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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644619/long-bonding-in-hngcn-nc-ng-noble-gas-molecules-an-nbo-nrt-investigation
#1
Guiqiu Zhang, Shengnan Zhang, De-Zhan Chen
Recently, Weinhold et al. put forward one new concept of σ̂-type long-bonding and applied it to the comprehension of halogen noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = noble gas; Y = halogen) bonding. The present study extends this new concept into HNgX (X = CN, NC) pseudo-halogen molecules. At the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels of theory, we perform Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Resonance Theory (NRT) studies on the HNgX molecules and compare it with the previous results of HNgY molecules. The NBO/NRT results clearly reveal that each of the HNgX, but not the HHeCN, HNeCN and HNeNC molecules, is composed of three leading resonance structures: two ω-bonding structures H-Ng(+) :X(-), H:(-) Ng(+)-X and one long-bonded structure H^X...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#2
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631924/insight-into-the-bonding-mechanism-and-the-bonding-covalency-in-noble-gas-noble-metal-halides-an-nbo-nrt-investigation
#3
Guiqiu Zhang, Lei Fu, Hong Li, Xuchan Fan, De-Zhan Chen
The bonding between noble gas and noble metal halide like hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) motivates us to investigate the bonding mechanism and the bonding covalency in NgMX (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; M = Cu, Ag, Au; X = F, Cl, Br, I) complexes using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Resonance Theory (NRT) methods. In this study, we introduce the new resonance bonding model in H-bonding into NgMX bonding. We provide strong evidence for resonance bonding involving two important resonance structures: Ng: M-X ↔ Ng(+)-M :X(-) in each of NgMX complexes, originating in the nNg→σ*MX hyperconjugative interaction...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624760/how-do-smoking-cessation-medicines-compare-with-respect-to-their-neuropsychiatric-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#4
Kyla H Thomas, Deborah Caldwell, Michael N Dalili, David Gunnell, Marcus R Munafò, Matt Stevenson, Nicky J Welton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601398/gaba-receptors-and-t-type-ca-2-channels-crosstalk-in-thalamic-networks
#5
REVIEW
Nathalie Leresche, Régis C Lambert
Although the thalamus presents a rather limited repertoire of GABAergic cell types compare to other CNS area, this structure is a privileged system to study how GABA impacts neuronal network excitability. Indeed both glutamatergic thalamocortical (TC) and GABAergic nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurons present a high expression of T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels whose activation that shapes the output of the thalamus critically depends upon a preceding hyperpolarisation. Because of this strict dependence, a tight functional link between GABA mediated hyperpolarization and T-currents characterizes the thalamic network excitability...
June 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595236/comparison-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-obese-and-lean-men-effects-of-nonlinear-periodized-resistance-training-and-obesity
#6
Mahmoud Nikseresht
This study examined the capacity of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) to alter some cytokines and markers of insulin resistance in men who are obese. An additional aim was to compare these variables between obese and lean men. Age- and fitness-matched obese men were randomly allocated to NRT (n=12) and control (CON, n=10) groups. An age- and fitness-matched control group of lean men (n=11) were also recruited for baseline comparison. The NRT (12 weeks, 3 d/wk, 5-11 exercises) performed at different intensities (40-95% of IRM) with flexible periodization...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591583/distinct-thalamic-reticular-cell-types-differentially-modulate-normal-and-pathological-cortical-rhythms
#7
Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Stefanie Ritter Makinson, Bryan Higashikubo, Scott Brovarney, Frances S Cho, Alexander Urry, Stephanie S Holden, Matthew Wimer, Csaba Dávid, Lief E Fenno, László Acsády, Karl Deisseroth, Jeanne T Paz
Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576892/study-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-clinical-effectiveness-on-smoking-cessation-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine-interventions-including-acupuncture-and-aromatherapy-in-combination-with-nicotine-replacement-therapy
#8
Soobin Jang, Sunju Park, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Yu Lee Park, Ju Ah Lee, Chung-Sik Cho, Ho-Yeon Go, Yong Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559379/neural-entrainment-to-the-beat-the-missing-pulse-phenomenon
#9
Idan Tal, Edward W Large, Eshed Rabinovitch, Yi Wei, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Elana Zion Golumbic
Most humans have a near-automatic inclination to tap, clap or move to the beat of music. The capacity to extract a periodic beat from a complex musical segment is remarkable, as it requires abstraction from the temporal structure of the stimulus. It has been suggested that nonlinear interactions in neural networks result in cortical oscillations at the beat frequency, and that such entrained oscillations gives rise to the percept of a beat, or a pulse Here we tested this "Neural Resonance Theory" using MEG recordings as female and male individuals listened to 30-second long sequences of complex syncopated drumbeats designed such that they contain no net energy at the pulse frequency when measured using linear analysis...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556464/tobacco-harms-nicotine-pharmacology-and-pharmacologic-tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-women
#10
REVIEW
L Kim Baraona, Dawn Lovelace, Julie L Daniels, Linda McDaniel
Firsthand and secondhand tobacco use is linked to a multitude of harmful illnesses, adverse perinatal outcomes, and death. Cessation attempts among women may be hampered by their unique biologic response to nicotine. Current research has revealed epigenetic changes from intrauterine nicotine exposure that have intergenerational consequences. Multiple studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various pharmacologic tobacco cessation interventions in conjunction with behavioral counseling. Based on this evidence, the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2015 guideline recommends pharmacologic therapy for all nonpregnant persons who smoke in addition to behavioral counseling...
May 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#11
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
June 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#12
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549161/cigarette-smoking-cessation-intervention-for-buprenorphine-treatment-patients
#13
Sharon M Hall, Gary Humfleet, James Gasper, Kevin L Delucchi, David Hersh, Joseph Guydish
Introduction: Patients receiving Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT) for opioid use disorder have high cigarette smoking rates. Cigarette smoking interventions have had limited success. We evaluated an intervention to increase cigarette abstinence rates in patients receiving buprenorphine-assisted therapy. Methods: Cigarette smokers (N=175; 78% male; 69% Caucasian; 20% Hispanic), recruited from a buprenorphine clinic were randomly assigned to either an extended innovative system intervention (E-ISI) or to Standard Treatment Control (STC)...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522745/randomised-controlled-trial-of-stand-alone-tailored-emails-for-smoking-cessation
#14
J Lee Westmaas, Jeuneviette Bontemps-Jones, Peter S Hendricks, Jihye Kim, Lorien C Abroms
INTRODUCTION: Digital technology has created opportunities for delivering smoking cessation assistance at the population level. However, the efficacy of sending multiple, automated, tailored emails providing motivation, support and information for quitting is unknown. METHODS: Smokers planning to quit (n=1070) were randomly assigned to (1) 27 tailored cessation emails (deluxe email group (DEG)), (2) 3 to 4 tailored emails with links to downloadable booklets (basic email group (BEG)) or (3) a single non-tailored email (single email group (SEG))...
May 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521782/combining-alcohol-interventions-with-tobacco-addictions-treatment-in-primary-care-the-combat-study-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#15
Nadia Minian, Dolly Baliunas, Laurie Zawertailo, Aliya Noormohamed, Norman Giesbrecht, Christian S Hendershot, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol use present multiplicative risk for aerodigestive cancers. Reducing alcohol consumption improves smoking cessation outcomes and reduces cancer risk. Risky alcohol consumption and smoking are often treated separately despite concurrent treatment potentially leading to better outcomes for each. However, no rapidly scalable program exists for combined interventions in primary care clinics spread across wide geographic areas. This cluster randomized trial aims to report on the effects of a novel clinical decision support system (CDSS) on intervention rates by primary care practitioners addressing risky alcohol use in a smoking cessation program...
May 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521015/changes-in-alcohol-consumption-during-a-stop-smoking-attempt-and-differences-between-smokers-using-nicotine-replacement-and-smokers-using-varenicline
#16
Dunja Przulj, Peter Hajek, Sarah Snuggs, Hayden McRobbie
Introduction: Little is known about effects of smoking cessation on alcohol consumption. Varenicline reduces enjoyment of smoking and cigarette consumption and may also reduce enjoyment and consumption of alcohol. We conducted the first prospective examination of the effects of stopping smoking on alcohol enjoyment and consumption, and compared clients using varenicline and clients using nicotine replacement treatment (NRT). Methods: Audit of records from clients undergoing routine smoking cessation treatment inthree stop-smoking services in London, UK...
May 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500373/effects-of-varenicline-versus-transdermal-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-cigarette-demand-on-quit-day-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders
#17
Cara M Murphy, James MacKillop, Rosemarie A Martin, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Damaris J Rohsenow
RATIONALE: Cigarette demand is a behavioral economic measure of the relative value of cigarettes. Decreasing the value of cigarette reinforcement may help with quitting smoking. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of initial use of varenicline (VAR) versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on demand for cigarettes on quit day among smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) and to determine whether reduced demand was associated with subsequent abstinence from smoking at 1 and 3 months...
May 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498504/varenicline-versus-nicotine-patch-with-brief-advice-for-smokers-with-substance-use-disorders-with-or-without-depression-effects-on-smoking-substance-use-and-depressive-symptoms
#18
Damaris J Rohsenow, Jennifer W Tidey, Rosemarie A Martin, Suzanne M Colby, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio, Peter M Monti
AIMS: Varenicline was compared with transdermal nicotine (NRT) for smokers with current substance use disorders (SUD) for effects on 3-month smoking abstinence (primary outcome) and, secondarily, on 3 and 6 month abstinence while adjusting for medication adherence, and on additional smoking and substance use outcomes. Moderation by major depressive disorder history (MDD) and adherence were investigated. DESIGN: Double-blind double-placebo controlled randomized design, stratifying by MDD, gender and nicotine dependence, with 3 and 6 months follow up...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490903/cardiovascular-risks-in-smokers-treated-with-nicotine-replacement-therapy-a-historical-cohort-study
#19
Jens Dollerup, Jørgen Vestbo, Tarita Murray-Thomas, Alan Kaplan, Richard J Martin, Emilio Pizzichini, Marcia M M Pizzichini, Anne Burden, Jessica Martin, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests exposure to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Using data from the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, this study aimed to evaluate CVD events and survival among individuals who attempted smoking cessation with the support of NRT compared with those aided by smoking cessation advice only. We studied CVD outcomes over 4 and 52 weeks in 50,214 smokers attempting to quit - 33,476 supported by smoking cessation advice and 16,738 with the support of NRT prescribed by their primary care physician...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490757/transcriptome-and-metabolite-analysis-identifies-nitrogen-utilization-genes-in-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis
#20
Wei Li, Fen Xiang, Micai Zhong, Lingyun Zhou, Hongyan Liu, Saijun Li, Xuewen Wang
Applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer significantly increases the leaf yield. However, most N is not utilized by the plant, negatively impacting the environment. To date, little is known regarding N utilization genes and mechanisms in the leaf production. To understand this, we investigated transcriptomes using RNA-seq and amino acid levels with N treatment in tea (Camellia sinensis), the most popular beverage crop. We identified 196 and 29 common differentially expressed genes in roots and leaves, respectively, in response to ammonium in two tea varieties...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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