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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145046/genetic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-phyllodes-tumors-of-the-breast
#1
Ji-Yeon Kim, Jong Han Yu, Seok Jin Nam, Seok Won Kim, Se Kyung Lee, Woong-Yang Park, Dong-Young Noh, Do-Hyun Nam, Yeon Hee Park, Wonshik Han, Jeong Eon Lee
PURPOSE: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. Among PTs, malignant PTs (MPTs) have malignant characteristics and distant metastases occur in about 20% to 30% of MPTs. However, there is no effective treatment for MPTs with distant metastasis, resulting in an abject prognosis. We performed targeted deep sequencing on PTs to identify the associations between genetic alterations and clinical prognosis. METHODS: We performed targeted deep sequencing to evaluate the genetic characteristics of PTs and analyzed the relationships between clinical and genetic characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123407/association-of-pten-expression-with-biochemical-recurrence-in-prostate-cancer-results-based-on-previous-reports
#2
Haijie Xie, Bin Xie, Chunyu Liu, Jun Wang, Yong Xu
Purpose: Among men, prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) acts as a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3)/Akt pathway and suppresses tumor progression. Meanwhile, PTEN is frequently deleted in PCa. Identifying the specific molecular markers of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PCa patients is critical in clinical practice. Our systematic review summarizes the evidence about the PTEN expression and BCR rate in PCa patients...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109859/candidate-synthetic-lethality-partners-to-parp-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-clear-cell-cancer
#3
Naoki Kawahara, Kenji Ogawa, Mika Nagayasu, Mai Kimura, Yoshikazu Sasaki, Hiroshi Kobayashi
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) are new types of personalized treatment of relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer harboring BRCA1/2 mutations. Ovarian clear cell cancer (CCC), a subset of ovarian cancer, often appears as low-stage disease with a higher incidence among Japanese. Advanced CCC is highly aggressive with poor patient outcome. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential synthetic lethality gene pairs for PARP inhibitions in patients with CCC through virtual and biological screenings as well as clinical studies...
November 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101113/treatment-of-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-review-of-current-therapies-and-future-promise
#4
Semini Sumanasuriya, Johann De Bono
Despite many recent advances in the therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), the disease remains incurable, although men suffering from this disease are living considerably longer. In this review, we discuss the current treatment options available for this disease, such as taxane-based chemotherapy, the novel hormone therapies abiraterone and enzalutamide, and treatments such as radium-223 and sipuleucel-T. We also highlight the need for ongoing research in this field, because, despite numerous recent advances, the prognosis for mCRPC remains poor...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076877/the-role-of-molecular-testing-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-salivary-gland-carcinomas
#5
Alena Skálová, Göran Stenman, Roderick H W Simpson, Henrik Hellquist, David Slouka, Tomas Svoboda, Justin A Bishop, Jennifer L Hunt, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Alessandra Rinaldo, Vincent Vander Poorten, Kenneth O Devaney, Petr Steiner, Alfio Ferlito
Salivary gland neoplasms are a morphologically heterogenous group of lesions that are often diagnostically challenging. In recent years, considerable progress in salivary gland taxonomy has been reached by the discovery of tumor type-specific fusion oncogenes generated by chromosome translocations. This review describes the clinicopathologic features of a selected group of salivary gland carcinomas with a focus on their distinctive genomic characteristics. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma is a recently described entity characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065837/usp7-target-validation-and-drug-discovery-for-cancer-therapy
#6
Jin Zhou, Jinzheng Wang, Chao Chen, Haoliang Yuan, Xiaoan Wen, Hongbin Sun
BACKGROUND: USP7 (ubiquitin specific protease 7, also known as HAUSP) is one of the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB) that reverse ubiquitination and spare substrate proteins from degradation. METHODS: After a brief introduction of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and human DUB, this review focuses on the structural and functional complexity of USP7 in tumor development and progression. Afterwards, USP7's physiological regulatory mechanisms and manipulation strategies are elaborated...
October 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061221/-advances-in-the-transformation-to-small-cell-lung-cancer-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-following-acquired-drug-resistance-to-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#7
Wenqiu Zhang, Yongqi Li, Di Wu
The use of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in the treatment of sensitive EGFR mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been proved significant curative effect. However, the acquisition of the drug resistance to EGFR-TKIs is almost inevitable, and common drug resistance mechanisms include T790M mutation, cMET amplification, etc. One of the rare resistance mechanisms of EGFR-TKIs is the transformation from NSCLC into small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which account for about 3%-15%...
October 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037125/signature-of-genetic-associations-in-oral-cancer
#8
Vishwas Sharma, Amrita Nandan, Amitesh Kumar Sharma, Harpreet Singh, Mausumi Bharadwaj, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
Oral cancer etiology is complex and controlled by multi-factorial events including genetic events. Candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing identified various chromosomal loci to be associated with oral cancer. There is no available review that could give us the comprehensive picture of genetic loci identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based approaches...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030286/peptides-acting-as-cognitive-enhancers
#9
Diego Asua, Ghassen Bougamra, María Calleja-Felipe, Miguel Morales, Shira Knafo
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of three peptides that, by improving synaptic function, enhance learning and memory in laboratory rodents. We summarize their structure, their mechanisms of action, and their effects on synaptic and cognitive function. First we describe FGL, a peptide derived from the neural cell adhesion molecule which improves cognition by the activation of the PKC pathway that triggers an activity-dependent delivery of AMPA receptors to the synapses. Then we describe PTD4-PI3KAc peptide that by activating PI3K signaling pathway it promotes synapse and spine formation and enhances hippocampal dependent memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994108/value-of-a-molecular-screening-program-to-support-clinical-trial-enrollment-in-asian-cancer-patients-the-integrated-molecular-analysis-of-cancer-imac-study
#10
Valerie Heong, Nicholas L Syn, Xiao Wen Lee, Nur Sabrina Sapari, Xue Qing Koh, Zul Fazreen Adam Isa, Joey Sy Lim, Diana Lim, Brendan Pang, Yee Liang Thian, Lai Kuan Ng, Andrea L Wong, Ross Andrew Soo, Wei Peng Yong, Cheng Ean Chee, Soo-Chin Lee, Boon-Cher Goh, Richie Soong, David S P Tan
The value of precision oncology initiatives in Asian contexts remains unresolved. Here we review the institutional implementation of prospective molecular screening to facilitate accrual of patients into biomarker-driven clinical trials, and to explore the mutational landscape of advanced tumors occurring in a prospective cohort of Asian patients (n = 396) with diverse cancer types. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and routine clinicopathological assays such as immunohistochemistry, copy number analysis, and in situ hybridization tests were performed on tumor samples...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975625/translational-opportunities-for-broad-spectrum-natural-phytochemicals-and-targeted-agent-combinations-in-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Lokesh Dalasanur Nagaprashantha, Ramesh Adhikari, Jyotsana Singhal, Shireen Chikara, Sanjay Awasthi, David Horne, Sharad Singhal
Breast Cancer (BC) prevention and therapy in the context of life-style risk factors and biological drivers is a major focus of developmental therapeutics in Oncology. Obesity, alcohol, chronic estrogen signaling and smoking have distinct BC precipitating and facilitating effects that may act alone or in combination. A spectrum of signaling events including enhanced oxidative stress and changes in estrogen-receptor (ER) dependent and independent signaling drive the progression of BC. Breast tumors modulate ERα/ERβ ratio, upregulate proliferative pathways driven by ERα and HER2 with a parallel loss and/or down-regulation of tumor suppressors like TP53 and PTEN which together impact the efficacy of therapeutic strategies and frequently lead to emergence of drug-resistance...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969385/mutations-of-akt3-are-associated-with-a-wide-spectrum-of-developmental-disorders-including-extreme-megalencephaly
#12
Diana Alcantara, Andrew E Timms, Karen Gripp, Laura Baker, Kaylee Park, Sarah Collins, Chi Cheng, Fiona Stewart, Sarju G Mehta, Anand Saggar, László Sztriha, Melinda Zombor, Oana Caluseriu, Ronit Mesterman, Margot I Van Allen, Adeline Jacquinet, Sofia Ygberg, Jonathan A Bernstein, Aaron M Wenger, Harendra Guturu, Gill Bejerano, Natalia Gomez-Ospina, Anna Lehman, Enrico Alfei, Chiara Pantaleoni, Valerio Conti, Renzo Guerrini, Ute Moog, John M Graham, Robert Hevner, William B Dobyns, Mark O'Driscoll, Ghayda M Mirzaa
Mutations of genes within the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-MTOR pathway are well known causes of brain overgrowth (megalencephaly) as well as segmental cortical dysplasia (such as hemimegalencephaly, focal cortical dysplasia and polymicrogyria). Mutations of the AKT3 gene have been reported in a few individuals with brain malformations, to date. Therefore, our understanding regarding the clinical and molecular spectrum associated with mutations of this critical gene is limited, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlations...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945609/does-a-p53-wild-type-immunophenotype-exclude-a-diagnosis-of-endometrial-serous-carcinoma
#13
Oluwole Fadare, Andres A Roma, Vinita Parkash, Wenxin Zheng, Vighnesh Walavalkar
An aberrant p53 immunophenotype may be identified in several histotypes of endometrial carcinoma, and is accordingly recognized to lack diagnostic specificity in and of itself. However, based on the high frequency with which p53 aberrations have historically been identified in endometrial serous carcinoma, a mutation-type immunophenotype is considered to be highly sensitive for the histotype. Using an illustrative case study and a review of the literature, we explore a relatively routine diagnostic question: whether the negative predictive value of a wild-type p53 immunophenotype for serous carcinoma is absolute, that is, whether a p53-wild type immunophenotype is absolutely incompatible with a diagnosis of serous carcinoma...
September 22, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931330/sequential-molecular-changes-and-dynamic-oxidative-stress-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#14
Hiroshi Kobayashi, Kenji Ogawa, Naoki Kawahara, Kana Iwai, Emiko Niiro, Sachiko Morioka, Yuki Yamada
The mechanism of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) development remains elusive. This review outlines recent advances in the understanding of sequential molecular changes associated with the development of HGSC, as well as describes oxidative stress-induced genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the English language literature between 2005 and 2017. Clinicopathological features analysis provides a sequential progression of fallopian tubal epithelium to precursor lesions to type 2 HGSC...
October 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891094/regulation-of-the-tumor-suppressor-pten-by-natural-anticancer-compounds
#15
REVIEW
Do-Hee Kim, Jinyoung Suh, Young-Joon Surh, Hye-Kyung Na
The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has phosphatase activity, with phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), a product of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as one of the principal substrates. PTEN is a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, which plays a fundamental role in controlling cell growth, survival, and proliferation. Loss of PTEN function has been observed in many different types of cancer. Functional inactivation of PTEN as a consequence of germ-line mutations or promoter hypermethylation predisposes individuals to malignancies...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885360/the-prognostic-value-and-potential-drug-target-of-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-meta-analysis
#16
Feng Xu, Chao Zhang, Jianxiu Cui, Jun Liu, Jie Li, Hongchuan Jiang
BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in patients with breast cancer (BC) remains controversial. The aims of our meta-analysis are to evaluate its association with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched up to December 2016. The meta-analysis was performed using hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as effect measures...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865024/homer-spikar-and-other-drebrin-binding-proteins-in-the-brain
#17
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Tomoaki Shirao
Drebrin is a major F-actin-binding protein in the brain. In the past two decades, many drebrin-binding proteins in addition to F-actin have been identified in several research fields including neuroscience, oncology, and immunology. Among the drebrin-binding proteins, there are various kinds of proteins including scaffold proteins, nuclear proteins, phosphatases, microtubule-binding proteins, G-actin-binding proteins, gap junction proteins, chemokine receptors, and cell-adhesion-related proteins. The interaction between drebrin and its binding partners seems to play important roles in higher brain functions, because drebrin is involved in the pathogenesis of some neurological diseases with cognitive defects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860335/activation-mechanisms-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-parkin
#18
REVIEW
Nikhil Panicker, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson
Monogenetic, familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) only account for 5-10% of the total number of PD cases, but analysis of the genes involved therein is invaluable to understanding PD-associated neurodegenerative signaling. One such gene, parkin, encodes a 465 amino acid E3 ubiquitin ligase. Of late, there has been considerable interest in the role of parkin signaling in PD and in identifying its putative substrates, as well as the elucidation of the mechanisms through which parkin itself is activated...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855209/therapeutic-targeting-of-oncogenic-tyrosine-phosphatases
#19
REVIEW
Rochelle Frankson, Zhi-Hong Yu, Yunpeng Bai, Qinglin Li, Ruo-Yu Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are exciting and novel targets for cancer drug discovery that work in concert with protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) in controlling cellular homeostasis. Given the activating role that some PTKs play in initiating growth factor-mediated cellular processes, PTPs are usually perceived as the negative regulators of these events and therefore tumor suppressive in nature. However, mounting evidence indicate that PTPs do not always antagonize the activity of PTKs in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation, but can also play dominant roles in the initiation and progression of signaling cascades that regulate cell functions...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842510/impact-of-therapy-on-genomics-and-transcriptomics-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-docetaxel-and-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#20
Himisha Beltran, Alexander W Wyatt, Edmund C Chedgy, Adam Donoghue, Matti Annala, Evan W Warner, Kevin Beja, Michael Sigouros, Fan Mo, Ladan Fazli, Colin C Collins, James Eastham, Michael Morris, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Andrea Sboner, Susan Halabi, Martin E Gleave
Purpose: The combination of docetaxel chemotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has become a standard treatment for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The recently accrued phase III CALGB 90203 trial was designed to investigate the clinical effectiveness of this treatment approach earlier in the disease. Specimens from this trial offer a unique opportunity to interrogate the acute molecular response to docetaxel and ADT and identify potential biomarkers.Experimental Design: We evaluated baseline clinical data, needle biopsies, and radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens from 52 (of 788) patients enrolled on CALGB 90203 at one high volume center...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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