno Cp van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, which makes it essential to stimulate smoking cessation. The financial cost of smoking cessation treatment can act as a barrier to those seeking support. We hypothesised that provision of financial assistance for people trying to quit smoking, or reimbursement of their care providers, could lead to an increased rate of successful quit attempts. This is an update of the original 2005 review. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to assess the impact of reducing the costs for tobacco smokers or healthcare providers for using or providing smoking cessation treatment through healthcare financing interventions on abstinence from smoking...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892544/you-can-reduce-secondhand-smoke-exposure-prescribing-nicotine-replacement-in-the-pediatrician-s-office
#3
Sabrina Fernandez
It is universally known that secondhand smoke is detrimental to children's health. There is emerging research about the negative effects of thirdhand smoke as well. Most pediatricians focus on the child's medical evaluation and treatment, without considering other family members as it impacts the child's health. Screening rates for secondhand smoke exposure are low to begin with, and when we find a family member who is smoking, most pediatricians feel comfortable counseling and referring, but many do not know how to prescribe nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890055/resected-irradiated-rectal-cancers-are-twelve-lymph-nodes-really-necessary-in-the-era-of-neoadjuvant-therapy
#4
Morgan L Cox, Mohamed A Adam, Mithun M Shenoi, Megan C Turner, Zhifei Sun, Christopher R Mantyh, John Migaly
BACKGROUND: Our study aims to identify the minimum number of lymph nodes (LN) associated with improved survival in patients who underwent NRT for stage II-III rectal cancer. METHODS: Adults with clinical stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma in the National Cancer Data Base were stratified by NRT. Multivariable Cox regression modeling with restricted cubic splines was used to determine the minimum number of LNs associated with improved survival. RESULTS: Of 38,363 patients, 76% received NRT...
August 26, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884473/pharmacotherapy-for-smoking-cessation-effects-by-subgroup-defined-by-genetically-informed-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
Ewoud Schuit, Orestis A Panagiotou, Marcus R Munafò, Derrick A Bennett, Andrew W Bergen, Sean P David
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation therapies are not effective for all smokers, and researchers are interested in identifying those subgroups of individuals (e.g. based on genotype) who respond best to specific treatments. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether quit rates vary by genetically informed biomarkers within pharmacotherapy treatment arms and as compared with placebo. To assess the effects of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation in subgroups of smokers defined by genotype for identified genome-wide significant polymorphisms...
September 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877727/zonnic%C3%A2-a-new-player-in-an-old-field
#6
REVIEW
Min Gong, Michael S Dunbar, Claude Setodji, William G Shadel
The tobacco industry is continually evolving to adapt to increasing tobacco control pressure and regulation, and to cater to consumer preferences. Recently, RJ Reynolds rolled-out a nicotine-containing gum, Zonnic®, which is marketed as a smoking cessation and reduction product and is sold at convenience stores at a lower price and in a smaller quantity than existing brands sold at pharmacies. The introduction of Zonnic® products is a critical first step in tobacco industry's involvement in the NRT market and a serious indication of the evolving tobacco and nicotine-delivery industry and environment...
September 6, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865923/rapid-and-label-free-electrochemical-dna-biosensor-for-detecting-hepatitis-a-virus
#7
Marisa Manzano, Sara Viezzi, Sandra Mazerat, Robert S Marks, Jasmina Vidic
Diagnostic systems that can deliver highly specific and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food and water are of particular interest in many fields including food safety, biosecurity and control of outbreaks. Our aim was the development of an electrochemical method based on DNA hybridization to detect HAV. A ssDNA probe specific for HAV (capture probe) was designed and tested on DNAs from various viral and bacterial samples using Nested-Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (nRT-PCR)...
August 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865483/suppression-of-cortical-seizures-by-optic-stimulation-of-the-reticular-thalamus-in-pv-mhchr2-yfp-bac-transgenic-mice
#8
Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang, Bai Chuang Shyu
Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRT). Previous studies showed that enhancing GABAergic inhibitory strength in the nRT reduces the duration and power of seizures, indicating that the thalamus plays an important role in modulating cortical seizures. The aim of the present study was to apply optogenetics to study the role of the nRT in modulating cortical seizures...
September 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857640/smoking-cessation-among-methadone-maintained-patients-a-meta-analysis
#9
Anne Yee, Moey Chee Hoong, Yong Chen Joyce, Huai Seng Loh
BACKGROUND: Nicotine use disorder is highly prevalent among methadone maintenance patients with its tobacco-related problems. However, the treatment modalities for nicotine use disorder remain limited. OBJECTIVE: Our meta-analysis aims to examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment in this group of patients. METHODS: A total of 1358 participants were recruited from 9 eligible studies, published from the start of studies in this field till Feb 2016, identified from PubMed, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases...
August 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833834/estimates-of-effectiveness-and-reach-for-return-on-investment-modelling-of-smoking-cessation-interventions-using-data-from-england
#10
Robert West, Kathryn Coyle, Lesley Owen, Doug Coyle, Subhash Pokhrel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Estimating 'return on investment' (ROI) from smoking cessation interventions requires reach and effectiveness parameters for interventions for use in economic models such as the EQUIPT ROI tool (http://roi.equipt.eu). This paper describes the derivation of these parameter estimates for England that can be adapted to create ROI models for use by other countries. METHODS: Estimates were derived for interventions in terms of their reach and effectiveness in: 1) promoting quit attempts, and 2) improving the success of quit attempts (abstinence for at least 12 months)...
August 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817320/tobacco-industry-research-on-nicotine-replacement-therapy-if-anyone-is-going-to-take-away-our-business-it-should-be-us
#11
Dorie Apollonio, Stanton A Glantz
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended for tobacco cessation on the basis of pharmaceutical industry research showing its effectiveness when combined with counseling. The tobacco industry opposed NRT when it first appeared in the 1980s but by 2016 was marketing its own NRT products. We used internal tobacco industry documents dated 1960 through 2010 to identify the industry's perceptions of NRT. As early as the 1950s, tobacco companies developed nonsmoked nicotine replacements for cigarettes, but they stopped out of concern that marketing such products would trigger Food and Drug Administration regulation of cigarettes...
October 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805074/comparing-the-new-york-state-smokers-quitline-reach-services-offered-and-quit-outcomes-to-44-other-state-quitlines-2010-to-2015
#12
Nathan Mann, James Nonnemaker, LeTonya Chapman, Asma Shaikh, Jesse Thompson, Harlan Juster
PURPOSE: To summarize the reach, services offered, and cessation outcomes of the New York Quitline and compare with other state quitlines. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Forty-five US states. PARTICIPANTS: State-sponsored tobacco cessation quitlines in 45 US states that provided complete data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Quitline Data Warehouse (NQDW) for 24 quarters over 6 years (2010-Q1 through 2015-Q4)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804929/factors-moderating-the-relative-effectiveness-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-in-clients-using-smoking-cessation-services
#13
Neil Walker, Heather Gainforth, Vasiliki Kiparoglou, Hayley Robinson, Hugo van Woerden, Robert West
AIMS: To assess how far the greater effectiveness of varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is moderated by characteristics of the smokers or setting in clinical practice. DESIGN: We used observational data from 22,472 treatment episodes between 2013 and 2016 from smoking cessation services in England to assess whether differences between varenicline and NRT were moderated by a set of smoker and setting characteristics: these included level of social deprivation, age, gender, ethnic group, nicotine dependence, and treatment context...
August 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780551/the-indigenous-counselling-and-nicotine-ican-quit-in-pregnancy-pilot-study-protocol-a-feasibility-step-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial-to-improve-health-providers-management-of-smoking-during-pregnancy
#14
Yael Bar-Zeev, Billie Bonevski, Michelle Bovill, Maree Gruppetta, Chris Oldmeadow, Kerrin Palazzi, Lou Atkins, Jennifer Reath, Gillian S Gould
INTRODUCTION: Indigenous women have the highest smoking prevalence during pregnancy (47%) in Australia. Health professionals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence to effectively manage smoking among pregnant women in general. We developed a behaviour change intervention aimed to improve health professionals' management of smoking in Indigenous pregnant women-the Indigenous Counselling And Nicotine (ICAN) QUIT in Pregnancy. This intervention includes webinar training for health professionals, an educational resources package for health professionals and pregnant women, free oral nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for pregnant women, and audit and feedback on health professionals' performance...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764371/toward-reliable-modeling-of-s-nitrosothiol-chemistry-structure-and-properties-of-methyl-thionitrite-ch3sno-an-s-nitrosocysteine-model
#15
Dmitry G Khomyakov, Qadir K Timerghazin
Methyl thionitrite CH3SNO is an important model of S-nitrosated cysteine aminoacid residue (CysNO), a ubiquitous biological S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) involved in numerous physiological processes. As such, CH3SNO can provide insights into the intrinsic properties of the -SNO group in CysNO, in particular, its weak and labile S-N bond. Here, we report an ab initio computational investigation of the structure and properties of CH3SNO using a composite Feller-Peterson-Dixon scheme based on the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set limit, CCSD(T)-F12/CBS, with a number of additive corrections for the effects of quadruple excitations, core-valence correlation, scalar-relativistic and spin-orbit effects, as well as harmonic zero-point vibrational energy with an anharmonicity correction...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738270/chemical-structure-and-correlation-analysis-of-hiv-1-nnrt-and-nrt-inhibitors-and-database-curated-published-inhibition-constants-with-chemical-structure-in-diverse-datasets
#16
Birgit Viira, Alfonso T García-Sosa, Uko Maran
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase is a major target for designing anti-HIV drugs. Developed inhibitors are divided into non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) depending on their mechanism. Given that many inhibitors have been studied and for many of them binding affinity constants have been calculated, it is beneficial to analyze the chemical landscape of these families of inhibitors and correlate these inhibition constants with molecular structure descriptors...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723477/accuracy-of-self-reported-smoking-exposure-among-bladder-cancer-patients-undergoing-surveillance-at-a-tertiary-referral-center
#17
Alan E Thong, Stacey Petruzella, Irene Orlow, Emily C Zabor, Behfar Ehdaie, Jamie S Ostroff, Bernard H Bochner, Helena Furberg Barnes
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for developing bladder cancer (BCa). Even though continued exposure after diagnosis may adversely affect prognosis, patients may be reluctant to disclose to their physicians that they are currently smoking, leading to inaccurate reporting of exposure and missed opportunities to deliver smoking-cessation advice and treatment in the context of cancer care. OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent of misclassification of recent smoking exposure among patients undergoing BCa surveillance...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720080/long-term-effectiveness-of-mailed-nicotine-replacement-therapy-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-5-year-follow-up
#18
Vladyslav Kushnir, Peter Selby, Laurie Zawertailo, Rachel F Tyndale, Scott T Leatherdale, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Our group recently completed a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of providing 5 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; in the form of the nicotine patch) by expedited postal mail without behavioral assistance to regular adult smokers interested in receiving it. The findings revealed that mailed provision of nicotine patches resulted in more than a doubling of quit rates at a six-month follow-up compared to a no intervention control group. While this trial provided evidence for the effectiveness of mailed nicotine patches in promoting cessation, the findings speak only to the short term effectiveness of this approach...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709877/impact-of-duration-of-neoadjuvant-radiation-on-rectal-cancer-survival-a-real-world-multi-center-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Omar Abdel-Rahman, Aalok Kumar, Hagen F Kennecke, Caroline H Speers, Winson Y Cheung
BACKGROUND: The utility of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (nRT) for the treatment of stage II and III rectal cancer is well-established. However, the optimal duration of nRT in this setting remains controversial. Using a population-based cohort of patients with stage II and III rectal cancer (RC) treated with curative intent, our aims were to (1) examine the patterns of nRT use and (2) explore the relationship between different nRT schedules and survival in the real-world setting. METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective cohort study based on population-based data from 5 regional comprehensive cancer centers in British Columbia, Canada...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697411/electron-velocity-map-imaging-and-theoretical-study-on-cuxh-x-o-and-s-anions
#20
Zhengbo Qin, Hui Wang, Yangdi Ren, Xianfeng Zheng, Zhifeng Cui, Zichao Tang
Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra of CuOH(-) and CuSH(-) have been determined via velocity map imaging method to investigate the transitions of X(1)A'←X(2)A' at 532nm. Adiabatic detachment energies of CuOH(-) and CuSH(-) are assigned to 0.995(12) and 1.098(12) eV, respectively. Combined theoretical calculations with Franck-Condon simulations, it allows extracting the vibrational frequencies in neutral, which yields 629(32) cm(-1) with CuO stretching mode and 387(24) cm(-1) with CuS stretching mode for CuXH (X=O and S)...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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