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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619473/cocaine-adulteration
#1
REVIEW
Oliver Kudlacek, Tina Hofmaier, Anton Luf, Felix P Mayer, Thomas Stockner, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Michael Freissmuth, Rainer Schmid, Harald H Sitte
Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug, which exerts its activity at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters mediate the reuptake of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and are blocked by cocaine. The increase of monoamines in the extracellular space is the phenomenon underlying the drug effects that cocaine users seek. Currently, it is one of the most important illicit drugs on the European market. However, this increase in monoamines is also the underlying cause for the development of addiction and a number of severe side effects...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615023/access-to-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-among-injection-drug-users-results-from-the-cross-sectional-hope-iv-study
#2
Kyriakos Souliotis, Eirini Agapidaki, Manto Papageorgiou, Niki Voudouri, Xenophon Contiades
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that Greece is among the European countries with increased trend in HCV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) from 2008 to 2014. Nonetheless, the access of IDUs to treatment for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is very limited while the risk of co-infection and transmission remains high. In an effort to better understand the inhibitors to HCV treatment, the present study aimed to investigate the main barriers to access in a sample of IDUs. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out between July and September 2015 using a 23-items questionnaire...
June 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609723/a-rural-urban-comparison-of-privacy-and-confidentiality-concerns-associated-with-providing-sensitive-location-information-in-epidemiologic-research-involving-persons-who-use-drugs
#3
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND: Analyses that link contextual factors with individual-level data can improve our understanding of the "risk environment"; however, the accuracy of information provided by participants about locations where illegal/stigmatized behaviors occur may be influenced by privacy/confidentiality concerns that may vary by setting and/or data collection approach. METHODS: We recruited thirty-five persons who use drugs from a rural Appalachian town and a Mid-Atlantic city to participate in in-depth interviews...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607654/qualitative-thallium-urinary-assays-are-almost-as-valuable-as-quantitative-tests-implication-for-outpatient-settings-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Amir Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Soroor Khodabandehlo, Fateme Mehrzad, Omid Mehrpour, Reza Afshari
BACKGROUND: Thallium (Tl), lead and steroid exposures were reported as a result of street drug consumption such as heroin and cocaine. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the values of qualitative and quantitative assays for detecting Tl as an adulterant in opioid-like compound drug users. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from May 2015 to November 2015 in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607542/interactions-of-cannabinoids-with-biochemical-substrates
#5
REVIEW
Brian F Thomas
Recent decades have seen much progress in the identification and characterization of cannabinoid receptors and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant bind to receptors and produce their physiological and psychological effects. The information generated in this process has enabled better understanding of the fundamental physiological and psychological processes controlled by the central and peripheral nervous systems and has fostered the development of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593748/characteristics-and-response-to-treatment-among-indigenous-people-receiving-injectable-diacetylmorphine-or-hydromorphone-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-for-the-treatment-of-long-term-opioid-dependence
#6
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Heather Palis, Daphne Guh, Kirsten Marchand, Suzanne Brissette, Kurt Lock, Scott MacDonald, Scott Harrison, Aslam H Anis, Michael Krausz, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of injectable hydromorphone and dicaetylmorphine for Indigenous participants in the Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME) clinical trial. The study additionally aims to explore the prevalence and frequency of crack cocaine use among subgroups of participants (by gender and ethnicity). This secondary analysis is particularly relevant given the current need for expanded medication assisted treatments for opioid dependence across North America...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593192/intravenous-heroin-induces-rapid-brain-hypoxia-and-hyperglycemia-that-precede-brain-metabolic-response
#7
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Yavin Shaham, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Heroin use and overdose have increased in recent years as people transition from abusing prescription opiates to using the cheaper street drug. Despite a long history of research, many physiological effects of heroin and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used high-speed amperometry to examine the effects of intravenous heroin on oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in freely-moving rats. Heroin within the dose range of human drug use and rat self-administration (100-200 μg/kg) induced a rapid, strong, but transient drop in NAc oxygen that was followed by a slower and more prolonged rise in glucose...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592287/naloxone-and-the-inner-city-youth-experience-nicye-a-community-based-participatory-research-study-examining-young-people-s-perceptions-of-the-bc-take-home-naloxone-program
#8
Keren Mitchell, S Elise Durante, Katrina Pellatt, Chris G Richardson, Steve Mathias, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: Take home naloxone (THN) programs reduce mortality by training bystanders to respond to opioid overdoses. Clinical observation by the health care team at the Inner City Youth (ICY) program indicated that young adults appeared to enthusiastically participate in the THN program and developed improved relationships with staff after THN training. However, we found a dearth of literature exploring the experiences of young adults with THN programs. This study set out to address this gap and identify suggestions from the young adults for program improvement...
June 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583136/social-structural-factors-influencing-periods-of-injection-cessation-among-marginalized-youth-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-an-ethno-epidemiological-study
#9
Jade Boyd, Danya Fast, Megan Hobbins, Ryan McNeil, Will Small
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use is associated with HIV and hepatitis C transmission, overdose, and other preventable harms. These harms are heightened for structurally vulnerable injection drug-using populations, as their social conditions pose barriers to safer injecting. Previous research on injection cessation has largely focused on adult drug-using populations. Little qualitative work has examined the social, structural, and environmental factors that shape periods of injection cessation among youth and young adults...
June 5, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578217/still-at-risk-an-examination-of-how-street-involved-young-people-understand-experience-and-engage-with-harm-reduction-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#10
Nikki Bozinoff, Will Small, Cathy Long, Kora DeBeck, Danya Fast
BACKGROUND: Vancouver is an international leader in implementing interventions to reduce harms related to drug use. However, street-involved young people who use drugs continue to be vulnerable to overdose death, hepatitis C (HCV) infection, and high rates of syringe sharing. To better understand this in the context of the intensive public health response, we examined how young people, who are involved in the 'street drug scene', understood, experienced and engaged with harm reduction...
June 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558841/physical-pain-is-common-and-associated-with-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#11
Disa Dahlman, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Anders Hakansson, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) often have poor health and lack access to health care. The aim of this study was to examine whether PWID engage in self-treatment through nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU). We describe the prevalence and features of self-reported physical pain and its association with NMPOU. METHODS: PWID (N = 702) in San Francisco, California (age 18+) were recruited to complete interviewer administered surveys between 2011 and 2013...
May 30, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554823/mercury-contamination-in-facial-skin-lightening-creams-and-its-health-risks-to-user
#12
Yu Bin Ho, Nor Hidayu Abdullah, Hazwanee Hamsan, Eugenie Sin Sing Tan
This study aims to determine concentrations of mercury in facial skin lightening cream according to different price categories (category I: <RM29.99, category II: RM30.00-RM59.99, category III: RM60.00-RM99.99 and category IV: ≥RM100.00) and their potential health risks to users. Prices of skin lightening creams were determined during a preliminary market survey. Thereafter, twenty samples were purchased from various locations such as cosmetic stalls, beauty shops, pharmacies and street vendors based on their stratified price categories...
May 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546075/antimicrobial-storage-and-antibiotic-knowledge-in-the-community-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-in-north-western-angola
#13
Joana Cortez, Edite Rosário, João E Pires, João Taborda Lopes, Moisés Francisco, Erika Vlieghe, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the rapid and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low-resource settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th Health and Demographic Surveillance System round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543087/death-due-to-complications-of-bowel-obstruction-following-raw-poppy-seed-ingestion
#14
Leah M Schuppener, Robert F Corliss
Eating poppy seeds can cause a positive urine drug screen, but it is unknown whether ingesting large quantities can result in opiate intoxication or toxicity. A 54-year-old woman with intractable vomiting was found unresponsive at home and later pronounced dead. At autopsy, a cast-like large bowel obstruction composed of poppy seeds was identified. Postmortem blood morphine level was < 10 ng/mL. Cause of death was determined to be complications of a bowel obstruction secondary to poppy seed ingestion. Deaths related to eating poppy seeds have not been described in the literature...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515014/hiv-and-the-criminalisation-of-drug-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#15
Kora DeBeck, Tessa Cheng, Julio S Montaner, Chris Beyrer, Richard Elliott, Susan Sherman, Evan Wood, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV prevention and treatment. METHODS: Consistent with PRISMA guidelines, we did a systematic review of peer-reviewed scientific evidence describing the association between criminalisation of drug use and HIV prevention and treatment-related outcomes among PWID...
May 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508402/risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-among-blood-donors-in-cameroon-evidence-for-the-design-of-an-africa-specific-donor-history-questionnaire
#16
Claude T Tagny, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Diderot Fopa, Celestin Ashu, Estel Tante, Pauline Ngo Balogog, Olivier Donfack, Dora Mbanya, Syria Laperche, Edward Murphy
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview...
May 15, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499382/the-association-between-residential-eviction-and-syringe-sharing-among-a-prospective-cohort-of-street-involved-youth
#17
Andreas Pilarinos, Mary Clare Kennedy, Ryan McNeil, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Syringe sharing is a high-risk practice associated with the transmission of infectious diseases, such as HIV and HCV. While youth who contend with housing instability are known to be more likely to engage in high-risk substance use, the potential relationship between being evicted from housing and syringe sharing has not been examined. This study assessed whether residential eviction was associated with syringe sharing among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use drugs age 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488989/spice-y-kidney-failure-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-acute-kidney-injury-attributable-to-the-use-of-synthetic-cannabis
#18
REVIEW
Ceyda Zarifi, Shuchi Vyas
INTRODUCTION: Spice is a synthetic cannabinoid that is readily available for purchase in smoke shops at relatively low cost. Spice is not detectable upon routine drug screening, making it an increasingly popular new street drug. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old man presented with new-onset seizures. During the next 2 days, he developed uncontrollable hypertension, agitation, respiratory failure requiring intubation, pulmonary hypertension, and acute kidney injury (AKI) with a maximum blood urea nitrogen/creatinine level of 54/7...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488087/comparison-of-three-popular-methods-for-recruiting-young-persons-who-inject-drugs-for-interventional-studies
#19
Melissa G Collier, Richard S Garfein, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Eyasu H Teshale
Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for adverse health outcomes as a result of their drug use, and the resulting social stigma makes this a difficult population to reach for interventions aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. During our study of adult PWID aged ≤40 years living in San Diego during 2009 and 2010, we compared three different sampling methods: respondent-driven sampling (RDS), venue-based sampling at one syringe exchange program (SEP), and street-based outreach. We compared demographic, socioeconomic, health, and behavioral factors and tested participants for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and compared across the three methods...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464942/-getting-out-of-downtown-a-longitudinal-study-of-how-street-entrenched-youth-attempt-to-exit-an-inner-city-drug-scene
#20
Rod Knight, Danya Fast, Kora DeBeck, Jean Shoveller, Will Small
BACKGROUND: Urban drug "scenes" have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths' drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences...
May 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
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