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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229276/effects-of-chlorella-vulgaris-on-tumor-growth-in-mammary-tumor-bearing-balb-c-mice-discussing-association-of-an-immune-suppressed-protumor-microenvironment-with-serum-ifn%C3%AE-and-igg-decrease-and-spleen-igg-potentiation
#1
Ahad Khalilnezhad, Elham Mahmoudian, Nariman Mosaffa, Ali Anissian, Mohsen Rashidi, Davar Amani
PURPOSE: Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has exhibited immune-enhancing and protective activities against cancer and infections. However, there is an increasing concern about the use of Chlorella species in human, regarding its various molecules with antigenic features found in infectious microorganisms. Our goal was to investigate the impact of higher concentrations of CV on tumor growth in spontaneous mouse mammary tumor (SMMT) models. METHODS: Balb/c mice were daily given CV powder at doses of 0, 200, or 300 mg/kg for 42 days (CONTROL, CV200, and CV300 groups, respectively; n = 6/group)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228084/the-development-of-oncoltyic-adenovirus-therapy-in-the-past-and-future-for-the-case-of-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Mizuho Sato-Dahlman, Masato Yamamoto
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant disease and the efficacy of current treatments for unresectable diseases is quite limited despite recent advances. Gene therapy /virotherapy strategies may provide new options for treatment of various cancers including pancreatic cancer. Oncolytic adenovirus shows an antitumoral effect via its intratumoral amplification and strong cytocidal effect in a variety of cancers and it has been employed for the development of potent oncolytic virotherapy agents for pancreatic cancer...
February 22, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228013/highly-efficient-and-safe-delivery-of-vegf-sirna-by-bio-reducible-fluorinated-peptide-dendrimers-for-cancer-therapy
#3
Xiaojun Cai, Haofang Zhu, Yanmei Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
RNA interference (RNAi) hold great promise in treating a wide range of diseases. However, it remains highly desirable to develop new delivery systems to circumvent complex extra- and intracellular barriers for successful clinical translation. Here, we report on a versatile polymeric vector, bio-reducible fluorinated peptide dendrimers (BFPD), for highly efficient and safe delivery of siRNA. In virtue of skillfully integrated all of the unique features of reversible cross-linking, fluorination and peptide dendrimers, this novel vector can surmount almost all extra- and intracellular barriers associated with local siRNA delivery through highly improved physiological stability and serum resistance, significantly increased intratumoral enrichment, cellular uptake, as well as successful facilitation of endosomal escape and cytosolic siRNA release...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224304/visualization-of-draining-vein-in-focal-nodular-hyperplasia-by-superb-microvascular-imaging-report-of-two-cases
#4
Hiroko Naganuma, Hideaki Ishida, Masahiro Ogawa, Katsunori Suzuki
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver, and diagnosis and follow-up without invasive procedures are now highly recommended. FNH shows a characteristic vascular structure called "spoke-wheel appearance". However, this appearance relies on the mode of the feeding artery, and the mode of the draining vein has not been sufficiently studied until recently. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) is a new Doppler technology designed to improve visualization of the blood flow, especially slow flow signals from fine vessels, using a new algorithm...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223795/nanoparticle-based-hyperthermia-distinctly-impacts-production-of-ros-expression-of-ki-67-top2a-and-tpx2-and-induction-of-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Robert Ludwig, Francisco J Teran, Ulf Teichgraeber, Ingrid Hilger
So far, the therapeutic outcome of hyperthermia has shown heterogeneous responses depending on how thermal stress is applied. We studied whether extrinsic heating (EH, hot air) and intrinsic heating (magnetic heating [MH] mediated by nanoparticles) induce distinct effects on pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells). The impact of MH (100 µg magnetic nanoparticles [MNP]/mL; H=23.9 kA/m; f=410 kHz) was always superior to that of EH. The thermal effects were confirmed by the following observations: 1) decreased number of vital cells, 2) altered expression of pro-caspases, and 3) production of reactive oxygen species, and 4) altered mRNA expression of Ki-67, TOP2A, and TPX2...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223165/heterogeneous-intratumoral-distribution-of-gadolinium-nanoparticles-within-u87-human-glioblastoma-xenografts-unveiled-by-micro-pixe-imaging
#6
Asuncion Carmona, Stéphane Roudeau, Baptiste L'Homel, Frédéric Pouzoulet, Sarah Bonnet-Boissinot, Yolanda Prezado, Richard Ortega
Metallic nanoparticles have great potential in cancer radiotherapy as theranostic drugs since, they serve simultaneously as contrast agents for medical imaging and as radio-therapy sensitizers. As with other anticancer drugs, intratumoral diffusion is one of the main limiting factors for therapeutic efficiency. To date, a few reports have investigated the intratumoral distribution of metallic nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative distribution of gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles after direct intratumoral injection within U87 human glioblastoma tumors grafted in mice, using micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) imaging...
February 18, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223062/nivolumab-for-previously-treated-unresectable-metastatic-anal-cancer-nci9673-a-multicentre-single-arm-phase-2-study
#7
Van K Morris, Mohamed E Salem, Halla Nimeiri, Syma Iqbal, Preet Singh, Kristen Ciombor, Blase Polite, Dustin Deming, Emily Chan, James L Wade, Lianchun Xiao, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Luis Vence, Jorge Blando, Armeen Mahvash, Wai Chin Foo, Chimela Ohaji, Manolo Pasia, Gail Bland, Aki Ohinata, Jane Rogers, Amir Mehdizadeh, Kimberly Banks, Richard Lanman, Robert A Wolff, Howard Streicher, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Cathy Eng
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare malignancy associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). No consensus treatment approach exists for the treatment of metastatic disease. Because intratumoral HPV oncoproteins upregulate immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 to evade immune-mediated cytotoxicity, we did a trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab for patients with metastatic SCCA. METHODS: We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial at ten academic centres in the USA...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221191/the-assessment-of-estrogen-receptor-status-and-its-intratumoral-heterogeneity-in-breast-cancer-patients-by-using-18-f-fluoroestradiol-pet-ct
#8
Zhongyi Yang, Yifei Sun, Xiaoping Xu, Yongping Zhang, Jianping Zhang, Jing Xue, Mingwei Wang, Huiyu Yuan, Silong Hu, Wei Shi, Beiling Zhu, Yingjian Zhang
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of F-fluoroestradiol (F-FES) PET/CT in the assessment of the estrogen receptor (ER) and its intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Forty-six female patients (50 lesions) with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer who underwent both F-FES and F-FDG PET/CT in our center were retrospectively included. All the patients enrolled were scheduled to undergo biopsy. The F-FES and FDG uptakes were compared with pathological features (tumor size, ER, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki67%)...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218512/the-performance-of-doxorubicin-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-regulation-of-drug-location
#9
Teng Cui, Juan-Juan Liang, Huan Chen, Dong-Dong Geng, Lei Jiao, Jian-Yong Yang, Hai Qian, Can Zhang, Ya Ding
Drug-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are generally constructed with many molecules of thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG)-drug decorated on their surfaces via a thiol-Au covalent bond, are promising and efficient nanoprodrugs. However, due to the exposure of the hydrophobic drug molecules on the surface of the conjugate, in vivo stability, opsonization, and subsequent inefficient therapy become the main issues of this system. To solve these problems without complicating the structures of gold conjugates, herein we propose a method to change the relative position of PEG and the drug...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213783/high-pten-gene-expression-is-a-negative-prognostic-marker-in-human-primary-breast-cancers-with-preserved-p53-function
#10
Synnøve Yndestad, Eilin Austreid, Stian Knappskog, Ranjan Chrisanthar, Peer Kåre Lilleng, Per Eystein Lønning, Hans Petter Eikesdal
PURPOSE: PTEN is an important tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Here, we examined the prognostic and predictive value of PTEN and PTEN pseudogene (PTENP1) gene expression in patients with locally advanced breast cancer given neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: The association between pretreatment PTEN and PTENP1 gene expression, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and recurrence-free and disease-specific survival was assessed in 364 patients with locally advanced breast cancer given doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin, or epirubicin versus paclitaxel in three phase II prospective studies...
February 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210996/quantitative-evaluation-of-oxygen-metabolism-in-the-intratumoral-hypoxia-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-and-15-o-labelled-gases-inhalation-pet
#11
Tadashi Watabe, Yasukazu Kanai, Hayato Ikeda, Genki Horitsugi, Keiko Matsunaga, Hiroki Kato, Kayako Isohashi, Kohji Abe, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa
BACKGROUND: Intratumoral hypoxia is one of the resistant factors in radiotherapy and chemotherapy for cancer. Although it is detected by (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET, the relationship between intratumoral hypoxia and oxygen metabolism has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intratumoral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in hypoxic regions using the rat xenograft model. Ten male Fischer rats with C6 glioma (body weight = 220 ± 15 g) were investigated with (18)F-FMISO PET and steady-state inhalation method of (15)O-labelled gases PET...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206968/intratumoral-lactate-metabolism-in-barrett-s-esophagus-and-adenocarcinoma
#12
Heikki Huhta, Olli Helminen, Sami Palomäki, Joonas H Kauppila, Juha Saarnio, Petri P Lehenkari, Tuomo J Karttunen
BACKGROUND: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are cell membrane proteins which transport pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. MCTs are activated in various cancers, but their expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma is not known. The present study was conducted to elucidate the expression of MCTs in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic MCT1, MCT4 and MTCO1 expression linearly increased from normal epithelium to Barrett's mucosa to dysplasia and cancer...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202525/oncogenic-effects-of-high-mapk-activity-in-colorectal-cancer-mark-progenitor-cells-and-persist-irrespective-of-ras-mutations
#13
Cristina Blaj, Eva Marina Schmidt, Sebastian Lamprecht, Heiko Hermeking, Andreas Jung, Thomas Kirchner, David Horst
About 40% of colorectal cancers have mutations in KRAS accompanied by downstream activation of MAPK signaling which promotes tumor invasion and progression. Here we report that MAPK signaling shows strong intratumoral heterogeneity and unexpectedly remains regulated in colorectal cancer irrespective of KRAS mutation status. Using primary colorectal cancer tissues, xenograft models and MAPK reporter constructs, we showed that tumor cells with high MAPK activity resided specifically at the leading tumor edge, ceased to proliferate, underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and expressed markers related to colon cancer stem cells...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197391/high-nkg2a-expression-contributes-to-nk-cell-exhaustion-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-of-patients-with-liver-cancer
#14
Cheng Sun, Jing Xu, Qiang Huang, Mei Huang, Hao Wen, Chuanshan Zhang, Jinyu Wang, Jiaxi Song, Meijuan Zheng, Haoyu Sun, Haiming Wei, Weihua Xiao, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
Background and Aims: As the predominant lymphocyte subset in the liver, natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to be highly associated with the outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we reported that NKG2A, a checkpoint candidate, mediates human and murine NK cell dysfunction in CHB. However, NK cell exhaustion and, particularly, the level of NKG2A expression within liver tumors have not been reported. Methods: In this study, we analyzed NKG2A expression and the related dysfunction of NK cells located in intra- or peritumor regions of liver tissue samples from 207 HCC patients, in addition to analyzing disease outcomes...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197369/the-transcriptome-of-lung-tumor-infiltrating-dendritic-cells-reveals-a-tumor-supporting-phenotype-and-a-microrna-signature-with-negative-impact-on-clinical-outcome
#15
Lotte Pyfferoen, Elisabeth Brabants, Celine Everaert, Nancy De Cabooter, Kelly Heyns, Kim Deswarte, Manon Vanheerswynghels, Sofie De Prijck, Glenn Waegemans, Melissa Dullaers, Hamida Hammad, Olivier De Wever, Pieter Mestdagh, Jo Vandesompele, Bart N Lambrecht, Karim Y Vermaelen
Targeting immunomodulatory pathways has ushered a new era in lung cancer therapy. Further progress requires deeper insights into the biology of immune cells in the lung cancer micro-environment. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous and highly plastic immune cell system with a central role in controlling immune responses. The intratumoral infiltration and activation status of DCs are emerging as clinically relevant parameters in lung cancer. In this study, we used an orthotopic preclinical model of lung cancer to dissect how the lung tumor micro-environment affects tissue-resident DCs and extract novel biologically and clinically relevant information...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197367/targeting-ewing-sarcoma-with-activated-and-gd2-specific-chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-human-nk-cells-induces-upregulation-of-immune-inhibitory-hla-g
#16
Sareetha Kailayangiri, Bianca Altvater, Christian Spurny, Silke Jamitzky, Sonja Schelhaas, Andreas H Jacobs, Constanze Wiek, Katharina Roellecke, Helmut Hanenberg, Wolfgang Hartmann, Heinz Wiendl, Susann Pankratz, Jutta Meltzer, Nicole Farwick, Lea Greune, Maike Fluegge, Claudia Rossig
Activated and in vitro expanded natural killer (NK) cells have substantial cytotoxicity against many tumor cells, but their in vivo efficacy to eliminate solid cancers is limited. Here, we used chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance the activity of NK cells against Ewing sarcomas (EwS) in a tumor antigen-specific manner. Expression of CARs directed against the ganglioside antigen GD2 in activated NK cells increased their responses to GD2+ allogeneic EwS cells in vitro and overcame resistance of individual cell lines to NK cell lysis...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195905/value-of-intratumoral-metabolic-heterogeneity-and-quantitative-18f-fdg-pet-ct-parameters-to-predict-prognosis-in-patients-with-hpv-positive-primary-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Esther Mena, Mehdi Taghipour, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Abhinav K Jha, Arman Rahmim, Lilja Solnes, Rathan M Subramaniam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity and quantitative FDG PET/CT imaging parameters for predicting patient outcomes in primary oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 105 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. SUVmax and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were measured for the primary tumors and when available for the metastatic sites. Primary tumor intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity was calculated as the area under a cumulative SUV volume histograms curve (AUC-CSH)...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195880/pd-l1-expression-and-intratumoral-heterogeneity-across-breast-cancer-subtypes-and-stages-an-assessment-of-245-primary-and-40-metastatic-tumors
#18
Erik A Dill, Alejandro A Gru, Kristen A Atkins, Lisa A Friedman, Margaret E Moore, Timothy N Bullock, Janet V Cross, Patrick M Dillon, Anne M Mills
Tumor expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is associated with immune evasion in a variety of malignancies, including a subset of triple-negative breast carcinomas, and may mark cancers as susceptible to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapies. We herein characterize PD-L1 expression in breast cancers across the full range of histomorphologies and investigate its intratumoral heterogeneity and fidelity across primaries and metastases. A total of 245 primary and 40 metastatic (20 nodal, 20 distant) breast carcinomas were evaluated with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray...
March 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195087/perineural-invasion-is-a-valuable-prognostic-factor-in-advanced-stage-and-or-node-cervical-cancer
#19
Cigdem Vural, Busra Yaprak Bayrak, Bahar Muezzınoglu, Izzet Yucesoy
BACKGROUND: Perineural invasion (PNI) is correlated with adverse survival in several malignancies, but its significance cervical cancer remains to be clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between PNI status and clinical outcomes in clinically localized surgically treated cervical cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed clinical records and pathology slides of 111 patients with cervical cancer treated with surgery at a single academic center...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194716/irradiation-enhances-dendritic-cell-potential-antitumor-activity-by-inducing-tumor-cell-expressing-tnf-%C3%AE
#20
Lijia Chang, Zhengzheng Zhang, Fang Chen, Wen Zhang, Shuang Song, Shuxia Song
Dendritic cells (DCs)-based tumor vaccines have shown to be the promising methods for inducing therapeutic antitumor response. However, DCs alone rarely carry curative antitumor activity, and the immunosuppressive microenvironment may contribute to this defect of DC vaccinal function. Irradiation in combination with DCs has been shown to promote immune-mediated tumor destruction in preclinical studies. However, little is known about how irradiation alters the tumor microenvironment, and what host pathways modulate the activity of administrated DCs...
March 2017: Medical Oncology
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