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Lai-Hua Liu, Teng-Fei Fan, Dong-Xue Shi, Chang-Jun Li, Ming-Jie He, Yi-Yin Chen, Lei Zhang, Chao Yang, Xiao-Yuan Cheng, Xu Chen, Di-Qin Li, Yi-Chen Sun
Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs) were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text] acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) of nine AMTs and four NRTs , which are respectively divided into four ( AMT1/2/3/4 ) and two ( NRT1/2 ) clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Barry A Finegan, Daniel Roblin, Fadi Hammal
Quality problem: For smokers, hospital admission is accompanied by forced involuntary nicotine abstinence due to smoke-free site/grounds policies. An audit of patients admitted to our surgical wards revealed that identification of smoking status was inadequate and that nicotine addiction management (NAM) was infrequently offered. The project aimed to enhance both these metrics by initiating NAM in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Initial assessment: Out of 744 patients admitted to our PACU in August 2015, 54% had their smoking status documented...
March 14, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Kai Nordlund, Steven J Zinkle, Andrea E Sand, Fredric Granberg, Robert S Averback, Roger Stoller, Tomoaki Suzudo, Lorenzo Malerba, Florian Banhart, William J Weber, Francois Willaime, Sergei L Dudarev, David Simeone
Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Extensive experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Mirna Pineda-Ortíz, Gustavo Pacheco-López, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Carmen Rubio, Juan Valadez-Rodríguez
RATIONALE: Visual therapy, which includes a restorative and compensatory approach, seems to be a viable treatment option for homonymous defects of the visual field in patients with postgeniculate injury of the visual pathway, due to occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Until now, the Mexican population suffering from homonymous hemianopia did not have health services that provided any type of visual therapy for their condition. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old patient, who underwent a surgical procedure for resection of the AVM, was referred with posterior low vision on the left side...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bin Wang, Keli Cao, Chaogang Wei, Zhiqiang Gao, Huan Li
OBJECTIVE: To establish an effective detection method to evaluate auditory pathway in patients by electrical evoked middle latency response (EMLR) before artificial cochlear implantation, and to analyze the relationship between postoperative hearing rehabilitation and auditory cortex functions. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with artificial cochlear implant were recruited. EMLR was measured after adjusting the depth of anesthesia. The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) mode with monopolar stimulation and two-phase alternating current square waves was selected...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Marta Trapero-Bertran, Celia Muñoz, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Reiner Leidl, Bertalan Németh, Kei-Long Cheung, Subhash Pokhrel, Ángel Lopez-Nicolás
AIMS: To assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: We used the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), a Markov-based state transition economic model, to estimate the return on investment (ROI) of: (a) the current provision of smoking cessation services (brief physician advice and printed self-helped material + smoking ban and tobacco duty at current levels); and (b) four alternative scenarios to complement the current provision: coverage of proactive telephone calls; nicotine replacement therapy (mono and combo) [prescription nicotine replacement therapy (Rx NRT)]; varenicline (standard duration); or bupropion...
March 13, 2018: Addiction
Bansh N Singh, Padmanabh Dwivedi, Birinchi K Sarma, Gopal S Singh, Harikesh B Singh
Trichoderma spp., are saprophytic fungi that can improve plant growth through increased nutrient acquisition and change in the root architecture. In the present study, we demonstrate that Trichoderma asperellum T42 mediate enhancement in host biomass, total nitrogen content, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in tobacco. T42 inoculation enhanced lateral root, root hair length, root hair density and root/shoot dry mass in tobacco under deprived nutrients condition. Interestingly, these growth attributes were further elevated in presence of T42 and supplementation of NO3 - and NH4 + nutrients to tobacco at 40 and 70 days, particularly in NO3 - supplementation, whereas no significant increment was observed in nia30 mutant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Clara Casco, Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the introduction of visual rehabilitation for patients with homonymous visual field defects has been met with both enthusiasm and caution. Despite the evidence that restitutive training results in expansion of the visual field, several concerns have been raised. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effectiveness of a new rehabilitative protocol called "Neuro Restoration Training" (NRT) in reducing visual field defects and in restituting visual functions in the restored hemianopic area...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry
Introduction: Confirming preclinical findings, nicotine in humans (via smoking) enhances reinforcement from non-drug rewards. Recent demonstration of similar effects with nicotine via e-cigarettes suggests they may also occur when using nicotine replacement therapies (NRT). Methods: Effects of nicotine via NRT patch or nasal spray were assessed on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). Non-treatment seeking smokers (N=31) participated in three virtually identical experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (CO≤10 ppm)...
March 3, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Robert West, A Eden Evins, Neal L Benowitz, Cristina Russ, Thomas McRae, David Lawrence, Lisa St Aubin, Alok Krishen, Melissa C Maravic, Robert M Anthenelli
AIMS: To assess 1) how far efficacy of front line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies vary as a function of smoker characteristics, and 2) associations between these characteristics and success of smoking cessation attempts. DESIGN: Prospective correlational study in the context of a double blind randomised trial. The outcome was regressed individually onto each covariate after adjusting for treatment, and then a forward stepwise model constructed. Treatment moderator effects of covariates were tested by treatment-by-covariate interactions...
March 6, 2018: Addiction
Shaun Shahani, Pearl Korenblit, Pauline Thomas, Marian R Passannante, Richard Carr, Lynn Davis
BACKGROUND: Studies show that combining nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with tobacco treatment counseling is most effective for smoking cessation. However, tobacco treatment counseling has been underutilized across the nation. A secure email message sent to patients already taking NRT was hypothesized to increase the utilization of tobacco treatment counseling among Veterans in New Jersey. Secure messaging for communication between patients and providers was implemented through a web-based password-protected, secure messaging account, where veterans get notified through their personal email when they have a message awaiting them...
March 5, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Nicole Cockburn, Coral Gartner, Pauline J Ford
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Reducing smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians is a vital part of closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Community-controlled health clinics are an important setting for delivering smoking cessation advice and assistance. This study measured tobacco and e-cigarette use, knowledge of smoking-related health effects, motivations to quit and interest in cessation aids. DESIGN AND METHODS: Clients of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Community Health Service dental clinics in Southeast Queensland (n = 421) completed a brief written questionnaire while in the waiting room...
March 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ruchi Pathak, Pradip V Barde
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An acute hepatitis, caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a significant global health concern, especially in developing countries. HEV has 1 serotype and 8 genotypes, which are further divided into subtypes. Despite the availability of sporadic cases and outbreak data from India, specific information regarding HEV epidemiological data is lacking from central India. This study was conducted to understand epidemiological and molecular features of HEV in central India...
March 1, 2018: Intervirology
Peter J Kelly, Camilla J Townsend, Briony A Osborne, Amanda L Baker, Frank P Deane, Carol Keane, Isabella Ingram, Joanne Lunn
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) is recommended as a frontline smoking cessation tool for people attending mental health and substance dependence treatment services. Previous research suggests that NRT is underutilized in these settings. To improve the use of NRT amongst people attending residential treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) it is important that the factors influencing smokers' decisions to use NRT are understood. The study aimed to examine: (1) smoking cessation strategies used by participants in previous quit attempts, (2) participants' attitudes towards NRT (i...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Kapka Nilan, Ann McNeill, Rachael L Murray, Tricia M McKeever, Martin Raw
AIMS: To assess tobacco dependence treatment guidelines content in accordance with Article 14 of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and its guidelines, and association between content and country income level. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Online survey from March to July 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Contacts in 77 countries, including 68 FCTC Parties, six Signatories and three non-Parties which had indicated having guidelines in previous surveys, or had not been surveyed before...
February 28, 2018: Addiction
Harmeet Singh Rehan, Jahnavi Maini, A Ps Hungin
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are devices with a heating element which produces aerosol for inhalation. They have been propagated as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking and a potential device for smoking cessation, despite non-documentation of their long-term adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: With the glorification of ECIG, its use has increased even among non-tobacco users. This makes it critical to understand and discuss a true picture about safety and utility of ECIGs by reviewing the literature...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Safety
Luba Yammine, Thomas R Kosten, Paul M Cinciripini, Charles E Green, Janet C Meininger, Jennifer A Minnix, Thomas F Newton
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the greatest preventable cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. Approved pharmacological treatments for smoking cessation are marginally effective, underscoring the need for improved pharmacotherapies. A novel approach might use glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, which reduce alcohol and drug use in preclinical studies. GLP-1 is produced in the intestinal L-cells and in the hindbrain. The peptide maintains glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cristiano Bombardi, Marcello Venzi, Vincenzo Crunelli, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Absence seizures (ASs) are associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the thalamus and the cortex. In the present study, we used light microscopy GABA immunocytochemistry to quantify the GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-IR) neurons and neuropil in the thalamic ventral basal (VB) nucleus, the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN), the primary motor cortex (M1) and perioral region of the somatosensory cortex (S1po) of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Penelope Truman, Moira Gilmour, Geoffrey Robinson
AIM: A feasibility/acceptability trial was undertaken at Ward 5, Kenepuru Hospital, Porirua, to ascertain whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were a useful option to replace or reduce smoking in the detoxification ward. METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. Tobacco use and dependency data were collected for each. The first group was surveyed on the usefulness of standard nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The second group were offered e-cigarettes with the option of standard NRT as well...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Anthony A Duplanty, Danielle E Levitt, David W Hill, Brian K McFarlin, Nancy M DiMarco, Jakob L Vingren
Low bone mineral density (BMD) in male distance runners is common and could be modulated by a host of biomarkers involved in the dynamic balance of bone tissue. In contrast, resistance training can increase BMD; however, the efficacy of resistance training in protecting BMD in distance runners has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between resistance training, testosterone and bone metabolism biomarker concentrations, and BMD in young adult male distance runners...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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