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Muscle promoting diets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644883/effects-of-dietary-inclusion-of-high-concentrations-of-crude-glycerin-on-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-feedlot-fed-nellore-bulls
#1
Eric H C B van Cleef, André P D'Áurea, Vanessa R Fávaro, Flavia O S van Cleef, Robson S Barducci, Marco T C Almeida, Otávio R Machado Neto, Jane M B Ezequiel
Crude glycerin, the main by-product of biodiesel production, can replace dietary energy sources, such as corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% of crude glycerin in dry matter (DM) of the total diets, and its effects on meat quality parameters of feedlot Nellore bulls. Thirty animals (227.7 ± 23.8 kg body weight; 18 months old) were housed in individual pens and fed 5 experimental diets, containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30% crude glycerin (DM basis). After 103 d (21 d adaptation) animals were slaughtered and the Longissimus muscle was collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643619/dietary-leucine-supplementation-alters-energy-metabolism-and-induces-slow-to-fast-transitions-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-weanling-piglets
#2
Qiwen Fan, Baisheng Long, Guokai Yan, Zhichang Wang, Min Shi, Xiaoyu Bao, Jun Hu, Xiuzhi Li, Changqing Chen, Zilong Zheng, Xianghua Yan
Leucine plays an important role in promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle remodelling. However, what percentage of leucine is appropriate in creep feed and what proteome profile alterations are caused by dietary leucine in the skeletal muscle of piglets remain elusive. In this case, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to analyse the proteome profile of the longissimus dorsi muscles of weanling piglets fed a normal leucine diet (NL; 1·66 % leucine) and a high-leucine diet (HL; 2·1 % leucine)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639297/autophagy-activation-not-pgc-1%C3%AE-may-mediate-exercise-induced-improvements-in-glucose-handling-during-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Kyle W Turner, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Prevalence of glucose intolerance is at alarming levels. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. PURPOSE: To determine combined effects of muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α and physical activity on glucose handling during diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT, ∼20) and PGC-1α muscle transgenic (MCK-PGC-1α, ∼20) mice were given Western diet (WD) at 8 wks age and allowed to consume food ab libitum throughout the study...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623008/yucca-schidigera-can-promote-rabbit-growth-fecundity-affect-the-release-of-hormones-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-induce-pathological-changes-in-liver-and-reduce-ovarian-resistance-to-benzene
#4
Martina Földešiová, Andrej Baláži, Ľubica Chrastinová, Juraj Pivko, Jan Kotwica, Abdel Halim Harrath, Peter Chrenek, Alexander V Sirotkin
This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera (YS) extract on the physiological, reproductive, and endocrine indexes of New Zealand White rabbit does. Six-week-old rabbit does were fed a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched with 5 or 20g of Y powder extract per 100-kg feed mixture for 350days. The does were artificially inseminated after induction of superovulation. Weight gain; conception and kindling rate; viability of pups and mothers; histopathological state of liver and muscle; plasma levels of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), and prostaglandin F (PGF); and the release of P4, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), OT, and PGF by isolated ovarian fragments and their response to the addition of benzene were analyzed...
June 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621563/reduced-mastication-impairs-memory-function
#5
Y Fukushima-Nakayama, Takehito Ono, M Hayashi, M Inoue, H Wake, Takashi Ono, T Nakashima
Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619361/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-ameliorates-n-3-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-induced-lipid-peroxidation-via-regulating-antioxidant-defenses-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#6
Xiao-Chen Shi, Ai Jin, Jian Sun, Zhou Yang, Jing-Jing Tian, Hong Ji, Hai-Bo Yu, Yang Li, Ji-Shu Zhou, Zhen-Yu Du, Li-Qiao Chen
This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), thereby inducing lipid peroxidation in liver and muscle of grass carp. Meanwhile, compared with control group, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and kidney index (KI) of grass carp were markedly increased in n-3 HUFAs-only group. However, diets with LA remarkably inhibited the n-3 HUFAs-induced increase of HSI, KI, and MDA level in serum, liver and muscle (P < 0...
June 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607005/opa1-deficiency-promotes-secretion-of-fgf21-from-muscle-that-prevents-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#7
Renata Oliveira Pereira, Satya M Tadinada, Frederick M Zasadny, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Karla Maria Pereira Pires, Angela Olvera, Jennifer Jeffers, Rhonda Souvenir, Rose Mcglauflin, Alec Seei, Trevor Funari, Hiromi Sesaki, Matthew J Potthoff, Christopher M Adams, Ethan J Anderson, E Dale Abel
Mitochondrial dynamics is a conserved process by which mitochondria undergo repeated cycles of fusion and fission, leading to exchange of mitochondrial genetic content, ions, metabolites, and proteins. Here, we examine the role of the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in differentiated skeletal muscle by reducing OPA1 gene expression in an inducible manner. OPA1 deficiency in young mice results in non-lethal progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of muscle mass. Mutant mice are resistant to age- and diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, by mechanisms that involve activation of ER stress and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) from skeletal muscle, resulting in increased metabolic rates and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601441/evaluation-and-handling-of-constipation-in-critical-patients
#8
J Pérez-Sánchez, J Fernández-Boronat, E Martínez-Méndez, M L Marín-Cagigas, D Mota-Puerto, M C Pérez-Román, G Martínez-Estalella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care against constipation and to identify, analyze and evaluate causes and consequences. METHODOLOGY: Observational, descriptive and prospective study in polyvalent ICU tertiary hospital (2013-2015). INCLUSION CRITERIA: >18 years, stay >7 days, connected to respiratory support, with nasogastric tube and enteral or mixed nutrition. Patients with gastrointestinal pathology, encephalopathic and jejunostomy/ileostomy were excluded...
June 7, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588499/intake-of-a-ketone-ester-drink-during-recovery-from-exercise-promotes-mtorc1-signaling-but-not-glycogen-resynthesis-in-human-muscle
#9
Tijs Vandoorne, Stefan De Smet, Monique Ramaekers, Ruud Van Thienen, Katrien De Bock, Kieran Clarke, Peter Hespel
Purpose: Ketone bodies are energy substrates produced by the liver during prolonged fasting or low-carbohydrate diet. The ingestion of a ketone ester (KE) rapidly increases blood ketone levels independent of nutritional status. KE has recently been shown to improve exercise performance, but whether it can also promote post-exercise muscle protein or glycogen synthesis is unknown. Methods: Eight healthy trained males participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. In each session, subjects undertook a bout of intense one-leg glycogen-depleting exercise followed by a 5-h recovery period during which they ingested a protein/carbohydrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588097/high-intensity-interval-training-and-calorie-restriction-promote-remodeling-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Rachel A H Davis, Jacob E Halbrooks, Emily Watkins, Gordon Fisher, Gary R Hunter, Tim R Nagy, Eric P Plaisance
Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine if high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 weeks followed by randomization to one of four groups (n = 8 per group) for an additional 15 weeks: 1) CON (remain on HFD); 2) CR (25% lower energy intake); 3) CR+HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586124/shp-deletion-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-when-combined-with-fxr-loss-protects-against-type-2-diabetes
#11
Oludemilade Akinrotimi, Ryan Riessen, Philip VanDuyne, Jung Eun Park, Yoon Kwang Lee, Lee-Jun Wong, Ann M Zavacki, Kristina Schoonjans, Sayeepriyadarshini Anakk
Nuclear receptors Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) are important regulators of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Here we show that global Fxr (-/-) Shp(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice are refractory to weight gain, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis when challenged with high-fat diet. DKO mice display an inherently increased capacity to burn fat and suppress de novo hepatic lipid synthesis. Moreover, DKO mice are also very active and that correlates well with the observed increase in Pepck expression, type IA fibers and mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585194/circadian-rhythms-in-diet-induced-obesity
#12
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579299/sglt2-inhibition-by-empagliflozin-promotes-fat-utilization-and-browning-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-by-polarizing-m2-macrophages-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
Liang Xu, Naoto Nagata, Mayumi Nagashimada, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Guanliang Chen, Eric Mayoux, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE), leading to blood glucose reductions and weight loss. However, the impacts of SGLT2 inhibition on energy homeostasis and obesity-induced insulin resistance are less well known. Here, we show that empagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, enhanced energy expenditure and attenuated inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a HFD with empagliflozin for 16weeks...
May 26, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565758/apigenin-in-the-regulation-of-cholesterol-metabolism-and-protection-of-blood-vessels
#14
Kun Zhang, Wei Song, Dalin Li, Xing Jin
Hyperlipidemia is a major independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Seeking natural compounds in medicinal plants capable of reducing blood fat and studying their mechanisms of action has been the focus of research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanisms of apigenin in regulating cholesterol metabolism and protecting blood vessels, and to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of apigenin. The mouse model of hyperlipidemia was established to verify the efficacy of apigenin in improving hyperlipidemia and to observe the mechanism of action of apigenin in reducing cholesterol content...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549558/the-kv1-3-channel-blocker-vm24-enhances-muscle-glucose-transporter-4-mobilization-but-does-not-reduce-body-weight-gain-in-diet-induced-obese-male-rats
#15
Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy, Georgina B Gurrola, Miguel Cisneros, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lourival D Possani, Jean-Louis Charli
AIMS: Voltage-gated potassium channels 1.3 (Kv1.3) can be targeted to reduce diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Since species-specific differences in Kv1.3 expression and pharmacology have been observed, we tested the effect of Vm24, a high-affinity specific blocker of Kv1.3 channels from Vaejovis mexicanus smithi, on body weight (BW), glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young adult male Wistar rats were switched to a high-fat/high-fructose (HFF) diet...
May 23, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543723/neuromuscular-junctions-nmjs-ultrastructural-analysis-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-mrna-expression-in-offspring-subjected-to-protein-restriction-throughout-pregnancy
#16
Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Ludimila Canuto Faccioni, Patrícia Aline Boer, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Protein restriction during gestation can alter the skeletal muscle phenotype of offspring; however, little is known with regard to whether this also affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as muscle phenotype maintenance depends upon NMJ functional integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low protein (6%) intake by dams throughout gestation on male offspring NMJ morphology and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α1, γ and ε subunit expression in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535009/microrna-let-7g-alleviates-atherosclerosis-via-the-targeting-of-lox-1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Mingxin Liu, Guizhou Tao, Qifeng Liu, Kun Liu, Xinchun Yang
Atherosclerosis is a chronic arterial disease and the leading cause of stroke and myocardial infarction. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been reported to act as essential modulators during the progression of atherosclerosis. Although miR-let-7g has been demonstrated to contribute to maintaining endothelial function and vascular homeostasis, it is not known whether miR-let-7g exerts a therapeutic effect on experimental atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of miR-let-7g on atherosclerosis in vivo and in vitro and to explore its underlying mechanisms...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515640/carcass-and-meat-characteristics-and-gene-expression-in-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-of-korean-native-cattle-fed-finishing-diets-supplemented-with-5-palm-oil
#18
Sungkwon Park, Zhang Yan, Changweon Choi, Kyounghoon Kim, Hyunjeong Lee, Youngkyoon Oh, Jinyoung Jeong, Jonggil Lee, Stephen B Smith, Seongho Choi
We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507015/preserving-healthy-muscle-during-weight-loss
#19
REVIEW
Edda Cava, Nai Chien Yeat, Bettina Mittendorfer
Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499247/nlrc5-deficiency-promotes-myocardial-damage-induced-by-high-fat-diet-in-mice-through-activating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#20
Shu-Ren Ma, Xiong-Wei Xie
The metabolic syndrome could be induced by high fat diet, leading to cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial damage. Inflammation response and oxidative stress have been reported to be involved in high fat-induced heart injury, and the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The NOD-like protein family member, NLRC5, could interact with IKKα to inhibit IKK complex activation. In our study, high fat diet-feeding mice showed cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress through collagen accumulation, TLR4/NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways activation...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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