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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215828/from-the-operating-room-to-the-streets-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-most-versatile-item-in-your-drug-box
#1
Scott D Hax, Ken Davis, Ben Stone, Bryan Bledsoe, Ryan Hodnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212504/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-cessation-of-injection-drug-use-among-street-involved-youth
#2
Derek C Chang, Scott E Hadland, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Although the initiation of injection drug use has been well characterized among at-risk youth, factors that support or impede cessation of injection drug use have received less attention. We sought to identify socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved youth. METHODS: From September 2005 to May 2015, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada...
December 7, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197242/alcohol-and-illicit-drugs-in-drivers-involved-in-road-traffic-crashes-in-the-milan-area-a-comparison-with-normal-traffic-reveals-the-possible-inadequacy-of-current-cut-off-limits
#3
Davide Ferrari, Monica Manca, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. METHODS: Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#4
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190175/going-beyond-prescription-pain-relievers-to-understand-the-opioid-epidemic-the-role-of-illicit-fentanyl-new-psychoactive-substances-and-street-heroin
#5
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert Taylor, Robert B Raffa
The opioid epidemic is associated with morbidity and mortality, and it has taken a vast toll on American society. While prescription opioid abuse is part of the opioid problem, it is by no means the entirety of it. Opioid abuse appears to have entered a technology-driven new world of clandestine labs all over the globe and many new synthetic analog, counterfeit, and adulterated drugs that arrive via the internet faster than the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) can catalog and outlaw them. To deal with opioid abuse, it must be recognized that it is more - far more - than a subset of chronic pain patients who become addicted...
November 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178251/seizure-and-cognitive-outcomes-after-resection-of-glioneuronal-tumors-in-children
#6
Andrew M Faramand, Nicola Barnes, Sue Harrison, Roxanna Gunny, Tom Jacques, Zubair M Tahir, Sophia M Varadkar, Helen J Cross, William Harkness, Martin M Tisdall
OBJECTIVE: Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) are well-recognized causes of chronic drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children. Our practice involves an initial period of radiological surveillance and antiepileptic medications, with surgery being reserved for those with radiological progression or refractory seizures. We planned to analyze the group of patients with low-grade GNTs, aiming to identify factors affecting seizure and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 150 children presenting to Great Ormond Street Hospital with seizures secondary to GNTs...
November 26, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172877/frequent-drug-use-and-negative-employment-outcomes-among-the-criminally-active
#7
Paul E Bellair, Mike Vuolo, Eric G LaPlant
BACKGROUND: Employment is a central component of economic independence and is widely viewed as an essential element of social control. Whether frequent drug use reduces the likelihood of employment or obstructs hours worked, wages, and job commitment is therefore an important question about which there remains uncertainty. METHODS: We improve on shortcomings of prior research through a monthly within-person analysis of a population at high-risk of both drug use and poor employment outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160606/the-relationship-between-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-violence-among-street-involved-youth
#8
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Sabina Dobrer, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora Debeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a major contributor to premature disability and death among youth, often due to physical trauma, violence, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the association between hazardous alcohol use and experiences of violence among a cohort of street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit substances in Vancouver, Canada...
December 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148755/novel-anti-tubercular-6-dialkylaminopyrimidine-carboxamides-from-phenotypic-whole-cell-high-throughput-screening-of-a-softfocus-library-structure-activity-relationship-and-target-identification-studies
#9
Colin R Wilson, Richard K Gessner, Atica Moosa, Ronnett Seldon, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi, Candice Soares de Melo, Sandile B Simelane, Aloysius T Nchinda, Efrem Abay, Dale Taylor, Mathew Njoroge, Christel Brunschwig, Nina Lawrence, Helena I M Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Frederick A Sirgel, Paul van Helden, C John Harris, Richard Gordon, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, Hannah Pflaumer, Markus Boesche, Gerard Drewes, Olalla Sanz, Gracia Santos, Maria José Rebollo-Lopez, Beatriz Urones, Carolyn Selenski, Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio, Matthew Axtman, Joël Lelièvre, Lluis Ballell, Rudolf Mueller, Leslie J Street, Sandeep R Ghorpade, Kelly Chibale
A BioFocus DPI SoftFocus library of ~35,000 compounds was screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in order to identify novel hits with anti-tubercular activity. The hits were evaluated in biology triage assays to exclude compounds suggested to function via frequently encountered promiscuous mechanisms of action including inhibition of the QcrB subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex, disruption of cell-wall homeostasis, and DNA damage. Among the hits which passed this screening cascade, a 6-dialkylaminopyrimidine carboxamide series was prioritized for hit to lead optimization...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138446/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-in-ceftazidime-non-susceptible-bacterial-pathogens-from-ready-to-eat-street-foods-in-three-taiwanese-cities
#10
Lin Lin, Sheng-Fan Wang, Tsung-Ying Yang, Wei-Chun Hung, Min-Yu Chan, Sung-Pin Tseng
Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) street foods is a major concern worldwide. Dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens from food is an emerging public-health threat. To investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and ceftazidime resistance-associated efflux pumps in foodborne pathogens, 270 RTE street foods samples were collected in three densely populated Taiwanese cities. Among 70 ceftazidime non-susceptible isolates, 21 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 12 Pseudomonas spp., 22 Acinetobacter spp...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111505/when-adverse-effects-are-seen-as-desirable-abuse-potential-of-the-newer-generation-antiepileptic-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Kelsey L Hawkins, Barry E Gidal
There has been growing recognition of the possible abuse potential of newer generation antiepileptic drugs, and several of these agents have been categorized as controlled substances in the United States. To properly schedule a new medication, the abuse potential, or the potential for a drug to be used for its nonmedical positive subjective effects, must be determined. Performing a human abuse potential study is one step in the overall abuse potential assessment. These studies analyze the abuse potential of a new drug in a very specific population of known recreational drug users...
October 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081434/entitled-to-addiction-pharmaceuticals-race-and-america-s-first-drug-war
#12
David Herzberg
This article rethinks the formative decades of American drug wars through a social history of addiction to pharmaceutical narcotics, sedatives, and stimulants in the first half of the twentieth century. It argues, first, that addiction to pharmaceutical drugs is no recent aberration; it has historically been more extensive than "street" or illicit drug use. Second, it argues that access to psychoactive pharmaceuticals was a problematic social entitlement constructed as distinctively medical amid the racialized reforms of the Progressive Era...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058318/seizure-outcome-after-corpus-callosotomy-in-a-large-paediatric-series
#13
David Graham, Deepak Gill, Russell C Dale, Martin M Tisdall
AIM: To describe 20 years of experience with corpus callosotomy at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. METHOD: Records of patients who underwent corpus callosotomy between January 1995 and December 2015 were reviewed. Complications of surgery and changes in seizure type and frequency, injuries, and use of antiepileptic drugs were recorded. Drop attacks were analysed using Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055855/an-island-apart-risks-and-prices-in-the-australian-cryptomarket-drug-trade
#14
Jack Cunliffe, James Martin, David Décary-Hétu, Judith Aldridge
BACKGROUND: Australia has a reputation as an anomaly with regard to cryptomarket drug trading, with seemingly disproportionately high levels of activity given its relatively small size, high prices and anecdotal accounts of it being a destination where many foreign-based vendors will not sell. This paper aims to investigate these claims from a risk and prices perspective. METHODS: By analysing data for over 60,000 drug products available for purchase from eight cryptomarkets in January 2016 this work builds a descriptive picture of the Australian online market in comparison to the rest of the world, before moving onto analyse the prices of drugs available to Australian consumers, both online and though conventional drug supply routes...
October 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054031/mental-health-of-heroin-users-with-differing-injection-drug-use-histories-a-non-treatment-sample-of-mexican-american-young-adult-men
#15
Kathryn M Nowotny, Tasha Perdue, Alice Cepeda, Avelardo Valdez
BACKGROUND: While the comorbidity of mental health and injecting heroin has been documented, current research is limited by describing the mental health of people who inject drugs without a comparison group and by the lack of research on nontreatment samples in the United States, particularly among Hispanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of injecting history (never, former, occasional, and daily) and multiple outcomes of global and mental health using a sample of U...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047371/needle-acquisition-patterns-network-risk-and-social-capital-among-rural-pwid-in-puerto-rico
#16
Ian Duncan, Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Ric Curtis, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) take on significant risks of contracting blood-borne infection, including injecting with a large number of partners and acquiring needles from unsafe sources. When combined, risk of infection can be magnified. METHODS: Using a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico, we model the relationship between a subject's number of injection partners and the likelihood of having used an unsafe source of injection syringes. Data collection with 315 current injectors identified six sources of needles...
October 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040568/u-47700-a-not-so-new-opioid
#17
Timothy P Rohrig, Samuel A Miller, Tyson R Baird
U-47700 was developed by the Upjohn Co. in the 1970s as part of their search for a selective μ-opioid agonist with similar potency as morphine. U-47700 has re-emerged recently in the illicit drug market and is easily and cheaply obtained via the internet as well as on the street, many times falsely sold as another drug. Several fatalities from U-47700 have been reported in scientific literature, often in combination with other intoxicants. This case report describes the first death in south-central Kansas resulting solely from U-47700 intoxication: a 26-year-old white male found dead in his bedroom with apparent drug paraphernalia...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028564/assessing-police-officers-attitudes-and-legal-knowledge-on-behaviors-that-impact-hiv-transmission-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#18
Javier A Cepeda, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jaime Arredondo, Maria L Mittal, Teresita Rocha, Mario Morales, Erika Clairgue, Eliane Bustamante, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Thomas Kerr, Carlos L Magis-Rodriguez, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Policing practices such as syringe confiscation and arrest can act as important social-structural drivers of HIV risk among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, police referral to treatment and other services may improve the health of PWID. Little is known about the role of modifiable attitudinal and knowledge factors in shaping officer behavior. Using baseline findings from a police education program (PEP), we assessed relationships between drug policy knowledge and attitudes towards public health interventions with self-reported syringe confiscation, drug arrest, and service referral among street-level police in Tijuana, Mexico...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028525/risk-taking-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-gap-between-real-life-behavior-and-experimental-decision-making
#19
Yehuda Pollak, Reut Shalit, Adi Aran
Adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prone to suboptimal decision making and risk taking. The aim of this study was to test performance on a theoretically-based probabilistic decision making task in well-characterized adults with and without ADHD, and examine the relation between experimental risk taking and history of real-life risk-taking behavior, defined as cigarette, alcohol, and street drug use. University students with and without ADHD completed a modified version of the Cambridge Gambling Test, in which they had to choose between alternatives varied by level of risk, and reported their history of substance use...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026501/typology-of-street-substance-users-communities-in-tehran-iran
#20
Masoomeh Maarefvand, Mohammad Sadegh Shirazi, Raha Peyravi, Ali Farhoudian
BACKGROUND: There are different street substance users' communities (SSUCs). Typology of SSUCs in Tehran, Iran was approached in this qualitative study. METHODS: Using content analysis and saturation principles, 22 street-outreach workers were recruited and interviewed. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. FINDINGS: Three types of SSUCs were identified. SSUCs were different in geographic location, the community hierarchy, roles of residents and its function during a 24-hour period...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
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