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Chuan Li, Wei Ying, Zheping Huang, Tyler Brehm, Andrew Morin, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Aberrant pro-inflammatory and suppressed anti-inflammatory (alternative) macrophage activation underlies the chronic inflammation associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study demonstrates a novel role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) in regulating macrophage alternative activation (M2) by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression, a critical regulator of alternative macrophage polarization. The data demonstrate suppression of IRF6 in both M2 macrophages and obese adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
June 22, 2017: Endocrinology
Zhaoliang Song, Hongyan Liu, Caroline A E Strömberg, Xiaomin Yang, Xiaodong Zhang
Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yanqiu Ou, Michael S Bloom, Zhiqiang Nie, Fengzhen Han, Jinzhuang Mai, Jimei Chen, Shao Lin, Xiaoqing Liu, Jian Zhuang
Prenatal exposure to toxic trace elements, including heavy metals, is an important public health concern. Few studies have assessed if individual and multiple trace elements simultaneously affect cardiac development. The current study evaluated the association between maternal blood lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) levels and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring. This hospital-based case-control study included 112 case and 107 control infants. Maternal peripheral blood draw was made during gestational weeks 17-40 and used to determine trace element levels by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
Junfeng Zhu, Xiaojiao Yi, Jinghui Zhang, Shuqing Chen, Yongjiang Wu
Yangxinshi Tablet (YXST) is a Chinese patent medicine commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, its detailed chemical basis and mechanisms of action have not been clarified. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) was applied for comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents in YXST. A total of 127 compounds, including 19 phenolic acids, 12 alkaloids, 51 flavanoids, 32 triterpenoids, 2 lignans, 2 phenylethanoid glycosides, 2 anthraquinones, 1 coumarin, and 6 other compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
David Torello, Nicholas Selby, Jin-Yeon Kim, Jianmin Qu, Laurence J Jacobs
Quantitative evaluation of the microstructural state of a specimen can be deduced from knowledge of the sample's absolute acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, making the measurement of β a powerful tool in the NDE toolbox. However, the various methods used in the past to measure β each suffer from significant limitations. Piezoelectric contact transducers are sensitive to nonlinear signals, cheap, and simple to use, but they are hindered by the variability of the interfacial contact between transducer and specimen surface...
June 3, 2017: Ultrasonics
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Jingna Mao, Huazhong Yang, Yong Lian, Bo Zhao
In wireless body area network, capacitive-coupling body channel communication (CC-BCC) has the potential to attain better energy efficiency over conventional wireless communication schemes. The CC-BCC scheme utilizes the human body as the forward signal transmission medium, reducing the path loss in wireless body-centric communications. However, the backward path is formed by the coupling capacitance between the ground electrodes (GEs) of transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx), which increases the path loss and results in a body posture dependent backward impedance...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Emma Yoxon, Timothy N Welsh
Recent neurophysiological and behavioral research suggests perception-action systems are tightly coupled. Accordingly, Fitts' law has been observed when individuals execute, perceive, and imagine actions. Developmental research has found that (a) children demonstrate Fitts' law in imagined actions and (b) imagined movement time (MT) becomes closer to actual MT as age increases. However, action execution, imagination, and perception have yet to be assessed together in children. The authors investigated how imagined and perceived MTs related to actual MTs in children and adolescents...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Tijmen H Booij, Hester Bange, Wouter N Leonhard, Kuan Yan, Michiel Fokkelman, Steven J Kunnen, Johannes G Dauwerse, Yu Qin, Bob van de Water, Gerard J P van Westen, Dorien J M Peters, Leo S Price
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a prevalent disorder characterized by renal cysts that lead to kidney failure. Various signaling pathways have been targeted to stop disease progression, but most interventions still focus on alleviating PKD-associated symptoms. The mechanistic complexity of the disease, as well as the lack of functional in vitro assays for compound testing, has made drug discovery for PKD challenging. To identify modulators of PKD, Pkd1(-/-) kidney tubule epithelial cells were applied to a scalable and automated 3D cyst culture model for compound screening, followed by phenotypic profiling to determine compound efficacy...
June 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
P Virtanen, T T Heikkilä
We analyze the statistics of charge and energy currents and spin torque in a metallic nanomagnet coupled to a large magnetic metal via a tunnel contact. We derive a Keldysh action for the tunnel barrier, describing the stochastic currents in the presence of a magnetization precessing with the rate Ω. In contrast to some earlier approaches, our result is valid for an arbitrary ratio of ℏΩ/k_{B}T. We illustrate the use of the action by deriving spintronic fluctuation relations, the quantum limit of pumped current noise, and consider the fluctuations in two specific cases: the situation with a stable precession of magnetization driven by spin transfer torque, and the torque-induced switching between the minima of a magnetic anisotropy...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Renming Liu, Zhang-Kai Zhou, Yi-Cong Yu, Tengwei Zhang, Hao Wang, Guanghui Liu, Yuming Wei, Huanjun Chen, Xue-Hua Wang
Reaching the quantum optics limit of strong light-matter interactions between a single exciton and a plasmon mode is highly desirable, because it opens up possibilities to explore room-temperature quantum devices operating at the single-photon level. However, two challenges severely hinder the realization of this limit: the integration of single-exciton emitters with plasmonic nanostructures and making the coupling strength at the single-exciton level overcome the large damping of the plasmon mode. Here, we demonstrate that these two hindrances can be overcome by attaching individual J aggregates to single cuboid Au@Ag nanorods...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Bing He, Liu Yang, Qing Lin, Min Xiao
One of the most fundamental problems in optomechanical cooling is how small the thermal phonon number of a mechanical oscillator can be achieved under the radiation pressure of a proper cavity field. Different from previous theoretical predictions, which were based on an optomechanical system's time-independent steady states, we treat such cooling as a dynamical process of driving the mechanical oscillator from its initial thermal state, due to its thermal equilibrium with the environment, to a stabilized quantum state of higher purity...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Henriette Elvang, Callum R T Jones, Stephen G Naculich
Extensions of the photon and graviton soft theorems are derived in 4D local effective field theories with massless particles of arbitrary spin. We prove that effective operators can result in new terms in the soft theorems at subleading order for photons and subsubleading order for gravitons. The new soft terms are unique, and we provide a complete classification of all local operators responsible for such modifications. We show that no local operators can modify the subleading soft graviton theorem. The soft limits are taken in a manifestly on-locus manner using a complex double deformation of the external momenta...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
J-C Orain, B Bernu, P Mendels, L Clark, F H Aidoudi, P Lightfoot, R E Morris, F Bert
In the vanadium oxyfluoride compound (NH_{4})_{2}[C_{7}H_{14}N][V_{7}O_{6}F_{18}] (DQVOF), the V^{4+} (3d^{1}, S=1/2) ions realize a unique, highly frustrated breathing kagome lattice composed of alternately sized, corner-sharing equilateral triangles. Here we present an ^{17}O NMR study of DQVOF, which isolates the local susceptibility of the breathing kagome network. By a fit to series expansion, we extract the ratio of the interactions within the breathing kagome plane, J_{∇}/J_{Δ}=0.55(4), and the mean antiferromagnetic interaction J[over ¯]=60(7)  K...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Antoine Reigue, Jake Iles-Smith, Fabian Lux, Léonard Monniello, Mathieu Bernard, Florent Margaillan, Aristide Lemaitre, Anthony Martinez, Dara P S McCutcheon, Jesper Mørk, Richard Hostein, Valia Voliotis
We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected by spectral diffusion. Through these measurements and a complementary microscopic theory, we identify two independent separate decoherence processes, both of which are associated with phonons. Below 10 K, we find that the relaxation of the vibrational lattice is the dominant contribution to the loss of TPI visibility...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
H Yasuoka, T Kubo, Y Kishimoto, D Kasinathan, M Schmidt, B Yan, Y Zhang, H Tou, C Felser, A P Mackenzie, M Baenitz
The ^{181}Ta quadrupole resonance [nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)] technique is utilized to investigate the microscopic magnetic properties of the Weyl semimetal TaP. We find three zero-field NQR signals associated with the transition between the quadrupole split levels for Ta with I=7/2 nuclear spin. A quadrupole coupling constant, ν_{Q}=19.250  MHz, and an asymmetric parameter of the electric field gradient, η=0.423, are extracted, in good agreement with band structure calculations. In order to examine the magnetic excitations, the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T_{1}T) is measured for the f_{2} line (±5/2↔±3/2 transition)...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Lun Peng, Shenglin Zhou, Bo Yang, Meimei Bao, Gaojian Chen, Xiaohua Zhang
This report describes a technique for fabricating dual-structured hierarchical surface topography on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films through simply replicating prefabricated patterns and wrinkling PDMS films. To enhance the biocompatibility of PDMS films we synthesize a biocompatible dopamine-glycopolymer, which is utilized to modify the chemical feature of the PDMS surface. Dopamine component in this copolymer is introduced for the formation of a carbohydrate layer on the surface of PDMS films due to its excellent adhesion...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jean Septavaux, Geoffroy Germain, Julien Leclaire
Extraction and purification of basic chemicals from complex mixtures has been a persistent issue throughout the development of the chemical sciences. The chemical industry and academic research have grown over the centuries by following a deconstruction-reconstruction approach, reminiscent of the metabolism process. Chemists have designed and optimized extraction, purification, and transformation processes of molecules from natural deposits (fossil fuels, biomass, ores), in order to reassemble them into complex adducts...
June 23, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Zhihang Wang, Jonas Udmark, Karl Börjesson, Rita Rodrigues, Anna Roffey, Maria Abrahamsson, Mogens B Nielsen, Kasper Moth-Poulsen
Efficient solar energy storage is a key challenge in striving towards a sustainable future. For this reason, molecules capable of solar energy storage and release through valence isomerization, so-called Molecular Solar Thermal energy storage (MOST), have been investigated. Here, we evaluate the energy storage potential through the photoconversion of the dihydroazulene-vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo-thermal couple. The robust nature of this system has been determined through multiple energy storage and release cycles at elevated temperatures in three different solvents...
June 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
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