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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911908/uptake-of-community-based-peer-administered-hiv-point-of-care-testing-findings-from-the-proud-study
#1
Lisa Lazarus, Sheetal Patel, Ashley Shaw, Sean Leblanc, Christine Lalonde, Manisha Hladio, Kira Mandryk, Cynthia Horvath, William Petrcich, Claire Kendall, Mark W Tyndall
OBJECTIVES: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. METHODS: PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893221/substance-use-and-psychological-distress-is-related-with-accommodation-status-among-homeless-immigrants
#2
Miguel Angel Navarro-Lashayas, Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa
Immigrant homelessness constitutes a cruel expression of social exclusion. We analyzed the relation of sociodemographic characteristics with stressful life events, substance use and psychological distress, giving a special importance to the influence of the time spent on the streets and the accommodation status of 107 homeless immigrants. To this end, both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined. Discussion groups with care resources practitioners and service users, were followed by in depth interviews combined with psychometric questionnaires...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#3
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#4
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849284/gender-violence-and-being-homeless-the-experience-of-women-and-high-risk-drug-use
#5
Márcia Rebeca Rocha de Souza, Jeane Freitas de Oliveira, Mariana Cavalcante Guedes Chagas, Evanilda Souza de Santana Carvalho
Objective: To describe the experience of homeless women and their high risk drug use. Method: Qualitative research whose data were produced by semi-structured interviews conducted with seven women enrolled in a CAPSad in Salvador, Bahia, in the period from October to December 2012. Results: Theme content analysis was adopted to organize the data that resulted from processing two thematic categories: Gender, violence and drug use: What changes and what is perpetuated in the life of women users; No strings attached: life on the streets...
November 16, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846996/understanding-risk-factor-patterns-in-atv-fatalities-a-recursive-partitioning-approach
#6
Elise Lagerstrom, Sheryl Magzamen, Lorann Stallones, David Gilkey, John Rosecrance
INTRODUCTION: Although there are hundreds of ATV-related deaths each year in the United States, contributing factors have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between factors contributing to ATV fatalities using the agent-host-environment epidemiological triangle. METHOD: Incident reports of ATV fatalities occurring between 2011 and 2013 were obtained from the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843120/bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone-and-panobinostat-for-patients-with-relapsed-multiple-myeloma-muk-six-a-multicentre-open-label-phase-1-2-trial
#7
Rakesh Popat, Sarah R Brown, Louise Flanagan, Andrew Hall, Walter Gregory, Bhuvan Kishore, Matthew Streetly, Heather Oakervee, Kwee Yong, Gordon Cook, Eric Low, Jamie Cavenagh
BACKGROUND: Panobinostat (a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor) is approved in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed multiple myeloma who have received two or more previous lines of therapy. We aimed to improve the safety of this combination and investigate efficacy by incorporating low-dose thalidomide, using sub-cutaneous weekly bortezomib, and determining the maximum tolerated dose of panobinostat in this regimen. METHODS: We did a phase 1/2, multicentre, open-label trial (MUK six) at four hospitals in the UK, enrolling patients with relapsed, or relapsed and refractory, multiple myeloma aged at least 18 years, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less who had previously received 1-4 lines of therapy...
November 11, 2016: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842782/narcotic-analgesics-and-common-drugs-of-abuse-clinical-correlations-and-laboratory-assessment
#8
REVIEW
Martin H Bluth, Matthew R Pincus
Pain management is an evolving discipline. New formulations mature with promises of improved pain control, better dosing, and fewer side effects. These agents also have an equal risk for abuse. Street chemists are adept at manipulating drugs to more potent versions and creating new compositions of matter. The clinical assessment of the patient is paramount to developing an index of suspicion of overdose, toxicity, or illicit drug use; the clinical laboratory can be a resource to support investigations and guide therapy...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809913/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-omnitrope%C3%A2-a-somatropin-biosimilar-in-children-requiring-growth-hormone-treatment-italian-interim-analysis-of-the-patro-children-study
#9
Lorenzo Iughetti, Gianluca Tornese, Maria Elisabeth Street, Flavia Napoli, Claudia Giavoli, Franco Antoniazzi, Stefano Stagi, Caterina Luongo, Sara Azzolini, Letizia Ragusa, Gianni Bona, Clara Zecchino, Tommaso Aversa, Luca Persani, Laura Guazzarotti, Emiliano Zecchi, Alberto Pietropoli, Stefano Zucchini
BACKGROUND: PATRO Children is an ongoing observational, longitudinal, non-interventional, global post-marketing surveillance study, which is investigating the long-term safety and effectiveness of Omnitrope®, a somatropin biosimilar to Genotropin®, in children with growth disturbances. The primary endpoint of PATRO Children is long-term safety and the secondary endpoint is effectiveness, which is assessed by analysing auxological data such as height (HSDS) and height velocity (HVSDS) standard deviation scores...
November 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807207/defining-and-predicting-pimps-coerciveness-toward-sex-workers-socialization-processes
#10
Loretta J Stalans, Mary A Finn
Prior research has found that pimps use both non-coercive and coercive management styles across and within market segments of the illicit sex trade. The current study is the first to examine the socialization processes underlying variation in the self-reported coerciveness of pimps. This study begins to fill a void in the almost non-existent research on pimps who are actively managing Internet-solicited sex workers, and adds to the sparse research on pimps' coerciveness. We extend Anderson's concepts of "street code" families, where respect is acquired through displaying physical violence and toughness, and "decent" families, where middle class values of avoiding unnecessary aggression and complying with the law prevail, to understand variation in the degree of coerciveness that pimps utilize toward sex workers...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771105/-which-psychoactives-substances-are-found-in-used-syringes
#11
Sandra Nordmann, Thomas Nefau, Joëlle Micallef, Catherine Duplessy, Jean-Christophe Catusse, Elisabeth Frauger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the residual content of used syringes. METHODS: Used syringes were collected in March 2014 at 9 sites in Marseille (automatic injection kit dispensers, streets, drug-user risk reduction centers [Centres d'accueil et d'accompagnement à la réduction de risques pour usagers de drogues [CAARUD]). Several substances (n=28) were investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method. RESULTS: On average, 2±1 substances in each syringe were found among 254 syringes analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769371/a-solid-colorimetric-sensor-for-the-analysis-of-amphetamine-like-street-samples
#12
A Argente-García, N Jornet-Martínez, R Herráez-Hernández, P Campíns-Falcó
A solid sensor obtained by embedding 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) into polydimethylsiloxane/tetraethylortosilicate/silicon dioxide nanoparticles composite has been developed to identify and determine amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). The analytes are derivatized inside the composite for 10 min to create a colored product which can be then quantified by measuring the diffuse reflectance or the color intensity after processing the digitalized image...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768990/injection-site-vein-loss-and-soft-tissue-abscesses-associated-with-black-tar-heroin-injection-a-cross-sectional-study-of-two-distinct-populations-in-usa
#13
Phillip J Summers, Isabelle A Struve, Michael S Wilkes, Vaughan W Rees
BACKGROUND: Injection-site vein loss and skin abscesses impose significant morbidity on people who inject drugs (PWID). The two common forms of street heroin available in the USA include black tar and powder heroin. Little research has investigated these different forms of heroin and their potential implications for health outcomes. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was administered to a sample of 145 participants seeking services at reduction facilities in both Sacramento, CA and greater Boston, MA, USA...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748596/identification-of-a-potential-anti-malarial-drug-candidate-from-a-series-of-2-aminopyrazines-by-optimization-of-aqueous-solubility-and-potency-across-the-parasite-life-cycle
#14
Claire Le Manach, Aloysius T Nchinda, Tanya Paquet, Diego Gonzalez Cabrera, Yassir Younis Adam, Ze Han, Sridevi Bashyam, Mohammed Zabiulla, Dale Taylor, Nina Lawrence, Karen L White, Susan A Charman, David Waterson, Michael J Witty, Sergio Wittlin, Mariette E Botha, Sindisiswe H Nondaba, Janette Reader, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Maria Belen Jimenez-Diaz, Maria S Martínez-Martínez, Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Stephan Meister, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale
Introduction of water-solubilizing groups on the 5-phenyl ring of a 2-aminopyrazine series led to the identification of highly potent compounds against the blood life-cycle stage of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Several compounds displayed high in vivo efficacy in two different mouse models for malaria, P. berghei-infected mice and P. falciparum-infected NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull mice. One of the frontrunners, compound 3, was identified to also have good pharmacokinetics, and additionally, very potent activity against the liver and gametocyte parasite life-cycle stages...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729958/inpatient-opioid-withdrawal-management-of-street-children-and-adolescents-admitted-to-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-ward-a-preliminary-case-series
#15
Mahboubeh Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Seyed-Sepehr Hashemian, Masoud Pishjoo, Sanaz Ghasemi, Ahmad Hajebi, Alireza Noroozi
BACKGROUND: About 10 million children worldwide live or work on the street. International reports estimate the prevalence of substance use among street children to be between 25% - 90%, which is who were referredntal disorders and high-risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of assisted withdrawal of opioid-dependent vulnerable children and adolescents who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospital, an academic hospital in Zahedan city...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723094/blunt-craniofacial-trauma-as-a-manifestation-of-excited-delirium-caused-by-new-psychoactive-substances
#16
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716575/sustained-reduction-of-diversion-and-abuse-after-introduction-of-an-abuse-deterrent-formulation-of-extended-release-oxycodone
#17
Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Matthew S Ellis, Steven P Kurtz, Andrew Rosenblum, Theodore J Cicero, Mark W Parrino, Michael K Gilbert, Mance E Buttram, Nabarun Dasgupta, Becki BucherBartelson, Jody L Green, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: The development of abuse deterrent formulations is one strategy for reducing prescription opioid misuse and abuse. A putative abuse deterrent formulation of oxycodone extended release (OxyContin(®)) was introduced in 2010. Early reports demonstrated reduced abuse and diversion, however, an analysis of social media found 32 feasible methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism. We measured trends of diversion, abuse and street price of OxyContin to assess the durability of the initial reduction in abuse...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687895/consequences-of-removing-cheap-super-strength-beer-and-cider-a-qualitative-study-of-a-uk-local-alcohol-availability-intervention
#18
Elizabeth McGill, Dalya Marks, Colin Sumpter, Matt Egan
OBJECTIVES: Increasingly, English local authorities have encouraged the implementation of an intervention called 'Reducing the Strength' (RtS) whereby off-licences voluntarily stop selling inexpensive 'super-strength' (≥6.5% alcohol by volume (ABV)) beers and ciders. We conceptualised RtS as an event within a complex system in order to identify pathways by which the intervention may lead to intended and unintended consequences. DESIGN: A qualitative study including a focus group and semistructured interviews...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677382/improving-ghb-withdrawal-with-baclofen-study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Anne Lingford-Hughes, Yash Patel, Owen Bowden-Jones, Mike J Crawford, Paul I Dargan, Fabiana Gordon, Steve Parrott, Tim Weaver, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and its pro-drugs GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are central nervous system depressants whose street names include 'G' and 'liquid ecstasy'. They are used recreationally predominately for their stimulant and pro-sexual effects or for sedation to help with sleep and/or to 'come down' after using stimulant recreational drugs. Although overall population prevalence is low (0.1 %), in some groups such as men who have sex with men, GHB/GBL use may reach 20 %...
September 27, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658879/hiv-incidence-among-people-who-inject-drugs-pwids-in-ukraine-results-from-a-clustered-randomised-trial
#20
Robert E Booth, Jonathan M Davis, Sergey Dvoryak, John T Brewster, Oksana Lisovska, Steffanie A Strathdee, Carl A Latkin
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine is among the highest in the world. In this study, we aimed to assess whether a social network intervention was superior to HIV testing and counselling in affecting HIV incidence among PWID. Although this was not the primary aim of the study, it is associated with reducing drug and sex risk behaviours, which were primary aims. METHODS: In this clustered randomised trial, PWID who were 16 years of age or older, had used self-reported drug injection in the past 30 days, were willing to be interviewed for about 1 hour and tested for HIV, were not too impaired to comprehend and provide informed consent, and, for this paper, who tested HIV negative at baseline were recruited from the streets by project outreach workers in three cities in southern and eastern Ukraine: Odessa, Donetsk, and Nikolayev...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
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