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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777060/protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibits-cholesterol-efflux-and-promotes-atherogenesis-via-cullin-3-mediated-degradation-of-the-abca1-transporter
#1
Somasundaram Raghavan, Nikhlesh K Singh, Arul M Mani, Gadiparthi N Rao
Although signaling of thrombin via its receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (Par1) is known to occur in atherothrombosis, its link to the actual pathogenesis of this condition is less clear. To better understand the role of thrombin-Par1 signaling in atherosclerosis, here we have studied their effects on cellular cholesterol efflux in mice. We found that by activating Par1 and cullin 3-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), thrombin inhibits cholesterol efflux in both murine macrophages and smooth muscle cells...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#2
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767079/gluconeogenesis-during-starvation-and-refeeding-phase-is-affected-by-previous-dietary-carbohydrates-levels-and-a-glucose-stimuli-during-early-life-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#3
Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749466/upregulated-14%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-3%C3%AE-aggravates-restenosis-by-promoting-cell-migration-following-vascular-injury-in-diabetic-rats-with-elevated-levels-of-free-fatty-acids
#4
Lishuai Feng, Chaoran Dou, Jianbo Wang, Chunyu Jiang, Xu Ma, Jingjing Liu
Mono‑unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs) can serve as a predictive indicator of vascular restenosis following interventional therapy, particularly in individuals with high‑fat diet‑induced type 2 diabetes. However, the pathogenic mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the levels of tyrosine 3‑monooxygenase/tryptophan 5‑monooxygenase activation protein β (YWHAB; also known as 14‑3‑3β), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) treated with different concentrations of oleic acid (OA) were examined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746866/cav-1-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-activating-jnk-associated-signaling
#5
Dong-Xia Wang, Yong-Quan Pan, Bing Liu, Li Dai
The objective of the study is to calculate the role and underlying the molecular mechanisms of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in atherosclerosis (AS). Cav-1 was mainly expressed in the endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both human patients and apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/- ) mice. Cav-1 deficiency (Cav-1-/- ) attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice, supported by the reduced aortic plaques. Cav-1-/- reduced the macrophage content and decreased the release of inflammation-related cytokines or chemokine in serum or abdominal aortas, accompanied with the inactivation of inhibitor κB kinase κ (IKKβ)/p65/IκBα signaling pathway...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739863/effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-ampk-modulation-on-the-regulation-of-whole-body-lipid-metabolism
#6
Milena Schonke, Julie Massart, Juleen R Zierath
Metabolic flexibility, the capacity to adapt to fuel availability for energy production, is crucial for maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis. An inability to adequately promote fatty acid utilization is associated with lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues and contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In vivo assays to quantify whole-body lipid oxidation in mouse models of insulin resistance are lacking. We describe a method for assessing whole-body fatty acid oxidation in vivo , as well as tissue-specific lipid uptake in conscious mice...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735075/effect-of-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-inclusion-in-the-diet-for-fattening-lambs-on-animal-performance-ruminal-characteristics-and-meat-quality
#7
Carolina Blanco, Raúl Bodas, Lara Morán, Javier Mateo, Sonia Andrés, F Javier Giráldez
Thirty male merino lambs were fed with a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) alone or supplemented with hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones at two different doses (1.5 and 3.0 g hop cones/kg pelleted TMR, respectively), to study the effects of this dietary source of antioxidants on animal performance, ruminal parameters and meat quality attributes. The results showed that dietary supplementation with hop cones decreased lambs' growth rate (P < 0.05) due to a shift in ruminal fermentation, towards a more acetic and less propionic acid production (P < 0...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731746/response-of-gut-microbiota-to-metabolite-changes-induced-by-endurance-exercise
#8
Xia Zhao, Zhujun Zhang, Bin Hu, Wei Huang, Chao Yuan, Lingyun Zou
A few animal studies have shown that wheel running could reverse an unhealthy status by shifting the gut microbial composition, but no investigations have studied the effect of endurance running, such as marathon running, on human gut microbial communities. Since many findings have shown that marathon running immediately causes metabolic changes in blood, urine, muscles and lymph that potentially impact the gut microbiota (GM) within several hours. Here, we investigated whether the GM immediately responds to the enteric changes in amateur half-marathon runners...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731242/therapeutic-effects-of-the-allosteric-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitor-ky-226-on-experimental-diabetes-and-obesity-via-enhancements-in-insulin-and-leptin-signaling-in-mice
#9
Yuma Ito, Masaki Fukui, Mamoru Kanda, Ko Morishita, Yoshimichi Shoji, Tatsuya Kitao, Eiichi Hinoi, Hiroaki Shirahase
The anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of the allosteric protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor 4-(biphenyl-4-ylmethylsulfanylmethyl)-N-(hexane-1-sulfonyl)benzoylamide (KY-226) were pharmacologically evaluated. KY-226 inhibited human PTP1B activity (IC50  = 0.28 μM), but did not exhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist activity. In rodent preadipocytes (3T3-L1), KY-226 up to 10 μM had no effects on adipocyte differentiation, whereas pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, markedly promoted it...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721071/adipocyte-derived-exosomal-mir-27a-induces-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-through-repression-of-ppar%C3%AE
#10
Yang Yu, Hongwei Du, Shengnan Wei, Linjing Feng, Junnan Li, Fan Yao, Ming Zhang, Grant M Hatch, Li Chen
The mechanism by which adipocyte-derived endocrine factors promote insulin resistance in skeletal muscle are not fully understood. MiR-27a is highly expressed in sera of obese individuals with prediabetes and T2DM, and mainly derived by adipose tissues. Thus, miR-27a secreted into circulation by adipose tissue may regulate insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Methods: The association between miR-27a and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle was determined in obese children, high-fat diet-induced miR-27a knockdown obese mice, db/db mice and C2C12 cells overexpressing miR-27a...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720269/acidic-preconditioning-of-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-ecfc-promote-vasculogenesis-under-proinflammatory-and-high-glucose-conditions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Hebe Agustina Mena, Paula Romina Zubiry, Blandine Dizier, Mirta Schattner, Catherine Boisson-Vidal, Soledad Negrotto
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that acidic preconditioning of human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) increased proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis in vitro, and increased their regenerative potential in a murine model of hind limb ischemia without baseline disease. We now analyze whether this strategy is also effective under adverse conditions for vasculogenesis, such as the presence of ischemia-related toxic molecules or diabetes, one of the main target diseases for cell therapy due to their well-known healing impairments...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720078/genetic-effects-of-fatty-acid-composition-in-muscle-of-atlantic-salmon
#12
Siri S Horn, Bente Ruyter, Theo H E Meuwissen, Borghild Hillestad, Anna K Sonesson
BACKGROUND: The replacement of fish oil (FO) and fishmeal with plant ingredients in the diet of farmed Atlantic salmon has resulted in reduced levels of the health-promoting long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in their filets. Previous studies showed the potential of selective breeding to increase n-3 LC-PUFA levels in salmon tissues, but knowledge on the genetic parameters for individual muscle fatty acids (FA) and their relationships with other traits is still lacking...
May 2, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719250/mitophagy-directs-muscle-adipose-crosstalk-to-alleviate-dietary-obesity
#13
Tingting Fu, Zhisheng Xu, Lin Liu, Qiqi Guo, Hao Wu, Xijun Liang, Danxia Zhou, Liwei Xiao, Lei Liu, Yong Liu, Min-Sheng Zhu, Quan Chen, Zhenji Gan
The quality of mitochondria in skeletal muscle is essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis during adaptive stress responses. However, the precise control mechanism of muscle mitochondrial quality and its physiological impacts remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that FUNDC1, a mediator of mitophagy, plays a critical role in controlling muscle mitochondrial quality as well as metabolic homeostasis. Skeletal-muscle-specific ablation of FUNDC1 in mice resulted in LC3-mediated mitophagy defect, leading to impaired mitochondrial energetics...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710501/microrna-145-accelerates-the-inflammatory-reaction-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-atherosclerosis-cells-and-mice
#14
Sheng Li, Wenlei Sun, Hongjian Zheng, Feifei Tian
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammation, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Accumulative evidences have demonstrated that miRNAs exert crucial roles in the development of AS. However, the effects of miR-145 and its underlying molecular mechanism remain incompletely clear. The aim of the present study is to explore the function of miR-145 in the occurrence and development of AS through investigating its role in inflammatory reactions. High-fat diet (HFD)-treated ApoE-/- mice were used as an in vivo model of atherosclerosis (AS)...
April 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705078/therapist-s-practice-patterns-for-subsequent-fall-osteoporotic-fracture-prevention-for-patients-with-a-distal-radius-fracture
#15
Neha Dewan, Joy C MacDermid, Norma J MacIntyre, Ruby Grewal
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. INTRODUCTION: Multifactorial risk factor screening and treatment is needed for subsequent falls/osteoporotic fractures prevention (SFOFP), given the elevated risk among patients with distal radius fracture (DRF). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The primary objective was to describe hand therapists' knowledge and clinical practice patterns for assessment, treatment, referral, and education with respect to SFOFP for patients with DRF older than 45 years...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693163/infusion-of-adipose%C3%A2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-inhibits-skeletal-muscle-mitsugumin-53-elevation-and-thereby-alleviates-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#16
Zihui Deng, Huiyan Xu, Jinying Zhang, Chen Yang, Liyuan Jin, Jiejie Liu, Haijing Song, Guanghui Chen, Weidong Han, Yiling Si
It is widely accepted that infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorates hyperglycemia by alleviating insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, the detailed underlying mechanisms are not clearly defined. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) is an E3 ligase that has recently been implicated in the aggravation of insulin resistance by promoting the ubiquitinoylation of insulin receptor substrate‑1 (IRS‑1) in skeletal muscles. It was therefore hypothesized that MG53 may be involved in MSC‑mediated therapeutic effects on insulin resistance...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685627/arginine-pretreatment-enhances-circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cell-population-and-attenuates-inflammatory-response-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-with-limb-ischemia
#17
Yu-Fan Kuo, Chiu-Li Yeh, Juey-Ming Shih, Yao-Ming Shih, Sung-Ling Yeh
Obesity is a global health problem with an up-regulated inflammatory reaction. Obesity-induced endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction is associated with vascular complications that may contribute to critical limb ischemia. Arginine (Arg) is an amino acid with immune-modulatory property and has been found to promote EPCs mobilization in disease conditions. Thus in the present investigation, we hypothesized that arginine given to a murine model of diet-induced obesity would increase circulating EPCs and mitigate the inflammatory reactions in response to limb ischemia...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680662/insulin-sensitivity-linked-skeletal-muscle-nr4a1-dna-methylation-is-programmed-by-the-maternal-diet-and-modulated-by-voluntary-exercise-in-mice
#18
Juliane Kasch, Isabel Kanzleiter, Sophie Saussenthaler, Annette Schürmann, Jaap Keijer, Evert van Schothorst, Susanne Klaus, Sara Schumann
Perinatal maternal high-fat consumption is known to increase the obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility and to impair exercise performance in the offspring. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle are partly responsible for this phenotype. To detect skeletal muscle genes affected by maternal nutrition, male offspring of low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diet fed dams (BL6 mice) received LF diet upon weaning and were sacrificed at 6 or 25 weeks of age. Gene expression of Musculus quadriceps was investigated by microarray analysis revealing an up-regulation of the nuclear receptor Nr4a1 by maternal HF feeding...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674123/effects-of-dietary-toxic-cyanobacteria-and-ammonia-exposure-on-immune-function-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalabrama-amblycephala
#19
Hu Xia, Ting Song, Li Wang, Liangsen Jiang, Qiting Zhou, Weimin Wang, Liangguo Liu, Pinhong Yang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. During the degradation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, elevated ammonia and microcystins concentrations co-occur and exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, the combined effect of microcystins and ammonia on fish immunotoxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated immune responses of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) to dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure. Megalobrama amblycephala were exposed to solutions with different concentrations of NH3 -N (0, 0...
April 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673854/silencing-of-non-pou-domain-containing-octamer-binding-protein-stabilizes-atherosclerotic-plaque-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#20
Kai Zhang, Fang Zhang, Jian-Min Yang, Jing Kong, Xiao Meng, Meng Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Yun Zhang
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether Non-POU-domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NonO) plays a causative role in plaque destabilization. We hypothesized that NonO gene silencing may stabilize atherosclerotic plaque by increasing P4Hα1 expression and inhibiting the inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques were induced in ApoE-/- mice by high fat diet, perivascular collar placement and mental stress. Compared with normal carotid arteries, those contained vulnerable plaques had high NonO expression...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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