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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780388/regulation-of-hematopoietic-cell-development-and-function-through-phosphoinositides
#1
REVIEW
Mila Elich, Karsten Sauer
One of the most paramount receptor-induced signal transduction mechanisms in hematopoietic cells is production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PIP3 ) by class I phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3K). Defective PIP3 signaling impairs almost every aspect of hematopoiesis, including T cell development and function. Limiting PIP3 signaling is particularly important, because excessive PIP3 function in lymphocytes can transform them and cause blood cancers. Here, we review the key functions of PIP3 and related phosphoinositides in hematopoietic cells, with a special focus on those mechanisms dampening PIP3 production, turnover, or function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770149/diffuse-gastric-ganglioneuromatosis-novel-presentation-of-pten-hamartoma-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-gastric-ganglioneuromatous-proliferations-and-a-novel-pten-gene-mutation
#2
Alexander J Williams, Emily S Doherty, Michael H Hart, Douglas J Grider
Gastrointestinal ganglioneuromatous proliferations are rare, most often found in the colon, and are three types: polypoid ganglioneuromas, ganglioneuromatous polyposis, and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. We present a case of diffuse ganglioneuromatosis in the posterior gastric wall in a nine-year-old female. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diffuse ganglioneuromatosis located in the stomach. Only six cases of gastric ganglioneuromatous proliferations have previously been reported, two in English and none were diffuse ganglioneuromatosis...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723979/reactive-oxygen-species-superoxide-dimutases-and-pten-p53-akt-mdm2-signaling-loop-network-in-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-regulation
#3
REVIEW
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Yasuko Kitagishi, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate to various specialized cells, which have the potential capacity to differentiate properly and accelerate recovery in damaged sites of the body. This stem cell technology has become the fundamental element in regenerative medicine. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to adversely influence stem cell properties, it is imperative to attenuate the extent of ROS to the promising protective approach with MSCs’ regenerative therapy...
May 1, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708077/emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-brain-metastasis-a-review-of-patent-literature
#4
Maricruz Anaya-Ruiz, Cindy Bandala, Patricia Martinez-Morales, Gerardo Landeta, Rebeca D Martinez-Contreras, Nancy Martinez-Montiel, Martin Perez-Santos
BACKGROUND: Despite dramatic advances in cancer treatment that lead to long-term survival, there is an increasing number of patients presenting with clinical manifestations of cerebral metastasis in breast cancer, for whom only palliative treatment options exist. OBJECTIVE: The present review aims to provide to identify recent patens of breast cancer brain metastasis that may have application in improving cancer treatment. METHOD: Recent patents regarding the breast cancer brain metastasis were obtained from USPTO patent databases, Esp@cenet, Patentscope and Patent Inspiration®...
April 29, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691711/biomechanics-and-mechanical-signaling-in-the-ovary-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jaimin S Shah, Reem Sabouni, Kamaria C Cayton Vaught, Carter M Owen, David F Albertini, James H Segars
PURPOSE: Mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis share a dynamic connection that is critical for gamete development. For maintenance of quiescence or follicular activation, follicles must respond to soluble signals (growth factors and hormones) and physical stresses, including mechanical forces and osmotic shifts. Likewise, mechanical processes are involved in cortical tension and cell polarity in oocytes. Our objective was to examine the contribution and influence of biomechanical signaling in female mammalian gametogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690565/prostate-cancer-genomics-recent-advances-and-the-prevailing-underrepresentation-from-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#6
REVIEW
Shyh-Han Tan, Gyorgy Petrovics, Shiv Srivastava
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. Among African American (AA) men, CaP is the most prevalent malignancy, with disproportionately higher incidence and mortality rates. Even after discounting the influence of socioeconomic factors, the effect of molecular and genetic factors on racial disparity of CaP is evident. Earlier studies on the molecular basis for CaP disparity have focused on the influence of heritable mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681901/putting-on-the-brakes-regulatory-kinases-and-phosphatases-maintaining-b-cell-anergy
#7
REVIEW
S Elizabeth Franks, John C Cambier
B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is a tightly regulated process governed by both positive and negative mediators/regulators to ensure appropriate responses to exogenous and autologous antigens. Upon naïve B cell recognition of antigen CD79 [the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing signaling subunit of the BCR] is phosphorylated and recruits Src and Syk family kinases that then phosphorylate proximal intermediaries linked to downstream activating signaling circuitry. This plasma membrane localized signalosome activates PI3K leading to generation of PIP3 critical for membrane localization and activation of plecktrin homology domain-containing effectors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677102/implications-of-pi3k-akt-pten-signaling-on-superoxide-dismutases-expression-and-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative sickness, where the speed of personal disease progression differs prominently due to genetic and environmental factors such as life style. Alzheimer’s disease is described by the construction of neuronal plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a noticeable feature of Alzheimer’s disease and increased production of reactive oxygen species has long been described. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) protect from excess reactive oxygen species to form less reactive hydrogen peroxide...
April 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666465/molecular-epidemiology-of-lung-cancer-in-iran-implications-for-drug-development-and-cancer-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Zahra Fathi, Nicholas L Syn, Jian-Guo Zhou, Raheleh Roudi
Epidemiological studies undertaken over the past decades reveal a gradual but progressive increase in the incidence and mortality attributable to lung cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a sovereign state geographically situated at the crossroads of Central Eurasia and Western Asia. We identified references published in English and Persian through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database (SID)-a specialized Iranian database, which indexes Iranian scientific journals-between inception and 15 September 2017...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660202/molecular-biomarkers-for-uterine-leiomyosarcoma-and-endometrial-stromal-sarcoma
#10
REVIEW
Hideaki Tsuyoshi, Yoshio Yoshida
Uterine leiomyosarcoma (u{\hyphen}LMS) and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) are among the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas, which, in adults, lead to fatal lung metastases and have an extremely poor prognosis. Due to their rarity and heterogeneity, there are no suitable biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, though some biomarker candidates have appeared. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects dealing with u{\hyphen}LMS confirmed mutations and deletions in RB1, TP53, and PTEN. In addition, whole{\hyphen}exome sequencing of u{\hyphen}LMS has confirmed and demonstrated frequent alterations in TP53, RB1, α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX), and mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12)...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626647/multiple-pathways-for-mitophagy-a-neurodegenerative-conundrum-for-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Charleen T Chu
It has been nearly a decade since the first landmark studies implicating familial recessive Parkinson's disease genes in the regulation of selective mitochondrial autophagy. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (encoded by the PARK2 gene) act together to mark depolarized mitochondria for degradation. There is now an extensive body of literature detailing key mediators and steps in this pathway, based mostly on work in transformed cell lines. However, the degree to which PINK1-triggered mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial quality control in the mammalian brain, and the extent to which its disruption contributes to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis remain uncertain...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615337/immunohistochemical-and-molecular-genetic-study-on-epithelioid-glioblastoma-series-of-seven-cases-with-review-of-literature
#12
Gaurav Khanna, Pankaj Pathak, Vaishali Suri, Mehar Chand Sharma, Sujata Chaturvedi, Arvind Ahuja, M Bhardwaj, Ajay Garg, Chitra Sarkar, Rajeev Sharma
Epithelioid glioblastoma (e-gbm) is a recently described variant of glioblastoma (GBM) which is associated with short survival and now added as a provisional entity to WHO 2016 classification of CNStumors. About half of these tumors show characteristic BRAF-V600E mutation. However, unlike conventional GBMs, e-gbm lack specific diagnostic and prognostic markers. Hence, we aimed to molecularly characterize these tumors. An extensive review of literature was performed.In a multi-institutional effort, all the cases of glioblastoma of year 2017 were reviewed...
March 22, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589770/ros-and-rns-signaling-adaptive-redox-switches-through-oxidative-nitrosative-protein-modifications
#13
N T Moldogazieva, I M Mokhosoev, N B Feldman, S V Lutsenko
Over the last decade, a dual character of cell response to oxidative stress, eustress vs. distress, has become increasingly recognized. A growing body of evidence indicates that under physiological conditions, low concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) maintained by the activity of endogenous antioxidant system (AOS) allow reversible oxidative/nitrosative modifications of key redox-sensitive residues in regulatory proteins. The reversibility of redox modifications such as Cys S-sulfenylation/S-glutathionylation/S-nitrosylation/S-persulfidation and disulfide bond formation, or Tyr nitration, which occur through electrophilic attack of RONS to nucleophilic groups in amino acid residues provides redox switches in the activities of signaling proteins...
March 28, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562639/new-insights-into-protein-kinase-b-akt-signaling-role-of-localized-akt-activation-and-compartment-specific-target-proteins-for-the-cellular-radiation-response
#14
REVIEW
Klaudia Szymonowicz, Sebastian Oeck, Nathalie M Malewicz, Verena Jendrossek
Genetic alterations driving aberrant activation of the survival kinase Protein Kinase B (Akt) are observed with high frequency during malignant transformation and cancer progression. Oncogenic gene mutations coding for the upstream regulators or Akt, e.g., growth factor receptors, RAS and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), or for one of the three Akt isoforms as well as loss of the tumor suppressor Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) lead to constitutive activation of Akt. By activating Akt, these genetic alterations not only promote growth, proliferation and malignant behavior of cancer cells by phosphorylation of various downstream signaling molecules and signaling nodes but can also contribute to chemo- and radioresistance in many types of tumors...
March 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533535/diabetic-neuropathy-and-the-sensory-neuron-new-aspects-of-pathogenesis-and-their-treatment-implications
#15
REVIEW
Masaki Kobayashi, Douglas W Zochodne
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, might be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron-specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein, increases in the receptor for advanced glycation end-products, declines in growth factor signaling and other changes...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527223/pten-at-the-interface-of-immune-tolerance-and-tumor-suppression
#16
Andrew Brandmaier, Sheng-Qi Hou, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti, Wen H Shen
BACKGROUND: PTEN is well known to function as a tumor suppressor that antagonizes oncogenic signaling and maintains genomic stability. The PTEN gene is frequently deleted or mutated in human cancers and the wide cancer spectrum associated with PTEN deficiency has been recapitulated in a variety of mouse models of Pten deletion or mutation. Pten mutations are highly penetrant in causing various types of spontaneous tumors that often exhibit resistance to anticancer therapies including immunotherapy...
June 2017: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509243/targeting-histone-deacetylases-in-endometrial-cancer-a-paradigm-shifting-therapeutic-strategy
#17
N Garmpis, C Damaskos, A Garmpi, E Spartalis, E Kalampokas, T Kalampokas, G-A Margonis, D Schizas, N Andreatos, A Angelou, A Lavaris, A Athanasiou, K G Apostolou, M Spartalis, Z Damaskou, A Daskalopoulou, E Diamantis, K Tsivelekas, A Alavanos, S Valsami, M M Moschos, A Sampani, A Nonni, E A Antoniou, D Mantas, G Tsourouflis, K Markatos, K Kontzoglou, D Perrea, N Nikiteas, A Kostakis, D Dimitroulis
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer is increasingly prevalent in western societies and affects mainly postmenopausal women; notably incidence rates have been rising by 1.9% per year on average since 2005. Although the early-stage endometrial cancer can be effectively managed with surgery, more advanced stages of the disease require multimodality treatment with varying results. In recent years, endometrial cancer has been extensively studied at the molecular level in an attempt to develop effective therapies...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469739/cowden-syndrome-clinical-case-and-a-brief-review
#18
Sofia Lopes, Julia Vide, Elisabete Moreira, Filomena Azevedo
Cowden syndrome is a rare genodermatosis of autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by multiple hamartomas in several organs and an increased risk of malignancies. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with a history of benign and malignant thyroid disease, intestinal polyposis, and Chiari malformation. He had several trichilemmomas, papillomatosis of the oral cavity, macular pigmentation of the glans penis, among other clinical features suggestive of Cowden syndrome. Given the suspicion, genetic study was conducted and PTEN mutation was identified...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455665/pten-ptenp1-regulating-the-regulator-of-rtk-dependent-pi3k-akt-signalling-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Nahal Haddadi, Yiguang Lin, Glena Travis, Ann M Simpson, Najah T Nassif, Eileen M McGowan
Regulation of the PI-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is essential for maintaining the integrity of fundamental cellular processes, cell growth, survival, death and metabolism, and dysregulation of this pathway is implicated in the development and progression of cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major upstream regulators of PI3K/Akt signalling. The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a well characterised tumour suppressor, is a prime antagonist of PI3K and therefore a negative regulator of this pathway...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408173/pten-in-kidney-cancer-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Wan-Cai Que, Hong-Qiang Qiu, Yu Cheng, Mao-Bai Liu, Chao-Yang Wu
BACKGROUND: Kidney cancer is one of the most common cancers in the USA causing 14,400 deaths per year. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been extensively documented as a tumor suppresser gene in cancer. However, there is unclear evidence for its clinicopathological and prognostic role in kidney cancer. METHODS: A systematic review of literature assessing PTEN expression and clinical outcome in patients with kidney cancer. Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases were searched for collecting for the eligible studies providing sufficient information...
May 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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