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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#1
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920922/g%C3%AE-13-ablation-reprograms-myofibers-to-oxidative-phenotype-and-enhances-whole-body-metabolism
#2
Ja Hyun Koo, Tae Hyun Kim, Shi-Young Park, Min Sung Joo, Chang Yeob Han, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Skeletal muscle is a key organ in energy homeostasis owing to its high requirement for nutrients. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from cell-surface receptors to potentiate or blunt responses against environmental changes. Here, we show that muscle-specific ablation of Gα13 in mice promotes reprogramming of myofibers to the oxidative type, with resultant increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular respiration. Mechanistically, Gα13 and its downstream effector RhoA suppressed nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a chief regulator of myofiber conversion, by increasing Rho-associated kinase 2-mediated (Rock2-mediated) phosphorylation at Ser243...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920404/effects-of-zearalenone-on-the-localization-and-expression-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-in-the-uteri-of-post-weaning-piglets
#3
Min Zhou, LiJie Yang, Weiren Yang, Libo Huang, Xuemei Zhou, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang
Objective: In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (0.5 to 1.5 mg•kg-1 diet) on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the uteri of post-weaning gilts and explored another mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of ZEA on piglets. Methods: A total of forty healthy piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) aged 28 d were selected for study. Piglets were transferred to single cages after 10 days' adaptation on an obstetric table...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#4
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914811/leptolide-improves-insulin-resistance-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#5
Pablo Villa-Pérez, Mercedes Cueto, Ana R Díaz-Marrero, Carmen D Lobatón, Alfredo Moreno, Germán Perdomo, Irene Cózar-Castellano
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease linked to pancreatic beta-cell failure and insulin resistance. Current antidiabetic treatment regimens for T2DM include insulin sensitizers and insulin secretagogues. We have previously demonstrated that leptolide, a member of the furanocembranolides family, promotes pancreatic beta-cell proliferation in mice. Considering the beneficial effects of leptolide in diabetic mice, in this study, we aimed to address the capability of leptolide to improve insulin resistance associated with the pathology of obesity...
September 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912874/dietary-vitamin-b6-modulates-the-gene-expression-of-myokines-nrf2-related-factors-myogenin-and-hsp60-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-rats
#6
Sofya Suidasari, Shinji Uragami, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Previous studies have suggested that vitamin B6 is an ergogenic factor. However, the role of dietary vitamin B6 in skeletal muscle has not been widely researched. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the gene expression of 19 myokines, 14 nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated factors, 8 myogenesis-related factors and 4 heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may serve important roles in skeletal muscles. Rats were fed a diet containing 1 (marginal vitamin B6 deficiency), 7 (recommended dietary level) or 35 mg/kg of pyridoxine (PN) HCl/ for 6 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903957/within-day-protein-distribution-does-not-influence-body-composition-responses-during-weight-loss-in-resistance-training-adults-who-are-overweight
#7
Joshua L Hudson, Jung Eun Kim, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Wayne W Campbell
Background: Emerging research suggests that redistributing total protein intake from 1 high-protein meal/d to multiple moderately high-protein meals improves 24-h muscle protein synthesis. Over time, this may promote positive changes in body composition.Objective: We sought to assess the effects of within-day protein intake distribution on changes in body composition during dietary energy restriction and resistance training.Design: In a randomized parallel-design study, 41 men and women [mean ± SEM age: 35 ± 2 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883917/betaine-affects-muscle-lipid-metabolism-via-regulating-the-fatty-acid-uptake-and-oxidation-in-finishing-pig
#8
Sisi Li, Haichao Wang, Xinxia Wang, Yizhen Wang, Jie Feng
BACKGROUND: Betaine affects fat metabolism in animals, but the specific mechanism is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible mechanisms of betaine in altering lipid metabolism in muscle tissue in finishing pigs. METHODS: A total of 120 crossbred gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average initial body weight of 70.1 kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments. The treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 1250 or 2500 mg/kg betaine...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867395/nanoformulated-copper-zinc-superoxide-dismutase-exerts-differential-effects-on-glucose-vs-lipid-homeostasis-depending-on-the-diet-composition-possibly-via-altered-ampk-signaling
#9
Gopalakrishnan Natarajan, Curtis Perriotte-Olson, Fatema Bhinderwala, Robert Powers, Cyrus V Desouza, Geoffrey A Talmon, Jiang Yuhang, Matthew C Zimmerman, Alexander V Kabanov, Viswanathan Saraswathi
Evidence suggests that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) promotes glucose vs lipid metabolism depending on the diet type. We recently reported that nanoformulated SOD1 (Nano) improved lipid metabolism without altering glucose homeostasis in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Here, we sought to determine the effects and potential mechanisms of Nano in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice fed a normal chow diet (CD) vs HF diet. Mice were fed a CD or a HF diet (45%) for 10 wk and injected with Nano once every 2 days for 15 days...
October 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855697/whey-protein-components-lactalbumin-and-lactoferrin-improve-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#10
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Adel Pezeshki, Traj Nibber, Prasanth K Chelikani
Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842503/the-c-terminal-fibrinogen-like-domain-of-angiopoietin-like-4-stimulates-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-promotes-energy-expenditure
#11
Allison E McQueen, Deepthi Kanamaluru, Kimberly Yan, Nora E Gray, Leslie Wu, Mei-Lan Li, Anthony Chang, Adeeba Hasan, Daniel Stifler, Suneil Koliwad, Jen-Chywan Wang
Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) is a circulating protein secreted by white and brown adipose tissues and the liver. Structurally, Angptl4 contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) connected to a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain (FLD) via a cleavable linker, and both full-length Angptl4 and its individual domains circulate in the bloodstream. Angptl4 inhibits extracellular lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulates the lipolysis of triacylglycerol stored by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840832/torenia-concolor-lindley-var-formosana-yamazaki-extracts-improve-inflammatory-response-and-lipid-accumulation-via-ppars-activation
#12
Yu-Chia Liang, Jun-Cheng Hu, Pei-Ying Li, Guan-Jhong Huang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Che-Yi Chao
Background/Introduction: At present, human diet is replete with sugar and fat. Abnormal metabolism and hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia in the body induces the development of an overactive and continuous inflammatory response, resulting in obesity and metabolic syndromes, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Torenia concolor Lindley var. formosana Yamazaki (TC), a perennial creeping herbaceous plant, is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb widely used for the treatment of heat stroke, aching muscles and bones, cold, dysentery, and ambustion...
September 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830128/effects-of-crude-glycerin-from-waste-vegetable-oil-in-diets-on-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-for-feedlot-goats
#13
Pin Chanjula, Anusorn Cherdthong
Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods: Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native x Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8+ 0.46 kg BW) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a DM basis...
August 22, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826906/aluminum-exposure-at-human-dietary-levels-promotes-vascular-dysfunction-and-increases-blood-pressure-in-rats-a-concerted-action-of-nad-p-h-oxidase-and-cox-2
#14
Caroline Silveira Martinez, Janaina Trindade Piagette, Alyne Gourlart Escobar, Ángela Martín, Roberto Palacios, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Christopher Exley, María Jesús Alonso, Marta Miguel, Mercedes Salaices, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
Aluminum (Al) is a non-essential metal and a significant environmental contaminant and is associated with a number of human diseases including cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at doses similar to human dietary levels on the cardiovascular system over a 60day period. Wistar male rats were divided into two major groups and received orally: 1) Low aluminum level - rats were subdivided and treated for 60days as follows: a) Untreated - ultrapure water; b) AlCl3 at a dose of 8.3mg/kg bw for 60days, representing human Al exposure by diet; and 2) High aluminum level - rats were subdivided and treated for 42days as follows: C) Untreated - ultrapure water; d) AlCl3 at 100mg/kg bw for 42days, representing a high level of human exposure to Al...
August 19, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826373/fatty-acids-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-inflammation-in-metabolic-tissues
#15
Jessica C Ralston, Claire L Lyons, Elaine B Kennedy, Anna M Kirwan, Helen M Roche
Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas) through lipotoxicity and inflammatory signaling networks. Importantly, although numerous signaling pathways are known to integrate metabolic and inflammatory processes, the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is now noted to be a key regulator of metabolic inflammation...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815354/nf-e2-related-factor-2-suppresses-intestinal-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smads-pathway
#16
Yadi Guan, Yue Tan, Weiyu Liu, Jun Yang, Dongxu Wang, Di Pan, Yan Sun, Changqing Zheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) on intestinal fibrosis. Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease; however, its mechanism of intestinal fibrosis is largely unclear. METHODS: BALB/c mice received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid weekly via intrarectal injections to induce chronic fibrotic colitis. They also diet containing received 1% (w/w) tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), which is an agonist of Nrf2...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798193/the-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-in-metabolic-homoeostasis-current-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Juan Zheng, Wen Kong, Xiaofeng Ye, Luoning Gou, Anita Regmi, Lu-Lu Chen
It has been shown that adipose tissue and skeletal muscles in lean individuals respond to meal-induced hyperinsulinemia by increase in perfusion, the effect not observed in patients with metabolic syndrome. In conditions of hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridemia, this insufficient vascularization leads to the liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disruption of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and endothelial signalling responsible for the uptake of circulating fatty acids (FAs), whose accumulation in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue is widely associated with the impairment of insulin signalling...
August 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781215/adipose-derived-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-ameliorate-erectile-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Fengzhi Chen, Haibo Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Wei Ding, Qinyu Zeng, Wenbing Liu, Can Huang, Shuhua He, Anyang Wei
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in alleviating erectile dysfunction (ED) of diabetic rats has been demonstrated mainly through a paracrine effect. However, exosomes (EXOs), which are important bioactive substance vectors secreted by ADSCs, have never been associated with ED. AIM: To investigate the effect of ADSC-derived EXOs on erectile function in a type 2 diabetic ED rat model. METHODS: EXOs were isolated from the supernatants of cultured ADSCs by ultracentrifugation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764846/uric-acid-promotes-vascular-stiffness-maladaptive-inflammatory-responses-and-proteinuria-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#19
Annayya R Aroor, Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Zhe Sun, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Barron Brady, Dongqing Chen, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Camila Manrique, Ravi Nistala, Adam T Whaley-Connell, Vincent G Demarco, Gerald A Meininger, James R Sowers
OBJECTIVE: Aortic vascular stiffness has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese individuals. However, the mechanism promoting these adverse effects are unclear. In this context, promotion of obesity through consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and fructose leads to excess circulating uric acid. There is accumulating data implicating elevated uric acid in the promotion of CVD and CKD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibition with allopurinol would prevent a rise in vascular stiffness and proteinuria in a translationally relevant model of WD-induced obesity...
September 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757463/permethrin-alters-glucose-metabolism-in-conjunction-with-high-fat-diet-by-potentiating-insulin-resistance-and-decreases-voluntary-activities-in-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Xiao Xiao, Yoo Kim, Daeyoung Kim, Kyong Sup Yoon, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Permethrin, a type 1 pyrethroid insecticide, was previously reported to promote adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells; however, the effects of permethrin exposure on glucose and lipid metabolisms in vivo remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of permethrin exposure on glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as voluntary movement in female mice in response to dietary fat. We tested three doses of permethrin (50, 500, & 5000 μg/kg body weight/day) in low fat diet-fed (4% w/w of diet) and high fat diet-fed (20% w/w of diet) female C57BL/6 J mice for twelve weeks...
October 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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