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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199193/epigenetic-and-risk-factors-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-a-brief-review
#1
Daniel Adrian Landero-Huerta, Rosa Maria Vigueras-Villasenor, Emiy Yokoyama-Rebollar, Elena Arechaga-Ocampo, Julio Cesar Rojas-Castaneda, Francisco Jimenez-Trejo, Margarita Chavez-Saldana
Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCT) is the most common malignancy among young adult males, which has become important due to its increased incidence and mortality in the population worldwide. The etiology is multifactorial. Recent studies have shown some associations between the development of isolated TGCT and certain risk factors, such as exposure to endocrine disruptors, cryptorchidism, and family history of cancer, in order to identify the key pieces in carcinogenesis. Some of the most important findings in recent years is the association of different genes, such as c-KIT/KITLG, expression of the miR-371-373 cluster and protein expression as c-KIT and POU5F1 in the development of this neoplasia, and the identification of new molecular markers as TGFBR3 gene, identifying aberrant methylation patterns in promoter regions of several genes, expression of miR-1297 which regulates PTEN and protein expression as DMTR1...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145643/analysis-of-fifty-hotspot-mutations-of-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-never-smokers
#2
Ha Youn Lee, Se Hoon Lee, Jae Kyung Won, Dong Soo Lee, Nak Jung Kwon, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Chang Hoon Lee, Sang Min Lee, Jae Joon Yim, Chul Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young Sik Park
Smoking is the major risk factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although a small number of lung SCCs occurs in never-smokers. The purpose of this study was to compare 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCCs between never-smokers and smokers. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients newly diagnosed with lung SCC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in the Seoul National University Hospital. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were used for analysis of hotspot mutations...
March 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143872/musashi-rna-binding-proteins-as-cancer-drivers-and-novel-therapeutic-targets
#3
Alexander E Kudinov, John Karanicolas, Erica A Golemis, Yanis Boumber
Aberrant gene expression that drives human cancer can arise from epigenetic dysregulation. While much attention has focused on altered activity of transcription factors and chromatin-modulating proteins, proteins that act post-transcriptionally can potently affect expression of oncogenic signaling proteins. The RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) Musashi-1 (MSI1) and Musashi-2 (MSI2) are emerging as regulators of multiple critical biological processes relevant to cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134728/marker-protein-expression-combined-with-expression-heterogeneity-is-a-powerful-indicator-of-malignancy-in-acral-lentiginous-melanomas
#4
Fernando Cintra Lopes Carapeto, Andréia Neves Comodo, Andressa Germano, Daiane Pereira Guimarães, Denise Barcelos, Mariana Fernandes, Gilles Landman
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Samples of acral lentiginous melanomas (ALMs) were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Escola Paulista de Medicina-Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic, clinical, and follow-up data were obtained from the charts of Hospital São Paulo. From 2 tissue microarrays containing 60 nevi and quadruplicate samples of ≥1.0-mm of 49 ALM, sections were stained to evaluate SCF, KIT, BRAF, CYCLIND1, MYC, and PTEN immunohistochemical protein expression...
February 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131082/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-type-2-diabetes-pathophysiological-implications
#5
REVIEW
Susana Rovira-Llopis, Celia Bañuls, Noelia Diaz-Morales, Antonio Hernandez-Mijares, Milagros Rocha, Victor M Victor
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. These organelles have a high plasticity and are involved in dynamic processes such as mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low levels of ATP. Mitochondrial fusion is modulated by different proteins, including mitofusin-1 (MFN1), mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy (OPA-1), while fission is controlled by mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1), dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF)...
January 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125452/morphologic-reproducibility-genotyping-and-immunohistochemical-profiling-do-not-support-a-category-of-seromucinous-carcinoma-of-the-ovary
#6
Peter F Rambau, John B McIntyre, Jennifer Taylor, Sandra Lee, Travis Ogilvie, Anna Sienko, Don Morris, Máire A Duggan, W Glenn McCluggage, Martin Köbel
The 2014 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Female Reproductive Organs endorsed the new category of seromucinous carcinoma, a neoplasm that exhibits morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with other histotypes of ovarian carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine whether seromucinous carcinoma was a distinct histotype by assessing its diagnostic reproducibility and comparing its molecular composition to the 5 major histotypes of ovarian carcinoma. Thirty-two tumors diagnosed as seromucinous carcinomas from 2 centers were studied...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105255/pi3k-ship2-pten-pathway-in-cell-polarity-and-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Aline Awad, Ama Gassama-Diagne
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes, polarized cells in the liver. Chronic HCV infection often leads to steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and it has been identified as the leading cause of liver transplantation worldwide. The HCV replication cycle is dependent on lipid metabolism and particularly an accumulation of lipid droplets in host cells. Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor phospholipids enriched in different membranes and their levels are tightly regulated by specific PI kinases and phosphatases...
January 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100106/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-the-light-of-the-regulatory-effects-of-galectin-1-on-t-cell-function
#8
Á Hornung, É Monostori, L Kovács
Galectin-1 is an endogenous immunoregulatory lectin-type protein. Its most important effects are the inhibition of the differentiation and cytokine production of Th1 and Th17 cells, and the induction of apoptosis of activated T-cells. Galectin-1 has been identified as a key molecule in antitumor immune surveillance, and data are accumulating about the pathogenic role of its deficiency, and the beneficial effects of its administration in various autoimmune disease models. Initial animal and human studies strongly suggest deficiencies in both galectin-1 production and responsiveness in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) T-cells...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062115/genotype-matched-treatment-for-patients-with-advanced-type-i-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-eoc
#9
A Spreafico, A M Oza, B A Clarke, H J Mackay, P Shaw, M Butler, N C Dhani, S Lheureux, M K Wilson, S Welch, T Zhang, C Yu, T Stockley, L L Siu, S Kamel-Reid, P L Bedard
BACKGROUND: Genomic alterations that activate the MAPK signaling pathway frequently occur in Type I Epithelial Ovarian Cancers (EOCs). We evaluated therapeutic response outcomes in patients with type I EOC treated with genotype-matched therapy on clinical trials enrolled in a prospective molecular profiling program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissues were prospectively screened for genomic alterations using MALDI-ToF mass-spectrometry platform or targeted sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel...
January 3, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049216/cancer-implications-for-patients-with-endometriosis
#10
Mary Ann Wilbur, Ie-Ming Shih, James H Segars, Amanda N Fader
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of viable endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterus. It is a common disease, occurring in 5 to 15% of all women. Endometriosis is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility and often requires surgical intervention for definitive treatment. Although it is a benign gynecologic condition, endometriosis shares pathophysiologic features with cancer. In recent years, both histologic and epidemiologic evidence has accumulated, suggesting that ovarian endometriosis may give rise to malignant ovarian tumors, primarily those that are epithelial in origin, known as endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) including ovarian clear cell carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and the least common, seromucinous tumors...
January 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034453/dna-damage-repair-in-breast-cancer-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#11
REVIEW
Reem Ali, Emad A Rakha, Srinivasan Madhusudan, Helen E Bryant
The DNA damage response (DDR) involves the activation of numerous cellular activities that repair DNA lesions and maintain genomic integrity, and is critical in preventing tumorigenesis. Inherited or acquired mutations in specific genes involved in the DNA damage response, for example the breast cancer susceptibility genes 1/2 (BRCA1/2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and P53 are associated with various subtypes of breast cancer. Such changes can render breast cancer cells particularly sensitive to specific DNA damage response inhibitors, for example BRCA1/2 germline mutated cells are sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999207/roles-of-gsk-3-and-micrornas-on-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
James A McCubrey, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Li V Yang, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Linda S Steelman, Stephen L Abrams, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Luca M Neri, Lucio Cocco, Alberto M Martelli, Piotr Laidler, Joanna DuliÅ Ska-Litewka, Dariusz Rakus, Agnieszka Gizak, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Luca Falzone, Saverio Candido, Massimo Libra
Various signaling pathways exert critical roles in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Wnt/beta-catenin, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, hedgehog (Hh), Notch and TP53 pathways elicit essential regulatory influences on cancer initiation, EMT and progression. A common kinase involved in all these pathways is moon-lighting kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). These pathways are also regulated by micro-RNAs (miRs). TP53 and components of these pathways can regulate the expression of miRs...
December 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995550/somatic-mutations-in-prostate-cancer-closer-to-personalized-medicine
#13
REVIEW
M J Alvarez-Cubero, L J Martinez-Gonzalez, I Robles-Fernandez, J Martinez-Herrera, G Garcia-Rodriguez, M Pascual-Geler, J M Cozar, J A Lorente
The molecular cause of prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear; however, its progression involves androgen, PI3K/Akt, and PTEN signaling, as cycle and apoptotic pathways. Alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS and TP53 are not very common. Recently, somatic mutations have been discovered in relation to cancer progression mainly in genes such as PIK3CA; however, little data has been described in PCa. Nowadays genetic tools allow us to investigate multiple details about the biological heterogeneity of PCa, to better understand the mechanisms of disease progression and treatment resistance...
December 19, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959386/pink1-signaling-in-mitochondrial-homeostasis-and-in-aging-review
#14
Yasuko Kitagishi, Noriko Nakano, Mako Ogino, Mayuko Ichimura, Akari Minami, Satoru Matsuda
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease, an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1) is responsible for the most common form of recessive Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase that is involved in mitrochondrial quality control and promotes cell survival. PINK1 has been shown to protect against neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. Accordingly, PINK1 deficiency is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction as well as increased oxidative cellular stress and subsequent neuronal cell death...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941540/new-and-emerging-diagnostic-and-prognostic-immunohistochemical-biomarkers-in-prostate-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Giovanna A Giannico, Shanna A Arnold, Lan L Gellert, Omar Hameed
The diagnosis of minimal prostatic adenocarcinoma can be challenging on prostate needle biopsy, and immunohistochemistry may be used to support the diagnosis of cancer. The International Society of Urologic Pathology currently recommends the use of the basal cell markers high-molecular-weight cytokeraratin and p63, and α-methylacyl-coenzyme-A racemase. However, there are caveats associated with the interpretation of these markers, particularly with benign mimickers. Another issue is that of early detection of presence and progression of disease and prediction of recurrence after clinical intervention...
January 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913052/evaluation-of-erg-and-pten-protein-expression-in-cribriform-architecture-prostate-carcinomas
#16
Michelle R Downes, Swati Satturwar, Dominique Trudel, Theo H van der Kwast
ERG and PTEN have been suggested as potential prognostic markers in prostatic adenocarcinoma. We assessed the relationship between ERG and PTEN protein expression in cribriform architecture prostatic carcinomas and adjacent acinar non-cribriform carcinoma and determined the interobserver variability in assessment of these markers. A contemporary cohort of radical prostatectomy cases (n=246) were reviewed and cribriform architecture carcinomas (intraductal carcinoma and cribriform Gleason 4 carcinomas) were identified and confirmed with triple cocktail immunostaining...
January 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911343/pink1-parkin-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-what-can-we-learn-about-parkinson-s-disease-pathobiology
#17
Dominika Truban, Xu Hou, Thomas R Caulfield, Fabienne C Fiesel, Wolfdieter Springer
The first clinical description of Parkinson's disease (PD) will embrace its two century anniversary in 2017. For the past 30 years, mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to play a central role in the pathobiology of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. The identifications of mutations in genes encoding PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) and Parkin (E3 ubiquitin ligase) in familial PD and their functional association with mitochondrial quality control provided further support to this hypothesis. Recent research focused mainly on their key involvement in the clearance of damaged mitochondria, a process known as mitophagy...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903278/an-overview-on-the-role-of-dietary-phenolics-for-the-treatment-of-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Preethi G Anantharaju, Prathima C Gowda, Manjunatha G Vimalambike, SubbaRao V Madhunapantula
Plant derived phenolic compounds have been shown to inhibit the initiation and progression of cancers by modulating genes regulating key processes such as: (a) oncogenic transformation of normal cells; (b) growth and development of tumors; and (c) angiogenesis and metastasis. Recent studies focusing on identifying the molecular basis of plant phenolics-induced cancer cell death have demonstrated down-regulation of: (a) oncogenic survival kinases such as PI3K and Akt; (b) cell proliferation regulators that include Erk1/2, D-type Cyclins, and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKs); (c) transcription factors such as NF-kβ, NRF2 and STATs; (d) histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2; and (e) angiogenic factors VEGF, FGFR1 and MIC-1...
December 1, 2016: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#19
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881603/a-protective-role-of-il-37-in-cancer-a-new-hope-for-cancer-patients
#20
REVIEW
Ayoub Abulkhir, Suzanne Samarani, Devendra Amre, Michel Duval, Elie Haddad, Daniel Sinnett, Jean-Marie Leclerc, Caroline Diorio, Ali Ahmad
IL-37 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family. Although discovered in silico in 2000, significant advances in the understanding of its biology were made only in recent years. It is a member of the family with potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. It is produced as a precursor without a classic signal peptide. The precursor is cleaved into mature form in the cytoplasm by caspase-1. A small fraction of the cleaved IL-37 binds SMAD-3, translocates to the nucleus, and suppresses transcription of several proinflammatory genes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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