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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#1
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158995/declining-rates-of-health-problems-associated-with-crack-smoking-during-the-expansion-of-crack-pipe-distribution-in-vancouver-canada
#2
Amy Prangnell, Huiru Dong, Patricia Daly, M J Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Crack cocaine smoking is associated with an array of negative health consequences, including cuts and burns from unsafe pipes, and infectious diseases such as HIV. Despite the well-established and researched harm reduction programs for injection drug users, little is known regarding the potential for harm reduction programs targeting crack smoking to reduce health problems from crack smoking. In the wake of recent crack pipe distribution services expansion, we utilized data from long running cohort studies to estimate the impact of crack pipe distribution services on the rates of health problems associated with crack smoking in Vancouver, Canada...
February 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157570/health-in-the-tenderloin-a-resident-guided-study-of-substance-use-treatment-and-housing
#3
Jamie Suki Chang
Substance use researchers recognize that environments - our homes, streets, communities, and neighborhoods - set the stage for substance use and treatment experiences by framing interactions, health options, and decision-making. The role of environment is particularly salient in places deemed disadvantaged or risky, such as parts of the Tenderloin neighborhood of San Francisco. Since risk is historically, socially, and structurally situated, an individual's social position in a neighborhood shapes how risk environments are experienced...
January 10, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155316/characteristics-of-street-children-in-cameroon-a-situational-analysis-of-demographic-socio-economic-and-behavioural-profiles-and-challenges
#4
Samuel N Cumber, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni
INTRODUCTION: The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. AIM: To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children...
November 18, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151928/multiple-fentanyl-overdoses-new-haven-connecticut-june-23-2016
#5
Anthony J Tomassoni, Kathryn F Hawk, Karen Jubanyik, Daniel P Nogee, Thomas Durant, Kara L Lynch, Rushaben Patel, David Dinh, Andrew Ulrich, Gail D'Onofrio
On the evening of June 23, 2016, a white powder advertised as cocaine was purchased off the streets from multiple sources and used by an unknown number of persons in New Haven, Connecticut. During a period of less than 8 hours, 12 patients were brought to the emergency department (ED) at Yale New Haven Hospital, experiencing signs and symptoms consistent with opioid overdose. The route of intoxication was not known, but presumed to be insufflation ("snorting") in most cases. Some patients required doses of the opioid antidote naloxone exceeding 4 mg (usual initial dose = 0...
February 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131615/the-deterrent-effects-of-australian-street-level-drug-law-enforcement-on-illicit-drug-offending-at-outdoor-music-festivals
#6
Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Vivienne Moxham-Hall, Alison Ritter, Don Weatherburn, Robert MacCoun
BACKGROUND: Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. METHODS: A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence)...
January 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129755/improving-case-detection-of-tuberculosis-among-children-in-bangladesh-lessons-learned-through-an-implementation-research
#7
Ziaul Islam, Kazi Istiaque Sanin, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: According to the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP), the proportion of childhood tuberculosis (TB) among all reported cases is only 3%. This is considerably lower compared to other high-burden countries. One of our previous studies identified substantial gaps at the primary care level related to capacity of service providers, supply of required logistics and community awareness about childhood TB. Therefore, we conducted an implementation study with the objectives to address those gaps...
January 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126359/spanking-and-adult-mental-health-impairment-the-case-for-the-designation-of-spanking-as-an-adverse-childhood-experience
#8
Tracie O Afifi, Derek Ford, Elizabeth T Gershoff, Melissa Merrick, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Katie A Ports, Harriet L MacMillan, George W Holden, Catherine A Taylor, Shawna J Lee, Robbyn Peters Bennett
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance...
January 23, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123222/homelessness-unsheltered-status-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-findings-from-the-100%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-000-homes-campaign
#9
Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Dorota Szymkowiak, Jessica Marcus, Paul Howard, Dennis P Culhane
OBJECTIVES: People who live in unsheltered situations, such as the streets, often have poorer health, less access to health care, and an increased risk of premature mortality as compared with their sheltered counterparts. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of people experiencing homelessness who were sleeping primarily in unsheltered situations with those who were accessing homeless shelters and other sheltered situations, (2) identify correlates of unsheltered status, and (3) assess the relationship between unsheltered status and increased risk of mortality...
November 2016: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103534/examining-the-link-between-cocaine-binging-and-individual-social-and-behavioral-factors-among-street-based-cocaine-users
#10
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Djamal Berbiche, Michel Perreault, Karine Bertrand, Magali Dufour, Julie Bruneau
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of cocaine binging and examine associated factors, to characterize binge episodes and to study the relationship between cocaine binging and HIV and HCV risk behaviors among street-based cocaine users. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Montréal, Canada. Interviewer-administered questionnaire were carried out at 3-month intervals. Cocaine binging was defined as using large quantities of cocaine, without stopping, over a limited period of time, until resources run out or until being physically incapable of consuming...
May 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099654/meanings-and-vulnerability-to-hiv-aids-among-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-brazil
#11
Laio Magno, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos
OBJECTIVE: To understand the meanings assigned by long-distance truck drivers to HIV/AIDS and its transmission and prevention, bearing in mind different contexts of vulnerability. METHODS: Qualitative research with 22 truck drivers. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were conducted in highways of the state of Bahia in 2013. We selected male truck drivers, with one year or more of work experience in long-distance routes. We carried out the thematic analysis of the interviews, to identify different contexts of vulnerability...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086787/perceptions-of-a-drug-prevention-public-service-announcement-campaign-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada-a-qualitative-study
#12
Lianlian Ti, Danya Fast, William Small, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Due to the popularity of public service announcements (PSAs), as well as the broader health and social harms associated with illicit drug use, this study sought to investigate how drug prevention messages found in the Government of Canada's DrugsNot4Me campaign were understood, experienced, and engaged with among a group of street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 individuals enrolled in the At-Risk Youth Study, and a thematic analysis was conducted...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081178/gender-differences-in-hiv-care-among-criminal-justice-involved-persons-baseline-data-from-the-care-corrections-study
#13
Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender. METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076533/similarities-and-differences-in-crack-cocaine-use-patterns-in-santa-catarina-brazil-capital-vs-midwest
#14
Maria Terezinha Zeferino, Vivian Costa Fermo, Marcelo Brandt Fialho, Francisco Inácio Bastos
Crack cocaine has been a major public health problem in Brazil due to the individual and social harms and risks deriving from its use. This article aims to assess the characteristics of drug scenes in the capital and Midwest of Santa Catarina state. The project used the Time-Location Sampling. Between January and June 2011, 41 crack cocaine scenes were mapped in capital of Santa Catarina, whereas 33 were mapped in the Midwest of that state. Such scenes were randomly selected to be observed, as well as their days and shifts (time periods/day) for in-depth observation...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051824/atypical-femoral-fracture-as-first-sign-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-case-report-with-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#15
G Saviola, P Prometti, P R Ferrari, L G Dalle Carbonare
ABSTRACT: Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures (AFF) have been suggested to be associated with the use of bisphosphonates (BPs), but the role of these drugs is still under debate. A 64-year old female, never treated with BPs was admitted to our Rehabilitation Institute because of a recent right AFF. The patient began suffering from low back pain radiating to the groin and to the anterior regions of the right thigh and leg, A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the lumbar spine showed disc protrusions at the L3-L4 and L5-S1 levels with impingement of the spinal nerve root...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025810/application-of-a-combined-approach-to-identify-new-psychoactive-street-drugs-and-decipher-their-mechanisms-at-monoamine-transporters
#16
Felix P Mayer, Anton Luf, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Rainer Schmid, Michael Freissmuth, Harald H Sitte
Psychoactive compounds can cause acute and long-term health problems and lead to addiction. In addition to well-studied and legally controlled compounds like cocaine, new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in street drug markets as replacement strategies and legal alternatives. NPS are effectively marketed as "designer drugs" or "research chemicals" without any knowledge of their underlying pharmacological mode of action and their potential toxicological effects and obviously devoid of any registration process...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012094/clinical-pharmacology-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mephedrone
#17
Esther Papaseit, José Moltó, Robert Muga, Marta Torrens, Rafael de la Torre, Magí Farré
4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular new psychoactive substance (NPS) that is structurally related to the parent compound cathinone, the β-keto analogue of amphetamine. Mephedrone appeared on the street drug market as a substitute for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and was subsequently banned due to the potential health risks associated with its use. Nevertheless, mephedrone continues to be widely consumed among specific populations, with unique patterns of misuse. To date, most information about the biological effects of mephedrone comes from user experiences, epidemiological data, clinical cases, toxicological findings, and animal studies, whilst there are very few data regarding its human pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994907/the-impact-of-social-structures-on-deviant-behaviors-the-study-of-402-high-risk-street-drug-users-in-iran
#18
Maryam Mehrabi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Mahmoud Khodadost, Maneli Sadeghi, Ali Nikfarjam, Ahmad Hajebi
This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals' deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982392/understanding-of-the-life-experience-of-homeless-women
#19
Priscilla Ribeiro Biscotto, Maria Cristina Pinto de Jesus, Marcelo Henrique da Silva, Deíse Moura de Oliveira, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the life experience of homeless women. METHOD: A social phenomenological study was conducted with 10 women assisted by a shelter. The analysis of the interviews was based on the theoretical framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and thematic literature. RESULTS: The participants face adversities in the street context, with emphasis on the risk of physical and sexual abuse, and seek shelters as a possibility for minimizing difficulties experienced...
September 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977911/rapid-classification-and-quantification-of-cocaine-in-seized-powders-with-atr-ftir-and-chemometrics
#20
Joy Eliaerts, Pierre Dardenne, Natalie Meert, Filip Van Durme, Nele Samyn, Koen Janssens, Karolien De Wael
Traditionally, fast screening for the presence of cocaine in unknown powders is performed by means of colour tests. The major drawbacks of these tests are subjective colour evaluation depending on the operator ("50 shades of blue") and a lack of selectivity. An alternative fast screening technique is fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectrometry. This technique provides spectra that are difficult to interpret without specialized expertise and showing a lack of sensitivity for the detection of cocaine in mixtures...
December 15, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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