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Matrix metalloproteinase and cancer cachexia

Raymond D Devine, Clayton M Eichenseer, Loren E Wold
Cardiovascular dysfunction as a result of tumor burden is becoming a recognized complication; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. A murine model of cancer cachexia has shown marked increases of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known mediators of cardiac remodeling, in the left ventricle. The extent to which MMPs are involved in remodeling remains obscured. To this end a common antibiotic, minocycline, with MMP inhibitory properties was used to elucidate MMP involvement in tumor induced cardiovascular dysfunction...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath, Lukas Klameth, Maximilan J Hochmair
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor progression, suppression of antitumor immunity and dissemination. Blood monocytes infiltrate the tumor region and are primed by local microenvironmental conditions to promote tumor growth and invasion. Although many of the interacting cytokines and factors are known for the tumor-macrophage interactions, the putative contribution of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is not known so far. These specialized cells are characterized by increased mobility, ability to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to enter the blood stream and generate secondary lesions which is a leading cause of death for the majority of tumor patients...
March 2016: Oncoimmunology
Raymond D Devine, Sabahattin Bicer, Peter J Reiser, Markus Velten, Loren E Wold
Cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction is a recognized effect of cancer-induced cachexia, with alterations in heart function leading to heart failure and negatively impacting patient morbidity. Cachexia is a complex and multifaceted disease state with several potential contributors to cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes capable of degrading components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Changes to the ECM cause disruption both in the connections between cells at the basement membrane and in cell-to-cell interactions...
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Tse-Hung Huang, Yi-Han Chiu, Yi-Lin Chan, Ya-Huang Chiu, Hang Wang, Kuo-Chin Huang, Tsung-Lin Li, Kuang-Hung Hsu, Chang-Jer Wu
Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model...
April 2015: Marine Drugs
Nicole Stupka, Christopher Kintakas, Jason D White, Fiona W Fraser, Michael Hanciu, Noriko Aramaki-Hattori, Sheree Martin, Chantal Coles, Fiona Collier, Alister C Ward, Suneel S Apte, Daniel R McCulloch
Skeletal muscle development and regeneration requires the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Because the enzymatic proteolysis of a hyaluronan and versican-rich matrix by ADAMTS versicanases is required for developmental morphogenesis, we hypothesized that the clearance of versican may facilitate the fusion of myoblasts during myogenesis. Here, we used transgenic mice and an in vitro model of myoblast fusion, C2C12 cells, to determine a potential role for ADAMTS versicanases. Versican processing was observed during in vivo myogenesis at the time when myoblasts were fusing to form multinucleated myotubes...
January 18, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Camila A Camargo, Maria Eleonora F da Silva, Rodrigo A da Silva, Giselle Z Justo, Maria Cristina C Gomes-Marcondes, Hiroshi Aoyama
Quercetin, a flavonoid abundantly present in fruit, vegetables, wine and tea, has revealed several properties such as antioxidant, antiproliferative and anticancer. Cachexia is a poorly understood syndrome present in already compromised cancer patients, decreasing the quality of life and increasing mortality. Many studies have been performed in an attempt to discover an effective treatment for cachexia, but none of the tested therapies has fulfilled expectations. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of quercetin in the therapeutic treatment of cachexia and reversion of tumor growth in rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma (W256)...
March 25, 2011: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Toshio Fujisawa, Bharat Joshi, Atsushi Nakajima, Raj K Puri
Whereas interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2) is overexpressed in a variety of human solid cancers including pancreatic cancer, we investigated its significance in cancer invasion and metastasis. We used two pancreatic cancer cell lines, IL-13Ralpha2-negative HPAF-II and IL-13Ralpha2-positive HS766T, and generated IL-13Ralpha2 stably transfected HPAF-II as well as IL-13Ralpha2 RNA interference knocked-down HS766T cells. Ability of invasion and signal transduction was compared between IL-13Ralpha2-negative and IL-13Ralpha2-positive cells and tumor metastasis was assessed in murine model for human pancreatic cancer with orthotopic implantation of tumors...
November 15, 2009: Cancer Research
Miriam Judith Diament, Guillermo Daniel Peluffo, Isabel Stillitani, Leandro Carlos Cerchietti, Alfredo Navigante, Stella Maris Ranuncolo, Slobodanka Mariana Klein
Mice bearing LP07 lung adenocarcinoma present some characteristics similar to those shown in patients with several malignant diseases. LP07 tumor bearers develop paraneoplastic syndromes such as cachexia, leukocytosis, and hypercalcemia, partly due to a systemic inflammatory response. We analyzed some of the mechanisms involved in the effectiveness of the association of the appetite-stimulant medroxiprogesterone acetate (MPA) and the nonselective cyclooxigenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (INDO) in LP07 tumor bearing mice...
March 2006: Cancer Investigation
Suresh Kumar, Hiromitsu Kishimoto, Hui Lin Chua, Sunil Badve, Kathy D Miller, Robert M Bigsby, Harikrishna Nakshatri
Progression of breast cancer involves cross-talk between epithelial and stromal cells. This cross-talk is mediated by growth factors and cytokines secreted by both cancer and stromal cells. We previously reported expression of interleukin (IL)-1 alpha in a subset of breast cancers and demonstrated that IL-1 alpha is an autocrine and paracrine inducer of prometastatic genes in in vitro systems. To understand the role of IL-1 alpha in breast cancer progression in vivo, we studied the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing a secreted form of IL-1 alpha (MCF-7IL-1 alpha) in nude mice...
December 2003: American Journal of Pathology
Harry Rubin
A great deal of evidence has accumulated in recent years for an important but complex role for proteases in tumor development. However, attempts to treat cancer in humans with anti-proteases have been disappointing, and it has been suggested that more basic groundwork is needed before anti-proteases can be effectively applied. Considerable basic information comes from the recognition that earlier results on transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) by the Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus (B-RSV) can be explained in terms of proteases and their inhibitors...
May 2003: Carcinogenesis
A J Gearing, P Beckett, M Christodoulou, M Churchill, J Clements, A H Davidson, A H Drummond, W A Galloway, R Gilbert, J L Gordon
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis and the cachexia associated with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus infection. TNF-alpha is initially expressed as a 233-amino-acid membrane-anchored precursor which is proteolytically processed to yield the mature, 157-amino-acid cytokine. The processing enzyme(s) which cleave TNF-alpha are unknown. Here we show that the release of mature TNF-alpha from leukocytes cultured in vitro is specifically prevented by synthetic hydroxamic acid-based metalloproteinase inhibitors, which also prevent the release of TNF-alpha into the circulation of endotoxin challenged rats...
August 18, 1994: Nature
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