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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434333/improving-immunotherapy-outcomes-with-anti-angiogenic-treatments-and-vice-versa
#1
REVIEW
Kabir A Khan, Robert S Kerbel
Immunotherapies have revolutionized medical oncology following the remarkable and, in some cases, unprecedented outcomes observed in certain groups of patients with cancer. Combination with other therapeutic modalities, including anti-angiogenic agents, is one of the many strategies currently under investigation to improve the response rates and duration of immunotherapies. Such a strategy might seem counterintuitive given that anti-angiogenic agents can increase tumour hypoxia and reduce the number of blood vessels within tumours...
February 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430806/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-lower-rates-of-initiation-of-injection-drug-use-among-street-involved-youth-a-longitudinal-analysis
#2
Hudson Reddon, Kora DeBeck, Maria Eugenia Socias, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Michael-John Milloy
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of initiating injection drug use. However, the impact of so-called 'gateway' drugs, such as cannabis, on injection initiation is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cannabis use and initiation of injection drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425791/prescription-drug-use-and-misuse-in-a-cohort-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-baltimore
#3
Alexia Anagnostopoulos, Alison G Abraham, Becky L Genberg, Gregory D Kirk, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug misuse and its consequences (e.g., overdose) are a major public health concern. While national focus has been on opioids, misuse of sedatives/tranquilizers also occurs. Here we describe the use, correlates, and sources of prescription drugs in a community-based cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We included participants of the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study in follow-up in 2014. We defined prescription drug use as use of opioids or sedatives/tranquilizers considering both medical "prescribed by a doctor" and non-medical sources "obtained from the street/friend/relative...
February 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423896/patterns-of-non-injection-drug-use-associated-with-injection-cessation-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada
#4
Stephanie Lake, Thomas Kerr, Ekaterina Nosova, M-J Milloy, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
Although abstinence from drug use is often a key goal of youth substance use treatment, transitioning to less harmful routes and types of drug use is desirable from both a clinical and public health perspective. Despite this, little is known about the trajectories of youth who inject drugs including changes in patterns of non-injection drug use. The At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS) is a longitudinal cohort of street-involved youth who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. We used linear growth curve modeling to compare changes in non-injection drug use among participants who ceased injecting drugs for at least one 6-month period between September 2005 and May 2015 to matched controls who continued injecting over the same period...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422042/scoping-out-the-literature-on-mobile-needle-and-syringe-programs-review-of-service-delivery-and-client-characteristics-operation-utilization-referrals-and-impact
#5
REVIEW
Carol Strike, Miroslav Miskovic
BACKGROUND: Needle and syringe program (NSP) service delivery models encompass fixed sites, mobile services, vending machines, pharmacies, peer NSPs, street outreach, and inter-organizational agreements to add NSP services to other programs. For programs seeking to implement or improve mobile services, access to a synthesis of the evidence related to mobile services is beneficial, but lacking. METHODS: We used a scoping study method to search MEDLINE, PSYCHInfo, Embase, Scopus, and Sociological for relevant literature...
February 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416839/lead-poisoning-in-opium-abuser-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia
Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414483/police-crackdowns-structural-violence-and-impact-on-the-well-being-of-street-cannabis-users-in-a-nigerian-city
#7
Ediomo-Ubong Nelson
BACKGROUND: There is abundant literature on the impact of law enforcement on cannabis markets, but scant literature on the effects of law enforcement on cannabis users. This study undertook a qualitative exploration of police crackdowns as a form of structural violence and examined their impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city. METHODS: The study was qualitative and descriptive. It was carried out in Uyo, southern Nigeria. Ninety-seven (97) frequent cannabis users (78 males and 19 females) took part...
January 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414003/wavenumber-selection-method-to-determine-the-concentration-of-cocaine-and-adulterants-in-cocaine-samples
#8
A Kahmann, M J Anzanello, F S Fogliatto, M C A Marcelo, M F Ferrão, R S Ortiz, K C Mariotti
Street cocaine is typically altered with several compounds that increase its harmful health-related side effects, most notably depression, convulsions, and severe damages to the cardiovascular system, lungs, and brain. Thus, determining the concentration of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples is important from both health and forensic perspectives. Although FTIR has been widely used to identify the fingerprint and concentration of chemical compounds, spectroscopy datasets are usually comprised of thousands of highly correlated wavenumbers which, when used as predictors in regression models, tend to undermine the predictive performance of multivariate techniques...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411732/street-drug-use-among-emergency-patients-in-a-public-hospital-in-turkey
#9
F T Caliskan, I Toker, R Toktas, Z Temizyurek, O Unek, B Zirek, O Karcioglu
BACKGROUND: Country-specific numbers of street drug (SD) users are well documented. However, little data exists regarding these patients' clinical presentations and outcomes in the emergency department (ED). Therefore, management of these patients in the emergency setting is still a subject of debate. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the symptoms and signs of SD users presenting to the ED, and to report the substances, treatments, and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center study, symptoms, clinical findings, diagnoses, and outcomes of patients who reported to have used SDs or were diagnosed as SD users were investigated within a 1-year study period...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405461/tranquilizer-misuse-among-active-cocaine-users-predictors-of-initiation
#10
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Djamal Berbiche, Rossio Motta-Ochoa, Julie Bruneau
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Tranquilizer use is associated with negative health outcomes among people who use drugs. This paper aims to estimate the incidence rate (initiation) and identify predictors of tranquilizer misuse (TM) among cocaine users. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Montreal, Canada. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were carried out at 3-month intervals. Initiation was defined as misusing a tranquilizer for the first time during follow-up...
February 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403350/the-experience-elicited-by-hallucinogens-presents-the-highest-similarity-to-dreaming-within-a-large-database-of-psychoactive-substance-reports
#11
Camila Sanz, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology ("what it feels like" to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378903/factors-associated-with-partner-notification-of-stis-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-on-prep-in-france-a-cross-sectional-substudy-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#12
Marie Suzan-Monti, Laurent Cotte, Lisa Fressard, Eric Cua, Catherine Capitant, Laurence Meyer, Gilles Pialoux, Jean-Michel Molina, Bruno Spire
OBJECTIVES: Partner notification (PN) is a useful public health approach to enhance targeted testing of people at high risk of HIV and other STIs, and subsequent linkage to care for those diagnosed. In France, no specific PN guidelines exist and information about current practices is scarce. We used the ANRS-IPERGAY PrEP trial to investigate PN in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting a bacterial STI. METHODS: This substudy included 275 participants who completed a specific online PN questionnaire during the open-label extension study of the ANRS-Intervention Préventive de l'Exposition aux Risques avec et pour les Gays (IPERGAY) trial...
January 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371273/management-and-point-of-care-for-tobacco-dependence-prompt-a-feasibility-mixed-methods-community-based-participatory-action-research-project-in-ottawa-canada
#13
Smita Pakhale, Tina Kaur, Catherine Charron, Kelly Florence, Tiffany Rose, Sadia Jama, Robert Boyd, Joanne Haddad, Gonzalo Alvarez, Mark Tyndall
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a Community-Based Participatory Tobacco Dependence Strategy (PROMPT) in the inner city population of Ottawa (Canada). DESIGN: A feasibility mixed methods prospective cohort study following principles of community-based participatory action research. INTERVENTION: Recruited 80 people whouse drugs, followed them for 6 months while providing access to counselling, nicotine replacement therapy and peer-support in a community setting...
January 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367860/fentanyls-continue-to-replace-heroin-in-the-drug-arena-the-cases-of-ocfentanil-and-carfentanil
#14
REVIEW
Nektaria Misailidi, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Artemisia Dona, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
Purpose: Ocfentanil and carfentanil are two potent synthetic opioids that are analogues of fentanyl and are actively involved in the recent fentanyl crisis. The aim of this review is to provide all the available information on these two fentanyl analogues. Methods: All reviewed information was gathered through a detailed search of PubMed and the World Wide Web using relevant keywords. Results: Like most of the members of the family of fentanyls, they are either sold as heroin to unsuspecting users or used extensively to lace heroin street samples...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351899/web-based-survey-application-to-collect-contextually-relevant-geographic-data-with-exposure-times-application-development-and-feasibility-testing
#15
Abby Rudolph, Karin Tobin, Jonathan Rudolph, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Although studies that characterize the risk environment by linking contextual factors with individual-level data have advanced infectious disease and substance use research, there are opportunities to refine how we define relevant neighborhood exposures; this can in turn reduce the potential for exposure misclassification. For example, for those who do not inject at home, injection risk behaviors may be more influenced by the environment where they inject than where they live...
January 19, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338770/nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-and-illegal-drug-use-initiation-trajectory-and-related-risks-among-people-who-use-illegal-drugs-in-vancouver-canada
#16
Tessa Cheng, Will Small, Ekaterina Nosova, Bob Hogg, Kanna Hayashi, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with initiating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before and after illegal drugs using data from two linked cohort studies of street youth and adults who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada. All participants who attended a study visit between 2013 and 2016 were eligible for the primary analyses. RESULTS: Among 512 youth and 833 adult participants, the prevalence of NMPOU was extremely high (88% among street youth; 90% among adults), and over one-third of those who reported engaging in NMPOU had initiated NMPOU before illegal drug use (vs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336931/impact-of-crack-cocaine-use-on-the-occurrence-of-oral-lesions-and-micronuclei
#17
R P Antoniazzi, F B Lago, L C Jardim, M R Sagrillo, K L Ferrazzo, C A Feldens
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oral lesions and micronuclei in crack cocaine users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 106 crack users and 106 non-users matched for age, sex, and tobacco use. Socio-demographic characteristics, the consumption of psychoactive substances, and the occurrence of fundamental lesions were investigated. Cellular changes in the oral mucosa (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, 'broken egg' events, and micronuclei) were determined by exfoliative cytology for 54 participants in each group...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327091/temporal-fluctuations-in-behavior-perceived-hiv-risk-and-willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep
#18
Kristen Underhill, Kate M Guthrie, Christopher Colleran, Sarah K Calabrese, Don Operario, Kenneth H Mayer
Individual perceptions of HIV risk influence willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male sex workers (MSWs), temporal or episodic changes in risk behavior may influence perceived risk and PrEP acceptability over time. We investigated fluctuations in perceived HIV risk and PrEP acceptability, comparing MSWs against MSM who do not engage in sex work. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38) and 56 individual interviews among MSM and MSWs in Providence, RI...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306177/the-law-on-the-streets-evaluating-the-impact-of-mexico-s-drug-decriminalization-reform-on-drug-possession-arrests-in-tijuana-mexico
#19
J Arredondo, T Gaines, S Manian, C Vilalta, A Bañuelos, S A Strathdee, L Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. METHODS: Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014...
January 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299833/engagement-of-canadian-patients-with-rare-diseases-and-their-families-in-the-lifecycle-of-therapy-a-qualitative-study
#20
Andrea Young, Devidas Menon, Jackie Street, Walla Al-Hertani, Tania Stafinski
INTRODUCTION: Patient involvement is increasingly recognized as critical to the development, introduction and use (i.e. the lifecycle) of new and effective therapies, particularly those for rare diseases, where natural histories and the impact on patients and families are less well-understood than for common diseases. However, little is known about how patients and families would like to be involved during the lifecycle. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore ways in which Canadian patients with rare diseases and their families would like to be involved in the lifecycle of therapies and identify their priorities for involvement...
January 3, 2018: Patient
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