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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813502/addressing-the-challenge-of-high-priced-prescription-drugs-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-a-systematic-review-of-drug-life-cycles-therapeutic-drug-markets-and-regulatory-frameworks
#1
Toon van der Gronde, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, Toine Pieters
CONTEXT: Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. METHOD: A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. FINDINGS: Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810807/exploratory-analyses-of-risk-behaviors-among-glbt-youth-attending-a-drop-in-center
#2
J Michael Wilkerson, Sylvia M Lawler, Kim A Romijnders, Amber B Armstead, Jessica Bauldry
This exploratory study examines measures of one drop-in center's efforts to improve health outcomes of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth by facilitating out-group secondary social ties. Hatch Youth, located in Houston, Texas, aims to increase self-esteem and decrease negative health outcomes by encouraging GLBT youth to be part of Houston's greater GLBT community. Survey data ( N = 614) collected between October 2003 and April 2013 were entered into logistic regression models. Attending Hatch Youth for 6 or more months was associated with having a social group outside of school (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2...
August 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804674/systematic-differences-in-hiv-syphilis-and-risk-behaviors-among-street-based-and-establishment-based-female-sex-workers-in-kathmandu-valley-of-nepal
#3
Sampurna Kakchapati, Tarun Paudel, Manju Maharjan, Apiradee Lim
BACKGROUND: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are main drivers of the HIV epidemic in Nepal. The work environment of sex work in Nepal is differentiated into establishment based (e.g. massage parlors, dance restaurants, hotels and lodges) and street based (e.g. streets, parks and markets). The study compares HIV, syphilis and risk behaviours among establishment-based FSWs and street-based FSWs in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional bio-behavioral surveys in 2006, 2008, 2011 and 2015 aimed to sample 2093 FSWs using two stage cluster sampling in the Kathmandu valley...
December 2016: Nepal journal of epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#4
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793809/-these-people-who-dig-roots-in-the-forests-cannot-treat-hiv-women-and-men-in-durban-south-africa-reflect-on-traditional-medicine-and-antiretroviral-drugs
#5
Amy Weintraub, Joanne E Mantell, Kelsey Holt, Renée A Street, Catriona Wilkey, Suraya Dawad, Tsitsi B Masvawure, Susie Hoffman
Relatively few empirical investigations of the intersection of HIV biomedical and traditional medicine have been undertaken. As part of preliminary work for a longitudinal study investigating health-seeking behaviours among newly diagnosed individuals living with HIV, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 urban South Africans presenting for HIV testing or newly enrolled in HIV care; here we explored participants' views on African traditional medicine (TM) and biomedical HIV treatment. Notions of acceptance/non-acceptance were more nuanced than dichotomous, with participants expressing views ranging from favourable to reproachful, often referring to stories they had heard from others rather than drawing from personal experience...
August 10, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746501/social-ruptures-and-the-everyday-life-of-homeless-people-an-ethnographic-study
#6
Regina Célia Fiorati, Regina Yoneko Dakuzaku Carretta, Leonardo Martins Kebbe, Beatriz Lobato Cardoso, Joab Jefferson da Silva Xavier
Objective: To discover the generators of disruptions in social support networks and identify the everyday life and projects of life of homeless people. Method: Ethnographic study conducted between 2012 and 2013 in Ribeirão Preto -SP, Brazil. The participants were fifteen homeless people. Data were collected through video-recorded interviews addressing histories of life and a field diary. Data analysis was based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. Results: Results revealed that the participants' families have faced inequalities for many generations and that everyday life is marked by violence and death, poverty and exclusion, disrupted social networks, loneliness, alcohol and drug consumption, and other socially determined diseases...
July 20, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#7
Georges Mion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722536/travel-burden-associated-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-administration-in-a-medicare-aged-population-a-geospatial-analysis
#8
J Mark Stephens, Mark Bensink, Charles Bowers, Christopher S Hollenbeak
OBJECTIVE: Prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) is recommended for patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy regimens with a high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). G-CSFs should be administered starting the day after chemotherapy, necessitating return trips to the oncology clinic at the end of each cycle. We examined the travel burden related to prophylactic G-CSF injections after chemotherapy in the United States (US). METHODS: We used 2012-2014 Medicare claims data to identify a national cohort of beneficiaries age 65+ with non-myeloid cancers who received both chemotherapy and prophylactic G-CSFs...
July 19, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711979/acute-kidney-injury-and-critical-limb-ischaemia-associated-with-the-use-of-the-so-called-legal-high-3-fluorophenmetrazine
#9
Michael Fawzy, Wei San Wong-Morrow, Anthony Beaumont, Chris K T Farmer
Until the law in the United Kingdom (UK) changed in May 2016 so called "legal highs" or "new psychoactive substances" were freely available in high street shops across the UK. Following prohibition these drugs are still easily purchased illegally via the internet. We report a case of a patient who self-administered 3-fluorophenmetrazine intravenously with catastrophic consequences. Adverse effects were almost immediate with symptoms of malaise and tachycardia. Two days post administration he was transferred to the intensive therapy unit with acute kidney injury and irreversible four limb ischaemia...
July 15, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710874/association-between-universal-hepatitis-b-prison-vaccination-vaccine-uptake-and-hepatitis-b-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#10
Norah E Palmateer, David J Goldberg, Alison Munro, Avril Taylor, Alan Yeung, Lesley A Wallace, Alan Mitchell, Samantha J Shepherd, Rory N Gunson, Celia Aitken, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Scotland, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination for all prisoners was introduced in 1999; here, we examine the impact of this programme among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the community. This study aimed to compare rates of HBV vaccine uptake before and after implementation of the prison programme and to estimate the determinants of vaccine uptake, the levels of ever/current HBV infection and the associations between vaccine uptake and ever/current HBV infection...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708940/street-like-synthesis-of-krokodil-results-in-the-formation-of-an-enlarged-cluster-of-known-and-new-morphinans
#11
José Xavier Soares, Emanuele Amorim Alves, André M N Silva, Natália Guimarães de Figueiredo, João F Neves, Sara Manuela Cravo, Maria Rangel, Annibal Duarte Pereira Netto, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Manuel Afonso
"Krokodil" is the street name for a homemade injectable drug that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Codeine is the opioid starting material for krokodil synthesis, and desomorphine is claimed to be the main opioid of krokodil and the main component responsible for its addictive and psychoactive characteristics. However, due to its peculiar manufacture, using cheap raw materials, krokodil is composed of a large and complex mixture of different substances. In order to shed some light upon the chemical complexity of krokodil, its profiling was conducted by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) and by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-Orbitrap-MS)...
August 4, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688175/discrimination-between-closely-related-synthetic-cannabinoids-by-gc-cold-ei-ms
#12
Evgeny Smolianitski-Fabian, Etia Cohen, Marina Dronova, Anna Voloshenko-Rossin, Ovadia Lev
Gas chromatography thermal-electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) is an established method for the identification of mind-altering substances and is routinely used by forensic laboratories. However, some commonly analyzed drugs of abuse, relating to the synthetic cannabinoids receptor agonist group (SCs), pose a challenge for this conventional technique. As the molecular cation radicals of many excited SCs are labile within the ion source, the relative abundance of the molecular ions obtained by the GC-EI-MS is often too small to allow discrimination of structurally related drugs...
July 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683227/supervised-injectable-heroin-a-clinical-perspective
#13
James Bell, Rob van der Waal, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Six recent randomised control trials (RCTs) have suggested that supervised injectable heroin (SIH) can be effective in patients who persist in street heroin use during methadone treatment. However, short-term randomised control trials have limitations in assessing the effectiveness of treatments for addictive disorders, which are chronic and relapsing disorders of motivation. These RCTs particularly fail to capture the process of the SIH treatment and the diversity of influence and change over time...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681463/confirmation-of-recent-heroin-abuse-accepting-the-challenge
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (e.g. 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (e.g. 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine glucuronides). Though, the presence of most of these biomarkers cannot solely be attributed to a previous heroin administration but can, among other things, also be due to consumption of poppy seed products ('poppy seed defense'), opium preparations or specific medications, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680622/a-case-of-reversible-drug-induced-liver-failure
#15
Mohammad Ansari, Sabrina Arshed, Mohammed Islam, Shuvendu Sen, Abdalla Yousif
Acute fulminant liver failure and acute renal failure are devastating complications caused by many drugs. The use of N-acetylcysteine has been well established in acetaminophen toxicity, but it remains controversial in other cases. Dialysis is a very effective method of removing certain drugs from the system. With the invention of new street drugs such as "synthetic marijuana," it may be beneficial in patients whom the substances ingested are unknown. We report a case of a 42-year-old male who developed acute fulminant hepatic failure and acute renal failure, who was cured with dialysis, N-acetylcysteine, and other supportive measures...
July 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678934/-clinical-and-social-vulnerabilities-in-crack-users-according-to-housing-status-a-multicenter-study-in-six-brazilian-state-capitals
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Silvia Chwartzmann Halpern, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Vinicius Roglio, Sibele Faller, Anne Sordi, Felipe Ornell, Carla Dalbosco, Flavio Pechansky, Félix Kessler, Lísia von Diemen
The study had the goal to evaluate psychoactive substance use severity, violence, physical and emotional health of crack users who seeks specialized treatment in Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) concerning housing status. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study in six Brazilian capitals with 564 crack users categorized into two groups (1) users who have been homeless sometime in life (n = 266) and (2) individuals who have never lived on streets (n = 298). To assess the substance use severity and the characteristics of the individuals, the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6) was used...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677880/study-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-5-meo-mipt-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-real-case-samples
#17
Katharina Elisabeth Grafinger, Marianne Hädener, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
The synthetic tryptamine 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT) has recently been abused as a hallucinogenic drug in Germany and Switzerland. This study presents a case of 5-MeO-MiPT intoxication and the structural elucidation of metabolites in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), blood, and urine. Microsomal incubation experiments were performed using pHLM to detect and identify in vitro metabolites. In August 2016, the police encountered a naked man, agitated and with aggressive behavior on the street...
July 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670869/heroin-in-malaysia-and-singapore
#18
Maimonah Sulaiman, Vanitha Kunalan, Angeline Yap Tiong Whei, Wendy Lim Jong Lee, Joey Ng Joo Yee, Samuel Loh Wei Xiong, Chan Kee Bian
Heroin clandestine laboratories have been a feature of the Malaysian illicit drug scene soon after the abuse of heroin emerged in 1972. The first few heroin clandestine laboratories which synthesised heroin via the acetylation of imported morphine were uncovered in 1973 and 1977. By the mid 1980s this type of laboratories was replaced by heroin cutting laboratories whereby imported high grade heroin was cut to street heroin. This was to meet the rising demand for the drug owing to the rapid escalation of the number of drug users...
July 2, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670636/attitudes-of-female-street-vendors-towards-hiv-aids-in-vhembe-district-of-south-africa
#19
Olaniyi Fc, Tshitangano Tg, Tugli Ak, Amosu Am, Edokpayi Jn
BACKGROUND: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are still global health problems. This study was conducted to describe the attitudes of female street vendors (FSV) in Thohoyandou, Vhembe district, towards HIV/AIDS and those infected with the virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Data were collected by means of a structured, self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660381/overlooked-threats-to-respondent-driven-sampling-estimators-peer-recruitment-reality-degree-measures-and-random-selection-assumption
#20
Jianghong Li, Thomas W Valente, Hee-Sung Shin, Margaret Weeks, Alexei Zelenev, Gayatri Moothi, Heather Mosher, Robert Heimer, Eduardo Robles, Greg Palmer, Chinekwu Obidoa
Intensive sociometric network data were collected from a typical respondent driven sample (RDS) of 528 people who inject drugs residing in Hartford, Connecticut in 2012-2013. This rich dataset enabled us to analyze a large number of unobserved network nodes and ties for the purpose of assessing common assumptions underlying RDS estimators. Results show that several assumptions central to RDS estimators, such as random selection, enrollment probability proportional to degree, and recruitment occurring over recruiter's network ties, were violated...
June 28, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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