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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861202/novel-approaches-to-early-detection-of-endometrial-cancer
#1
Madhu Bagaria, Emily Shields, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of endometrial cancer at an early stage leads to better oncologic outcomes. To date, a screening test for endometrial cancer does not exist. RECENT FINDINGS: Evolving knowledge of molecular changes involved in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis paired with sensitive and high-throughput technological advancements are a promising combination that can be leveraged to detect tumor DNA and proteins. These molecular biomarkers can be identified in biospecimens collected via minimally invasive and noninvasive approaches...
November 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776981/asthma-metabolomics-and-the-potential-for-integrative-omics-in-research-and-the-clinic
#2
Rachel S Kelly, Amber Dahlin, Michael J McGeachie, Weiliang Qiu, Joanne Sordillo, Emily S Wan, Ann Chen Wu, Jessica Lasky-Su
Asthma is a complex disease well suited to metabolomic profiling, both for the development of novel biomarkers and for the improved understanding of pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the 21 existing metabolomic studies of asthma in humans, all of which reported significant findings and concluded that individual metabolites and metabolomic profiles measured in exhaled breath condensate, urine, plasma and serum could identify asthmatics and asthma phenotypes with high discriminatory ability. There was considerable consistency across the studies in terms of the reported biomarkers, regardless of biospecimen, profiling technology and population age...
October 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770794/national-ethics-guidance-in-sub-saharan-africa-on-the-collection-and-use-of-human-biological-specimens-a-systematic-review
#3
Francis Barchi, Madison T Little
BACKGROUND: Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. METHODS: An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country...
October 22, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677055/building-a-repository-of-science-the-importance-of%C3%A2-integrating-biobanks-within-molecular-pathology-programmes
#4
Claire Lewis, Stephen McQuaid, Peter W Hamilton, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Darragh McArt, Jacqueline A James
Repositories containing high quality human biospecimens linked with robust and relevant clinical and pathological information are required for the discovery and validation of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, progression and response to treatment. Current molecular based discovery projects using either low or high throughput technologies rely heavily on ready access to such sample collections. It is imperative that modern biobanks align with molecular diagnostic pathology practices not only to provide the type of samples needed for discovery projects but also to ensure requirements for ongoing sample collections and the future needs of researchers are adequately addressed...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580660/metabolic-profiling-of-cholesterol-and-sex-steroid-hormones-to-monitor-urological-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Ju-Yeun Moon, Man Ho Choi, Jayoung Kim
Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive...
October 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561083/issues-in-developing-multivariable-molecular-signatures-for-guiding-clinical-care-decisions
#6
Michael C Sachs, Lisa M McShane
Omics technologies that generate a large amount of molecular data characterizing biospecimens have the potential to provide information about patients' disease characteristics above and beyond standard clinical features. By combining information from a large number of features into a multivariable model, called a biomarker signature, there is the opportunity to identify distinct subgroups of patients for whom treatment decisions can be personalized. The key challenge is to derive a signature with good performance and appropriately characterize its performance...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330810/society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-sitc-statement-on-the-proposed-changes-to-the-common-rule
#7
Howard L Kaufman, Lisa H Butterfield, Pierre G Coulie, Sandra Demaria, Robert L Ferris, Jérôme Galon, Samir N Khleif, Ira Mellman, Pamela S Ohashi, Willem W Overwijk, Suzanne L Topalian, Francesco M Marincola
The Common Rule is a set of ethical principles that provide guidance on the management of human subjects taking part in biomedical and behavioral research in the United States. The elements of the Common Rule were initially developed in 1981 following a revision of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1975. Most academic facilities follow the Common Rule in the regulation of clinical trials research. Recently, the government has suggested a revision of the Common Rule to include more contemporary and streamlined oversight of clinical research...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329739/return-of-individual-genomic-research-results-what-do-consent-forms-tell-participants
#8
Stacey Pereira, Jill Oliver Robinson, Amy L McGuire
Advances in genomic technology make possible the large-scale collection of genomic data for research purposes. Many international initiatives seek to collect genomic data on large populations, often relying on existing collections to populate their databases. As these efforts progress, the debate over whether or not to return individual genetic research results to study participants remains an area of much contention. Some recommend returning results to participants only if the issue was addressed in the original study consent form...
November 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167109/a-comparative-assessment-of-clinical-whole-exome-and-transcriptome-profiling-across-sequencing-centers-implications-for-precision-cancer-medicine
#9
Eliezer M Van Allen, Dan Robinson, Colm Morrissey, Colin Pritchard, Alma Imamovic, Scott Carter, Mara Rosenberg, Aaron McKenna, Yi-Mi Wu, Xuhong Cao, Arul Chinnaiyan, Levi Garraway, Peter S Nelson
Advances in next generation sequencing technologies provide approaches to comprehensively determine genomic alterations within a tumor that occur as a cause or consequence of neoplastic growth. Though providers offering various cancer genomics assays have multiplied, the level of reproducibility in terms of the technical sensitivity and the conclusions resulting from the data analyses have not been assessed.We sought to determine the reproducibility of ascertaining tumor genome aberrations using whole exome sequencing (WES) and RNAseq...
May 5, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121074/mechanistic-and-technical-challenges-in-studying-the-human-microbiome-and-cancer-epidemiology
#10
Mukesh Verma
This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry...
April 27, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068126/adsorbing-dissolving-lyoprotectant-matrix-technology-for-non-cryogenic-storage-of-archival-human-sera
#11
Morwena J Solivio, Rebekah Less, Mathew L Rynes, Marcus Kramer, Alptekin Aksan
Despite abundant research conducted on cancer biomarker discovery and validation, to date, less than two-dozen biomarkers have been approved by the FDA for clinical use. One main reason is attributed to inadvertent use of low quality biospecimens in biomarker research. Most proteinaceous biomarkers are extremely susceptible to pre-analytical factors such as collection, processing, and storage. For example, cryogenic storage imposes very harsh chemical, physical, and mechanical stresses on biospecimens, significantly compromising sample quality...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972839/object-oriented-regression-for-building-predictive-models-with-high-dimensional-omics-data-from-translational-studies
#12
Lue Ping Zhao, Hamid Bolouri
Maturing omics technologies enable researchers to generate high dimension omics data (HDOD) routinely in translational clinical studies. In the field of oncology, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provided funding support to researchers to generate different types of omics data on a common set of biospecimens with accompanying clinical data and has made the data available for the research community to mine. One important application, and the focus of this manuscript, is to build predictive models for prognostic outcomes based on HDOD...
April 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928707/review-article-the-role-of-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-in-the-study-of-neoplastic-and-non-neoplastic-diseases-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#13
Shuji Ogino, Reiko Nishihara, Tyler J VanderWeele, Molin Wang, Akihiro Nishi, Paul Lochhead, Zhi Rong Qian, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Hongmei Nan, Kazuki Yoshida, Danny A Milner, Andrew T Chan, Alison E Field, Carlos A Camargo, Michelle A Williams, Edward L Giovannucci
Molecular pathology diagnostics to subclassify diseases based on pathogenesis are increasingly common in clinical translational medicine. Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative transdisciplinary science based on the unique disease principle and the disease continuum theory. While it has been most commonly applied to research on breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, MPE can investigate etiologic heterogeneity in non-neoplastic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, drug toxicity, and immunity-related and infectious diseases...
July 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866049/active-monitoring-of-formaldehyde-diffusion-into-histological-tissues-with-digital-acoustic-interferometry
#14
Daniel R Bauer, Benjamin Stevens, David Chafin, Abbey P Theiss, Michael Otter
The preservation of certain labile cancer biomarkers with formaldehyde-based fixatives can be considerably affected by preanalytical factors such as quality of fixation. Currently, there are no technologies capable of quantifying a fixative's concentration or the formation of cross-links in tissue specimens. This work examined the ability to detect formalin diffusion into a histological specimen in real time. As formaldehyde passively diffused into tissue, an ultrasound time-of-flight (TOF) shift of several nanoseconds was generated due to the distinct sound velocities of formalin and exchangeable fluid within the tissue...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812438/an-independent-evaluation-of-the-cryoxtract-instruments-cxt350-frozen-sample-aliquotter-using-tissue-and-fecal-biospecimens
#15
William Mathieson, Ignacio Sanchez, Kathleen Mommaerts, Sonia Frasquilho, Fay Betsou
The ability to take targeted multiple cores from a single frozen biospecimen would enable several research projects to be fueled from one biospecimen, a small piece of tissue to be quality-control tested, and for pathologically-discrete areas of a biospecimen (e.g., tumor, stromal, and normal tissue) to be selectively sampled for comparative analyses. CryoXtract Instruments' CXT350 Frozen Sample Aliquotter can potentially achieve this by producing multiple cores from one cryopreserved biospecimen without thawing either the parent biospecimen or its daughter cores...
February 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712742/biobanking-of-exosomes-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-are-we-there-yet
#16
REVIEW
Edna M Mora, Silvia Álvarez-Cubela, Elisa Oltra
The emerge of personalized medicine demands high-quality human biospecimens with appropriate clinical annotation, especially in complex diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic alterations in which specimen heterogeneity and individual responses often complicate the development of precision therapeutic programs. In the growing field of extracellular vesicles (EVs) research, exosomes (EXOs)--a particular type of EVs--have been proposed as an advantageous diagnostic tool, as effective delivery vehicles and as therapeutic targets...
December 24, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444898/building-a-dod-biorepository-for-the-future-potential-benefits-and-way-forward
#17
Luther E Lindler
Significant advances have been made in the molecular analyses of the human physiological state. In general, these techniques have been termed "omics" because of their requirements for sophisticated analyses of large datasets. Application of these new omics technologies has led to advances in medical practice related to public health as well as a new field termed personalized medicine. The Department of Defense (DoD) consistently needs the ability to identify people who have been exposed to environmental hazards during deployments and in their day-to-day jobs...
October 2015: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26433552/genetic-testing-and-tissue-banking-for-personalized-oncology-analytical-and-institutional-factors
#18
REVIEW
George Miles, James Rae, Suresh S Ramalingam, John Pfeifer
Personalized oncology, or more aptly precision oncogenomics, refers to the identification and implementation of clinically actionable targets tailored to an individual patient's cancer genomic information. Banking of human tissue and other biospecimens establishes a framework to extract and collect the data essential to our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment. Cancer cooperative groups in the United States have led the way in establishing robust biospecimen collection mechanisms to facilitate translational research, and combined with technological advances in molecular testing, tissue banking has expanded from its traditional base in academic research and is assuming an increasingly pivotal role in directing the clinical care of cancer patients...
October 2015: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26420619/establishing-an-iso-compliant-modern-cancer-biobank-in-a-developing-country-a-model-for-international-cooperation
#19
REVIEW
Maher A Sughayer, Lina Souan
King Hussein Cancer (KHCC) is a specialized cancer center that treats both adult and pediatric cancer patients from Jordan and the neighboring countries. KHCC is acknowledged as a leader in cancer treatment in the Middle East and its vision is to maintain its leading position in cancer therapy and research. Hence, KHCC embarked on establishing the first ISO compliant cancer biobank (KHCCBIO) in Jordan.Currently, there are very few biobanks in the Middle East, hence, KHCC wanted to change this situation by establishing an ISO-compliant cancer biobank which would incorporate all current international guidelines and best-in class practices under an approved quality management system for the benefit of researchers in Jordan, its neighboring countries, and throughout the world...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349637/interfacing-inorganic-nanowire-arrays-and-living-cells-for-cellular-function-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Minsuk Kwak, Lin Han, Jonathan J Chen, Rong Fan
Inorganic nanowires are among the most attractive functional materials, which have emerged in the past two decades. They have demonstrated applications in information technology and energy conversion, but their utility in biological or biomedical research remains relatively under-explored. Although nanowire-based sensors have been frequently reported for biomolecular detection, interfacing nanowire arrays and living mammalian cells for the direct analysis of cellular functions is a very recent endeavor. Cell-penetrating nanowires enabled effective delivery of biomolecules, electrical and optical stimulation and recording of intracellular signals over a long period of time...
November 11, 2015: Small
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