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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624799/a-checklist-for-managed-access-programmes-for-reimbursement-co-designed-by-canadian-patients-and-caregivers
#1
Andrea Young, Devidas Menon, Jackie Street, Walla Al-Hertani, Tania Stafinski
INTRODUCTION: Reimbursement decisions on orphan drugs carry significant uncertainty, and as the amount increases, so does the risk of making a wrong decision, where harms outweigh benefits. Consequently, patients often face limited access to orphan drugs. Managed access programmes (MAPs) are a mechanism for managing risk while enabling access to potentially beneficial drugs. Patients and their caregivers have expressed support for these programmes and see patient input as critical to successful implementation...
April 6, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623656/access-to-health-care-services-among-young-people-exchanging-sex-in-detroit
#2
Andrea K Knittel, Louis F Graham, Jerry Peterson, William Lopez, Rachel C Snow
Within the related epidemics of sex exchange, drug use, and poverty, access to health care is shaped by intersecting identities, policy, and infrastructure. This study uses a unique survey sample of young adults in Detroit, who are exchanging sex on the street, in strip clubs, and at after-hours parties and other social clubs. Factors predicting access to free or affordable health care services, such as venue, patterns of sexual exchange influence, drug use and access to transportation, were examined using multivariable logistic regression and qualitative comparative analysis...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615315/the-use-of-buccal-fat-pad-in-surgical-treatment-of-krokodil-drug-related-osteonecrosis-of-maxilla
#3
Koryun Hakobyan, Yuri Poghosyan, Aram Kasyan
'Krokodil' is the street name of a new synthetic drug mixture. It is a light brown liquid that is used intravenously without previous purification. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a common complication among Krokodil users. Krokodil drug-related ONJ presents as alveolar process exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for treatment of Krokodil drug-related ONJ patients. In a study by Poghosyan et al., no cases of recurrence were seen after surgery on the maxilla, but 38% of cases (8/21) developed an oroantral communication after surgical treatment for maxillary osteonecrosis (Poghosyan et al...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606690/strategies-for-recruiting-women-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-community-based-research-lessons-from-canada
#4
Kath Webster, Allison Carter, Karène Proulx-Boucher, Danièle Dubuc, Valerie Nicholson, Kerrigan Beaver, Claudine Gasingirwa, Brigitte Ménard, Nadia O'Brien, Kayla Mitchell, Micaela Pereira Bajard, Erin Ding, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Angela Kaida
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the recruitment of women living with HIV (WLWH) into the community-based Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), because women are under-represented in HIV research. METHODS: There were 1,424 WLWH were enrolled from British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec, who completed detailed questionnaires administered by peer research associates (PRAs; WLWH with research training). During screening, participants were asked: "How did you hear about the study?" We describe recruitment strategies by subpopulation and offer reflections on challenges and successes...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589873/cost-effectiveness-of-hydromorphone-for-severe-opioid-use-disorder-findings-from-the-salome-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Nick Bansback, Daphne Guh, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Suzanne Brissette, Scott Harrison, Amin Janmohamed, Michael Krausz, Scott MacDonald, David C Marsh, Martin T Schechter, Aslam H Anis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous research has found diacetylmorphine, delivered under supervision, to be cost-effective in the treatment of severe opioid use disorder, but diacetylmorphine is not available in many settings. The Study to Assess Long-term Opioid Maintenance Effectiveness (SALOME) randomized controlled trial provided evidence that injectable hydromorphone is non-inferior to diacetylmorphine. The current study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone directly with diacetylmorphine and indirectly with methadone maintenance treatment...
March 28, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589798/a-latent-class-analysis-of-substance-use-and-culture-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Kiffer G Card, Heather L Armstrong, Allison Carter, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Julia Zhu, Nathan J Lachowsky, David M Moore, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth
Assessments of gay and bisexual men's substance use often obscures salient sociocultural and identity-related experiences related to how they use drugs. Latent class analysis was used to examine how patterns of substance use represent the social, economic and identity-related experiences of this population. Participants were sexually active gay and bisexual men (including other men who have sex with men), aged ≥ 16 years, living in Metro Vancouver (n = 774). LCA indicators included all substances used in the past six months self-reported by more than 30 men...
March 28, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558943/hospitalization-among-street-involved-youth-who-use-illicit-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-longitudinal-analysis
#7
Derek C Chang, Launette Rieb, Ekaterina Nosova, Yang Liu, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth who use illicit drugs are at high risk for health-related harms; however, the profile of youth at greatest risk of hospitalization has not been well described. We sought to characterize hospitalization among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs and identify the most frequent medical reasons for hospitalization among this population. METHODS: From January 2005 to May 2016, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada...
March 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525071/trends-in-teenagers-nonopiod-substance-exposures-reported-to-poison-control-centers-2010-2015
#8
Brad Wright, Samantha Mestan, Monica Ahrens, Edward Bottei
OBJECTIVE: To describe current trends in nonopioid substance exposures and associated outcomes among teenagers nationwide. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, we used 2010-2015 data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System and Poisson tests to document trends in the rate of calls to poison control centers involving adolescents stratified by sex, exposures by substance category, proportion of intentional exposures, and severity of exposures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508203/-the-rowdy-ones-configurations-of-difference-in-a-private-psychiatric-hospital
#9
Seth Donal Hannah
Drawing on participant-observation and semi-structured interviews, this paper examines the local forms of clinical practice in a 26-bed acute psychiatric inpatient unit located within a private psychiatric hospital in the Northeastern United States. It focuses on how clinicians, staff, and management understand and utilize the concepts of culture, race, and ethnicity in their daily work, finding that a humanistic approach to care that that treats patients as "individuals" was dominant. Clinicians and staff categorized patients using descriptive, behavior based categories including language, propensity for violence, and whether patients are "from the streets...
March 5, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475198/willingness-to-use-drug-checking-within-future-supervised-injection-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-a-mid-sized-canadian-city
#10
Mary Clare Kennedy, Ayden Scheim, Beth Rachlis, Sanjana Mitra, Geoff Bardwell, Sean Rourke, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Esclating epidemics of fatal overdose are affecting communities across Canada. In many instances, the unanticipated presence of powerful opioids, such as fentanyl, in street drugs is a contributing factor. Drug checking offered within supervised injection services (SIS) is being considered as a potential measure for reducing overdose and related harms. We therefore sought to characterize the willingness of people who inject drugs (PWID) to use drug checking within SIS. METHODS: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey examining the feasibility of SIS in London, Canada, a mid-sized city...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475069/in-vitro-model-to-study-cocaine-and-its-contaminants
#11
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
February 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454838/analysis-of-cocaine-adulterants-in-human-brain-in-cases-of-drug-related-death
#12
Marianne Knuth, Oliver Temme, Thomas Daldrup, Evelyn Pawlik
For different reasons, street cocaine is often diluted with pharmacologically active substances, the so-called adulterants such as levamisole or hydroxyzine. A controversial debate exists currently on the uptake of adulterants from cocaine preparations and drug-related death. Previous research convincingly argues that serious adverse side effects that affect the central nervous and cardiovascular systems can be a consequence of adulterated cocaine. AIMS: Having identified the presence of adulterants in lung tissue and blood, the concentrations of these substances in brain, an important target location, was of interest...
February 10, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434333/improving-immunotherapy-outcomes-with-anti-angiogenic-treatments-and-vice-versa
#13
REVIEW
Kabir A Khan, Robert S Kerbel
Immunotherapies have revolutionized medical oncology following the remarkable and, in some cases, unprecedented outcomes observed in certain groups of patients with cancer. Combination with other therapeutic modalities, including anti-angiogenic agents, is one of the many strategies currently under investigation to improve the response rates and duration of immunotherapies. Such a strategy might seem counterintuitive given that anti-angiogenic agents can increase tumour hypoxia and reduce the number of blood vessels within tumours...
February 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430806/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-lower-rates-of-initiation-of-injection-drug-use-among-street-involved-youth-a-longitudinal-analysis
#14
Hudson Reddon, Kora DeBeck, Maria Eugenia Socias, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Michael-John Milloy
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of initiating injection drug use. However, the impact of so-called 'gateway' drugs, such as cannabis, on injection initiation is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cannabis use and initiation of injection drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425791/prescription-drug-use-and-misuse-in-a-cohort-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-baltimore
#15
Alexia Anagnostopoulos, Alison G Abraham, Becky L Genberg, Gregory D Kirk, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug misuse and its consequences (e.g., overdose) are a major public health concern. While national focus has been on opioids, misuse of sedatives/tranquilizers also occurs. Here we describe the use, correlates, and sources of prescription drugs in a community-based cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We included participants of the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study in follow-up in 2014. We defined prescription drug use as use of opioids or sedatives/tranquilizers considering both medical "prescribed by a doctor" and non-medical sources "obtained from the street/friend/relative...
February 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423896/patterns-of-non-injection-drug-use-associated-with-injection-cessation-among-street-involved-youth-in-vancouver-canada
#16
Stephanie Lake, Thomas Kerr, Ekaterina Nosova, M-J Milloy, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
Although abstinence from drug use is often a key goal of youth substance use treatment, transitioning to less harmful routes and types of drug use is desirable from both a clinical and public health perspective. Despite this, little is known about the trajectories of youth who inject drugs including changes in patterns of non-injection drug use. The At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS) is a longitudinal cohort of street-involved youth who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. We used linear growth curve modeling to compare changes in non-injection drug use among participants who ceased injecting drugs for at least one 6-month period between September 2005 and May 2015 to matched controls who continued injecting over the same period...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422042/scoping-out-the-literature-on-mobile-needle-and-syringe-programs-review-of-service-delivery-and-client-characteristics-operation-utilization-referrals-and-impact
#17
REVIEW
Carol Strike, Miroslav Miskovic
BACKGROUND: Needle and syringe program (NSP) service delivery models encompass fixed sites, mobile services, vending machines, pharmacies, peer NSPs, street outreach, and inter-organizational agreements to add NSP services to other programs. For programs seeking to implement or improve mobile services, access to a synthesis of the evidence related to mobile services is beneficial, but lacking. METHODS: We used a scoping study method to search MEDLINE, PSYCHInfo, Embase, Scopus, and Sociological for relevant literature...
February 8, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416839/lead-poisoning-in-opium-abuser-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia
Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414483/police-crackdowns-structural-violence-and-impact-on-the-well-being-of-street-cannabis-users-in-a-nigerian-city
#19
Ediomo-Ubong Nelson
BACKGROUND: There is abundant literature on the impact of law enforcement on cannabis markets, but scant literature on the effects of law enforcement on cannabis users. This study undertook a qualitative exploration of police crackdowns as a form of structural violence and examined their impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city. METHODS: The study was qualitative and descriptive. It was carried out in Uyo, southern Nigeria. Ninety-seven (97) frequent cannabis users (78 males and 19 females) took part...
January 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414003/wavenumber-selection-method-to-determine-the-concentration-of-cocaine-and-adulterants-in-cocaine-samples
#20
A Kahmann, M J Anzanello, F S Fogliatto, M C A Marcelo, M F Ferrão, R S Ortiz, K C Mariotti
Street cocaine is typically altered with several compounds that increase its harmful health-related side effects, most notably depression, convulsions, and severe damages to the cardiovascular system, lungs, and brain. Thus, determining the concentration of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples is important from both health and forensic perspectives. Although FTIR has been widely used to identify the fingerprint and concentration of chemical compounds, spectroscopy datasets are usually comprised of thousands of highly correlated wavenumbers which, when used as predictors in regression models, tend to undermine the predictive performance of multivariate techniques...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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