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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149048/quit-methods-used-by-american-smokers-2013-2014
#1
Brad Rodu, Nantaporn Plurphanswat
This report describes the quit methods used in the past 12 months by current and former smokers in the baseline Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study during 2013-2014. Descriptive statistics were used to report the use of single and two or more quit methods; survey weights were used to compute population estimates. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between past year former smokers and single quit method, including individual characteristics. RESULTS: Of 11,402 current smokers and 4919 former smokers, 4541 had tried and 839 had quit in the past 12 months...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146649/what-are-older-smokers-attitudes-to-quitting-and-how-are-they-managed-in-primary-care-an-analysis-of-the-cross-sectional-english-smoking-toolkit-study
#2
Hannah Jordan, Mira Hidajat, Nick Payne, Jean Adams, Martin White, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age is associated with access to smoking cessation services. DESIGN: Data from the Smoking Toolkit Study 2006-2015, a repeated multiwave cross-sectional household survey (n=181 157). SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Past-year smokers who participated in any of the 102 waves stratified into age groups. OUTCOME MEASURES: Amount smoked and nicotine dependency, self-reported quit attempts and use of smoking cessation interventions...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106852/postoperative-objective-detecting-techniques-for-cochlear-implant-children-with-inner-ear-malformation
#3
Xiao-Feng Qiao, Xin Li, Qiang-Wei Zhang, Tong-Li Li, Dong Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the changing characteristics and rules of electrically-evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), electrically-evoked stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and neural response telemetry (NRT) after cochlear implant in children with inner ear malformation, and guide postoperative equipment debug. METHODS: A total of 88 children with either normal cochlea (control group) or inner ear malformation (test group) received Australian 24 multi-channel cochlear implants...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059367/nicotine-metabolism-informed-care-for-smoking-cessation-a-pilot-precision-rct
#4
Quinn S Wells, Matthew S Freiberg, Robert A Greevy, Rachel F Tyndale, Suman Kundu, Meredith S Duncan, Stephen King, Elizabeth Scoville, Dawn Beaulieu, Vanessa Gatskie, Hilary A Tindle
Introduction: Varenicline doubles cessation over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch for "normal," but not "slow," nicotine metabolizers, as assessed by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). Metabolism-informed care (MIC) could improve outcomes by matching normal metabolizers with non-nicotine medication (e.g., varenicline) and slow metabolizers with NRT patch. Methods: We conducted a feasibility randomized controlled trial of MIC vs. guideline based care (GBC) among 81 outpatient adult daily smokers with medical comorbidity...
October 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059345/state-tobacco-policies-as-predictors-of-evidence-based-cessation-method-usage-results-from-a-large-nationally-representative-dataset
#5
Jennifer Dahne, Amy E Wahlquist, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter
Introduction: Evidence-based cessation methods including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), non-NRT medications, quitlines, and behavioral treatments are underutilized by smokers attempting to quit. Although a number of studies have demonstrated a relationship between state-level tobacco policies (eg, taxation, appropriations) and cessation, whether such state-level factors influence likelihood of using an evidence-based treatment is unclear. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were: (1) to describe evidence-based cessation method utilization by state and (2) to examine the effect of state-level factors on cessation method utilization above and beyond individual-level predictors...
September 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045191/the-efficacy-of-resistance-training-in-hypoxia-to-enhance-strength-and-muscle-growth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Brendan R Scott, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
Recent studies have reported that resistance training in hypoxia (RTH) may augment muscle size and strength development. However, consensus on the effects of RTH via systematic review and meta-analysis is not yet available. This work aimed to systematically review studies which have investigated using RTH versus normoxic resistance training (NRT) to improve muscular size and strength, and to perform a meta-analysis to determine the effect of RTH on these adaptive parameters. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from database inception until 17 June 2017 for original articles assessing the effects of RTH on muscle size and strength versus NRT...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040555/the-effectiveness-of-varenicline-versus-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-long-term-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-electronic-medical-records
#7
Gemma M J Taylor, Amy E Taylor, Kyla H Thomas, Timothy Jones, Richard M Martin, Marcus R Munafò, Frank Windmeijer, Neil M Davies
Background: There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for long-term smoking cessation in primary care, or whether the treatment effectiveness differs by socioeconomic position (SEP). Therefore, we estimated the long-term effectiveness of varenicline versus NRT (> 2 years) on smoking cessation, and investigated whether effectiveness differs by SEP. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 654 general practices in England, within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using three different analytical methods: multivariable logistic regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032420/cochlear-implantation-with-the-nucleus-slim-modiolar-electrode-ci532-a-preliminary-experience
#8
Domenico Cuda, Alessandra Murri
To combine the benefits of perimodiolar stimulation with minimal insertion trauma, a thin, pre-curved electrode (CI532) was recently developed by Cochlear Ltd. (Sidney). This array is held straight prior to insertion by an external polymer reloadable sheath that is removed after full electrode insertion. Sixty-seven patients suffering from severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 42.2 years; mean duration of the hearing loss 19.6 years; mean PTA thresholds at 250-2000 Hz 92.4 dB HL) were implanted with the CI532...
December 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993381/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-fewer-than-20-remaining-teeth-in-taiwanese-adults-with-disabilities-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#9
Mei-Yu Pan, Tsung-Cheng Hsieh, Hung-Cheng Tai, Ming-Shyan Lin, Yu-Chen Lin, Mei-Yen Chen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of and the factors associated with a number of remaining teeth (NRT) <20 among adults with disabilities. DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: This study was part of a health promotion programme designed for community-dwelling adults with disabilities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 549 adults with disabilities, aged 20-80 years, living in the community in Chiayi County in Taiwan...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991474/why-do-cumulene-ketones-kink
#10
Frank Weinhold
We employ ab initio and density functional methods to investigate the equilibrium structure and vibrational frequencies of extended cumulene monoketones [CH2═(C═)mO] and diketones [O═(C═)mO], in order to elucidate the electronic origin of the curious "kinked'" spine geometries that are common in such species. The dominant role of symmetry-breaking nO((π))-σ*CC interactions between the p-type lone pair of the terminal oxygen and adjacent unfilled CC antibonding orbital is demonstrated by NBO second-order delocalization energies, Fock matrix deletions, and natural resonance theory (NRT) descriptors, showing the general connection between cumulene kinking and CC bond-breaking reactions that split off CO...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987337/the-differential-impact-of-state-tobacco-control-policies-on-cessation-treatment-utilization-across-established-tobacco-disparities-groups
#11
Jennifer Dahne, Amy E Wahlquist, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Matthew J Carpenter
Tobacco control policies are effective in promoting quit attempts and increase the likelihood that smokers use evidence-based cessation treatments (e.g., nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), non-NRT medications, behavioral treatment, and/or quitlines). However, what is less clear is how these policies might differentially impact different groups of smokers, perhaps in some cases even widening disparities in the use of evidence-based tobacco dependence treatments. This paper examined how different state-level tobacco control policies impact the use of evidence-based cessation treatments by race/ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status (SES), age, and smoking history...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975321/in-smokers-with-copd-neither-varenicline-nor-bupropion-was-linked-to-increased-cv-or-neuropsychiatric-risk-vs-nrt
#12
Catherine M Kress, Ngozi U Obi, Allan V Prochazka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967286/an-audit-of-the-management-of-nicotine-withdrawal-in-an-australian-inpatient-unit-are-we-there-yet
#13
Reena Iyer, David Smith, Sharon Lawn
OBJECTIVES: This paper reports outcomes of a clinical audit of smoke-free policy implementation within an Australian inpatient psychiatric setting. It aimed to evaluate assessment of smoking status and subsequent management of nicotine withdrawal, and investigate any patient factors influencing these processes. METHODS: A total of 67 medical case notes were retrospectively analysed for inpatients admitted to psychiatric units of a general hospital in South Australia, from July to September 2015...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961314/key-issues-surrounding-the-health-impacts-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-ends-and-other-sources-of-nicotine
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey Drope, Zachary Cahn, Rosemary Kennedy, Alex C Liber, Michal Stoklosa, Rosemarie Henson, Clifford E Douglas, Jacqui Drope
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the last decade, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including the electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, has grown rapidly. More youth now use ENDS than any tobacco product. This extensive research review shows that there are scientifically sound, sometimes competing arguments about ENDS that are not immediately and/or completely resolvable. However, the preponderance of the scientific evidence to date suggests that current-generation ENDS products are demonstrably less harmful than combustible tobacco products such as conventional cigarettes in several key ways, including by generating far lower levels of carcinogens and other toxic compounds than combustible products or those that contain tobacco...
November 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947779/cortical-afferents-onto-the-nucleus-reticularis-thalami-promote-plasticity-of-low-threshold-excitability-through-glun2c-nmdars
#15
Laura M J Fernandez, Chiara Pellegrini, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi, Simone Astori
Thalamus and cortex represent a highly integrated processing unit that elaborates sensory representations. Interposed between cortex and thalamus, the nucleus Reticularis thalami (nRt) receives strong cortical glutamatergic input and mediates top-down inhibitory feedback to thalamus. Despite growing appreciation that the nRt is integral for thalamocortical functions from sleep to attentional wakefulness, we still face considerable gaps in the synaptic bases for cortico-nRt communication and plastic regulation...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942430/interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-patients-admitted-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-review
#16
REVIEW
Omar M Chehab, Habib A Dakik
Tobacco smoking contributes to about six million deaths per year and is predicted to increase in the future. Several pharmacological interventions are used for smoking cessation. Trials using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) showed inconclusive results. Furthermore, three trials using bupropion in patients admitted with ACS failed to show improvement in smoking cessation compared with placebo. Interestingly, only one trial using varenicline was successful in achieving smoking abstinence in the acute setting...
September 23, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911358/performance-of-nested-rt-pcr-on-csf-for-tuberculous-meningitis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#17
F A S Gualberto, M G Gonçalves, L O Fukasawa, A M Ramos Dos Santos, C T Sacchi, L H Harrison, D R Boulware, J E Vidal
SETTING: Timely diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a challenge. Despite the current scale-up of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, other molecular diagnostic tools are necessary, particularly in referral centres in low- and middle-income countries without Xpert testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) in HIV-infected TBM patients categorised according to standardised clinical case definitions...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898403/healthcare-financing-systems-for-increasing-the-use-of-tobacco-dependence-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Floor A van den Brand, Gera E Nagelhout, Ayalu A Reda, Bjorn Winkens, Silvia M A A Evers, Daniel Kotz, Onno Cp van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, which makes it essential to stimulate smoking cessation. The financial cost of smoking cessation treatment can act as a barrier to those seeking support. We hypothesised that provision of financial assistance for people trying to quit smoking, or reimbursement of their care providers, could lead to an increased rate of successful quit attempts. This is an update of the original 2005 review. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to assess the impact of reducing the costs for tobacco smokers or healthcare providers for using or providing smoking cessation treatment through healthcare financing interventions on abstinence from smoking...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892544/you-can-reduce-secondhand-smoke-exposure-prescribing-nicotine-replacement-in-the-pediatrician-s-office
#19
Sabrina Fernandez
It is universally known that secondhand smoke is detrimental to children's health. There is emerging research about the negative effects of thirdhand smoke as well. Most pediatricians focus on the child's medical evaluation and treatment, without considering other family members as it impacts the child's health. Screening rates for secondhand smoke exposure are low to begin with, and when we find a family member who is smoking, most pediatricians feel comfortable counseling and referring, but many do not know how to prescribe nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890055/resected-irradiated-rectal-cancers-are-twelve-lymph-nodes-really-necessary-in-the-era-of-neoadjuvant-therapy
#20
Morgan L Cox, Mohamed A Adam, Mithun M Shenoi, Megan C Turner, Zhifei Sun, Christopher R Mantyh, John Migaly
BACKGROUND: Our study aims to identify the minimum number of lymph nodes (LN) associated with improved survival in patients who underwent NRT for stage II-III rectal cancer. METHODS: Adults with clinical stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma in the National Cancer Data Base were stratified by NRT. Multivariable Cox regression modeling with restricted cubic splines was used to determine the minimum number of LNs associated with improved survival. RESULTS: Of 38,363 patients, 76% received NRT...
August 26, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
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