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Johannes Thrul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. OBJECTIVES: We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jianjun Liu, Mingxue Su, Jing Wang, Gan Zhang, Jing Zhou, Anqing Zhang, Zixue Ren, Xucai Zheng, Shikai Hong, Shengying Wang, Rongxin Zhang
Although local advanced gastric cancer (AGC) could benefit from neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NRT), there are few studies evaluating patients' survival after NRT. In current study, we aimed to investigate the value of prognostic factors in AGC patients after NRT and to evaluate whether post-therapy pathological characteristics were predictive factors in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed AGC patients who underwent NRT from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database. The patients' clinical and post-therapy pathological characteristics were analyzed...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Nicola Lindson-Hawley, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Thomas R Fanshawe, Rachna Begh, Amanda Farley, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes...
October 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marita Hefler, Robyn Hopkins, David P Thomas
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Northern Territory was the first Australian jurisdiction to introduce a smoke-free policy for all correctional facilities. We report on a process evaluation to identify what worked well, key challenges and unintended consequences. METHODS: We interviewed 87 people, comprising remand, medium-security and low-security prisoners; visiting family members; and prison staff (including prison management and health workers). A realist evaluation approach was used...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Kathirvel Gopalakrishnan, Amar S More, Gary D Hankins, Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Sathish Kumar
Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Veniamin A Borin, Sergey M Matveev, Darya S Budkina, Patrick Z El-Khoury, Alexander N Tarnovsky
Femtosecond transient absorption measurements powered by 40 fs laser pulses reveal that ultrafast isomerization takes place upon S1 excitation of both CH2I2 and CHBr3 in the gas phase. The photochemical conversion process is direct and intramolecular, i.e., it proceeds without caging media that have long been implicated in the photo-induced isomerization of polyhalogenated alkanes in condensed phases. Using multistate complete active space second order perturbation theory (MS-CASPT2) calculations, we investigate the structure of the photochemical reaction paths connecting the photoexcited species to their corresponding isomeric forms...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
N J Walker, H C van Woerden, V Kiparoglou, Y Yang, H Robinson, E Croghan
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation services are available in England to provide assistance to those wishing to quit smoking. Data from one such service were analysed in order to investigate differences in quit rate between males and females prescribed with different treatments. METHODS: A logistic regression model was fitted to the data using the binary response of self-reported quit (failed attempt = 0, successful attempt = 1), validated by Carbon Monoxide (CO) monitoring, 4 weeks after commencing programme...
October 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
Mercy Joseph, Jyoti Ahlawat, Amit Malhotra, Murali Rao, Abhimanyu Sharma, Sangeeta Talwar
BACKGROUND: Complete removal of old filling material during root canal retreatment is fundamental for predictable cleaning and shaping of canal anatomy. Most of the retreatment methods tested in earlier studies have shown inability to achieve complete removal of root canal filling. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of three different rotary nickel titanium retreatment systems and Hedstrom files in removing filling material from root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to leave 15 mm root...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Peter N Lee, Marc W Fariss
We conducted a systematic literature review to identify and critically evaluate studies of serious adverse health effects (SAHEs) in humans using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Serious adverse health effects refer to adverse events, leading to substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions. Strength of evidence evaluations and conclusions were also determined for the identified SAHEs. We evaluated 34 epidemiological studies and clinical trials, relating NRT use to cancer, reproduction/development, CVD, stroke and/or other SAHEs in patients, and four meta-analyses on effects in healthy populations...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
B L Ecker, M G Peters, M T McMillan, A J Sinnamon, P J Zhang, D L Fraker, W P Levin, R E Roses, G C Karakousis
BACKGROUND: Histological subtype influences both prognosis and patterns of treatment failure in retroperitoneal sarcoma. Previous studies on the efficacy of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NRT) have incorporated multiple histological types with heterogeneous tumour biology. The survival impact of NRT specifically for patients with retroperitoneal liposarcoma is poorly defined. METHODS: Patients who underwent resection with curative intent for retroperitoneal liposarcoma and who received NRT or surgery alone were identified in the US National Cancer Data Base (2004-2013)...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Lion Shahab, Fiona Dobbie, Rosemary Hiscock, Ann McNeill, Linda Bauld
BACKGROUND: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was licensed for harm reduction in the United Kingdom in 2005, and guidance to UK Stop-Smoking Services (SSS) to include long-term partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with NRT was issued in 2013. Yet, NRT prevalence data and data on changes in biomarkers associated with long-term NRT use among SSS clients are scarce. METHODS: SSS clients abstinent 4 weeks postquit date were followed up at 12 months. At baseline standard sociodemographic, smoking and SSS use characteristics were collected and of those eligible, 60...
September 24, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Damaris J Rohsenow, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Peter M Monti
: Treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) provides an opportunity to use voucher-based treatment for smoking. Nicotine replacement (NRT) could improve outcomes previously observed with vouchers without NRT. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial compared contingent vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to noncontingent vouchers (NV), when all received counseling and NRT. Smokers who had not sought smoking treatment (n=340) in residential SUD treatment were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence per exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) after a 5-day smoking reduction period, or vouchers only for breath samples, plus brief advice (four sessions) and 8weeks of NRT...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Beata Lindholm, Maria H Nilsson, Oskar Hansson, Peter Hagell
The 3-step falls prediction model (3-step model) that include history of falls, history of freezing of gait and comfortable gait speed <1.1 m/s was suggested as a clinical fall prediction tool in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to externally validate this model as well as to explore the value of additional predictors in 138 individuals with relatively mild PD. We found the discriminative ability of the 3-step model in identifying fallers to be comparable to previously studies [area under curve (AUC), 0...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Mahmoud Nikseresht, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Mehdi Hedayati
This study compared the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT), aerobic interval training (AIT), and detraining on adipokines and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged obese men. Thirty-three obese men were randomly allocated to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 10), and control (CON, n = 11) groups. Subjects in experimental groups performed exercise protocols 3 days per week for 12 weeks followed by a 4-week detraining period. The NRT involved 55 min of weight training with flexible periodization. The AIT consisted of running on a treadmill (4 × 4-min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, with each interval separated by 3 min at 65%)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lucinda J England, Van T Tong, Amber Koblitz, Julia Kish-Doto, Molly M Lynch, Brian G Southwell
The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Wolfgang Härtig, Simon Appel, Anne Suttkus, Jens Grosche, Dominik Michalski
Treatment strategies for ischemic stroke are still limited, since numerous attempts were successful only in preclinical research but failed under clinical condition. To overcome this translational roadblock, clinical relevant stroke models should consider co-morbidities, age-related effects and the complex neurovascular unit (NVU) concept. The NVU includes neurons, vessels and glial cells with astrocytic endfeet in close relation to the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of the ECM after stroke-related tissue damage is poorly understood and mostly neglected for treatment strategies...
September 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Christine D Czoli, Geoffrey T Fong, Darren Mays, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding relative risk perceptions (RRPs) across non-combustible nicotine products. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published up to October 2014. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 5266 records identified, articles not published in English that did not quantitatively assess RRPs across categories of non-combustible nicotine products were excluded, yielding 55 records...
September 13, 2016: Tobacco Control
Emma Beard, Robert West, Susan Michie, Jamie Brown
OBJECTIVES:  To estimate how far changes in the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in England have been associated with changes in quit success, quit attempts, and use of licensed medication and behavioural support in quit attempts. DESIGN:  Time series analysis of population trends. PARTICIPANTS:  Participants came from the Smoking Toolkit Study, which involves repeated, cross sectional household surveys of individuals aged 16 years and older in England...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Anna Hansson, Thomas Rasmussen, Holger Kraiczi
INTRODUCTION: Under-dosing is a recognized problem with current nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Therefore, a new 6mg nicotine gum has been developed. To compare the nicotine uptake from the 6mg gum versus currently available NRT products, two pharmacokinetic studies were performed. METHODS: In one randomized crossover study, 44 healthy adult smokers received single doses of 6, 4, and 2mg nicotine gum, and 4mg nicotine lozenge on separate occasions. In a separate randomized crossover multiple-dose study over 11 hours, 50 healthy adult smokers received one 6mg gum every hour and 90 minutes, respectively, one 4mg gum every hour, and one 4mg lozenge every hour...
September 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Ziyad Ben Taleb, Kenneth D Ward, Taghrid Asfar, Rana Jaber, Raed Bahelah, Wasim Maziak
BACKGROUND: In high-income countries, quitting cigarette smoking is associated with weight gain, which can reduce motivation to abstain. Whether smoking cessation is associated with weight gain in a low-income country context has never been investigated. We aimed to determine the post-cessation changes in body mass index (BMI) and its predictors among smokers who received a smoking cessation intervention in a low-income country setting. METHODS: We performed post hoc analyses of data from 269 smokers who participated in a two-group, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of combined nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and behavioral counseling in primary care clinics in Aleppo, Syria...
September 9, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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