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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103534/examining-the-link-between-cocaine-binging-and-individual-social-and-behavioral-factors-among-street-based-cocaine-users
#1
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Djamal Berbiche, Michel Perreault, Karine Bertrand, Magali Dufour, Julie Bruneau
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of cocaine binging and examine associated factors, to characterize binge episodes and to study the relationship between cocaine binging and HIV and HCV risk behaviors among street-based cocaine users. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Montréal, Canada. Interviewer-administered questionnaire were carried out at 3-month intervals. Cocaine binging was defined as using large quantities of cocaine, without stopping, over a limited period of time, until resources run out or until being physically incapable of consuming...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099654/meanings-and-vulnerability-to-hiv-aids-among-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-brazil
#2
Laio Magno, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos
OBJECTIVE: To understand the meanings assigned by long-distance truck drivers to HIV/AIDS and its transmission and prevention, bearing in mind different contexts of vulnerability. METHODS: Qualitative research with 22 truck drivers. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were conducted in highways of the state of Bahia in 2013. We selected male truck drivers, with one year or more of work experience in long-distance routes. We carried out the thematic analysis of the interviews, to identify different contexts of vulnerability...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086787/perceptions-of-a-drug-prevention-public-service-announcement-campaign-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada-a-qualitative-study
#3
Lianlian Ti, Danya Fast, William Small, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Due to the popularity of public service announcements (PSAs), as well as the broader health and social harms associated with illicit drug use, this study sought to investigate how drug prevention messages found in the Government of Canada's DrugsNot4Me campaign were understood, experienced, and engaged with among a group of street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 individuals enrolled in the At-Risk Youth Study, and a thematic analysis was conducted...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081178/gender-differences-in-hiv-care-among-criminal-justice-involved-persons-baseline-data-from-the-care-corrections-study
#4
Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076533/similarities-and-differences-in-crack-cocaine-use-patterns-in-santa-catarina-brazil-capital-vs-midwest
#5
Maria Terezinha Zeferino, Vivian Costa Fermo, Marcelo Brandt Fialho, Francisco Inácio Bastos
Crack cocaine has been a major public health problem in Brazil due to the individual and social harms and risks deriving from its use. This article aims to assess the characteristics of drug scenes in the capital and Midwest of Santa Catarina state. The project used the Time-Location Sampling. Between January and June 2011, 41 crack cocaine scenes were mapped in capital of Santa Catarina, whereas 33 were mapped in the Midwest of that state. Such scenes were randomly selected to be observed, as well as their days and shifts (time periods/day) for in-depth observation...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051824/atypical-femoral-fracture-as-first-sign-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-case-report-with-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#6
G Saviola, P Prometti, P R Ferrari, L G Dalle Carbonare
ABSTRACT: Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures (AFF) have been suggested to be associated with the use of bisphosphonates (BPs), but the role of these drugs is still under debate. A 64-year old female, never treated with BPs was admitted to our Rehabilitation Institute because of a recent right AFF. The patient began suffering from low back pain radiating to the groin and to the anterior regions of the right thigh and leg, A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the lumbar spine showed disc protrusions at the L3-L4 and L5-S1 levels with impingement of the spinal nerve root...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025810/application-of-a-combined-approach-to-identify-new-psychoactive-street-drugs-and-decipher-their-mechanisms-at-monoamine-transporters
#7
Felix P Mayer, Anton Luf, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Rainer Schmid, Michael Freissmuth, Harald H Sitte
Psychoactive compounds can cause acute and long-term health problems and lead to addiction. In addition to well-studied and legally controlled compounds like cocaine, new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in street drug markets as replacement strategies and legal alternatives. NPS are effectively marketed as "designer drugs" or "research chemicals" without any knowledge of their underlying pharmacological mode of action and their potential toxicological effects and obviously devoid of any registration process...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012094/clinical-pharmacology-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mephedrone
#8
Esther Papaseit, José Moltó, Robert Muga, Marta Torrens, Rafael de la Torre, Magí Farré
4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular new psychoactive substance (NPS) that is structurally related to the parent compound cathinone, the β-keto analogue of amphetamine. Mephedrone appeared on the street drug market as a substitute for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and was subsequently banned due to the potential health risks associated with its use. Nevertheless, mephedrone continues to be widely consumed among specific populations, with unique patterns of misuse. To date, most information about the biological effects of mephedrone comes from user experiences, epidemiological data, clinical cases, toxicological findings, and animal studies, whilst there are very few data regarding its human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994907/the-impact-of-social-structures-on-deviant-behaviors-the-study-of-402-high-risk-street-drug-users-in-iran
#9
Maryam Mehrabi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Mahmoud Khodadost, Maneli Sadeghi, Ali Nikfarjam, Ahmad Hajebi
This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals' deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982392/understanding-of-the-life-experience-of-homeless-women
#10
Priscilla Ribeiro Biscotto, Maria Cristina Pinto de Jesus, Marcelo Henrique da Silva, Deíse Moura de Oliveira, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the life experience of homeless women. METHOD: A social phenomenological study was conducted with 10 women assisted by a shelter. The analysis of the interviews was based on the theoretical framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and thematic literature. RESULTS: The participants face adversities in the street context, with emphasis on the risk of physical and sexual abuse, and seek shelters as a possibility for minimizing difficulties experienced...
September 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977911/rapid-classification-and-quantification-of-cocaine-in-seized-powders-with-atr-ftir-and-chemometrics
#11
Joy Eliaerts, Pierre Dardenne, Natalie Meert, Filip Van Durme, Nele Samyn, Koen Janssens, Karolien De Wael
Traditionally, fast screening for the presence of cocaine in unknown powders is performed by means of colour tests. The major drawbacks of these tests are subjective colour evaluation depending on the operator ("50 shades of blue") and a lack of selectivity. An alternative fast screening technique is fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectrometry. This technique provides spectra that are difficult to interpret without specialized expertise and showing a lack of sensitivity for the detection of cocaine in mixtures...
December 15, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939298/reasons-for-missed-appointments-with-a-hepatitis-c-outreach-clinic-a-qualitative-study
#12
Ray Poll, Peter Allmark, Angela M Tod
BACKGROUND: Non-attendance in drug service hepatitis C outreach clinics means clients miss the opportunity of being given lifestyle advice and referral to hospital for assessment and treatment. A similar problem is experienced in other services throughout the UK. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the problem. METHODS: Clients with a history of not attending the outreach clinic were invited to participate during a routine drug clinic appointment. A contact details sheet with a preferred telephone number was completed by those agreeing to take part...
January 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911908/uptake-of-community-based-peer-administered-hiv-point-of-care-testing-findings-from-the-proud-study
#13
Lisa Lazarus, Sheetal Patel, Ashley Shaw, Sean Leblanc, Christine Lalonde, Manisha Hladio, Kira Mandryk, Cynthia Horvath, William Petrcich, Claire Kendall, Mark W Tyndall
OBJECTIVES: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. METHODS: PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893221/substance-use-and-psychological-distress-is-related-with-accommodation-status-among-homeless-immigrants
#14
Miguel Angel Navarro-Lashayas, Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa
Immigrant homelessness constitutes a cruel expression of social exclusion. We analyzed the relation of sociodemographic characteristics with stressful life events, substance use and psychological distress, giving a special importance to the influence of the time spent on the streets and the accommodation status of 107 homeless immigrants. To this end, both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined. Discussion groups with care resources practitioners and service users, were followed by in depth interviews combined with psychometric questionnaires...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#15
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#16
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849284/gender-violence-and-being-homeless-the-experience-of-women-and-high-risk-drug-use
#17
Márcia Rebeca Rocha de Souza, Jeane Freitas de Oliveira, Mariana Cavalcante Guedes Chagas, Evanilda Souza de Santana Carvalho
Objective: To describe the experience of homeless women and their high risk drug use. Method: Qualitative research whose data were produced by semi-structured interviews conducted with seven women enrolled in a CAPSad in Salvador, Bahia, in the period from October to December 2012. Results: Theme content analysis was adopted to organize the data that resulted from processing two thematic categories: Gender, violence and drug use: What changes and what is perpetuated in the life of women users; No strings attached: life on the streets...
November 16, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846996/understanding-risk-factor-patterns-in-atv-fatalities-a-recursive-partitioning-approach
#18
Elise Lagerstrom, Sheryl Magzamen, Lorann Stallones, David Gilkey, John Rosecrance
INTRODUCTION: Although there are hundreds of ATV-related deaths each year in the United States, contributing factors have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between factors contributing to ATV fatalities using the agent-host-environment epidemiological triangle. METHOD: Incident reports of ATV fatalities occurring between 2011 and 2013 were obtained from the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843120/bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone-and-panobinostat-for-patients-with-relapsed-multiple-myeloma-muk-six-a-multicentre-open-label-phase-1-2-trial
#19
Rakesh Popat, Sarah R Brown, Louise Flanagan, Andrew Hall, Walter Gregory, Bhuvan Kishore, Matthew Streetly, Heather Oakervee, Kwee Yong, Gordon Cook, Eric Low, Jamie Cavenagh
BACKGROUND: Panobinostat (a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor) is approved in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed multiple myeloma who have received two or more previous lines of therapy. We aimed to improve the safety of this combination and investigate efficacy by incorporating low-dose thalidomide, using sub-cutaneous weekly bortezomib, and determining the maximum tolerated dose of panobinostat in this regimen. METHODS: We did a phase 1/2, multicentre, open-label trial (MUK six) at four hospitals in the UK, enrolling patients with relapsed, or relapsed and refractory, multiple myeloma aged at least 18 years, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less who had previously received 1-4 lines of therapy...
December 2016: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842782/narcotic-analgesics-and-common-drugs-of-abuse-clinical-correlations-and-laboratory-assessment
#20
REVIEW
Martin H Bluth, Matthew R Pincus
Pain management is an evolving discipline. New formulations mature with promises of improved pain control, better dosing, and fewer side effects. These agents also have an equal risk for abuse. Street chemists are adept at manipulating drugs to more potent versions and creating new compositions of matter. The clinical assessment of the patient is paramount to developing an index of suspicion of overdose, toxicity, or illicit drug use; the clinical laboratory can be a resource to support investigations and guide therapy...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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