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Biospecimen technology

Chris P Verschoor, Vikas Kohli, Cynthia Balion
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the frequency and phenotype of white blood cell subsets using flow cytometry (immunophenotyping) has proven to be an incredibly powerful tool in the assessment of health. Although improved technologies have aided in the practical implementation of immunophenotyping in clinical and epidemiological studies, the transportation of blood from the site of collection to a central laboratory for analysis within a reasonable timeframe may not be feasible. Hence, the purpose of the following study was to investigate the validity of cryopreserved whole blood as a simple to prepare and cost-effective biospecimen for multi-colour immunophenotyping in a large epidemiological study - namely, The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA)...
April 5, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Tanja Macheiner, Berthold Huppertz, Michaela Bayer, Karine Sargsyan
BACKGROUND: Due to increased utilization of biospecimens for research and emergence of new technologies, the availability and quality of biospecimens and their collection are coming more and more into focus. However, the long-term economic situation of biobanks is still mostly unclear. Also, the common sustainable utilization of various international biobanks is challenging due to local differences in sample processing, law and ethics. AIM: This article discusses possible strategies to achieve a sustainable utilization of biospecimens as part of the business plan of biobanks...
April 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Shonali Paul, Aditi Gade, Sumani Mallipeddi
Biobanks are critical for collecting and managing high-quality biospecimens from donors with appropriate clinical annotation. The high-quality human biospecimens and associated data are required to better understand disease processes. Therefore, biobanks have become an important and essential resource for healthcare research and drug discovery. However, collecting and managing huge volumes of data (biospecimens and associated clinical data) necessitate that biobanks use appropriate data management solutions that can keep pace with the ever-changing requirements of research...
April 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Katheryn E Shea, Elizabeth L Wagner, Leah Marchesani, Kevin Meagher, Carol Giffen
INTRODUCTION: Reducing costs by improving storage efficiency has been a focus of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Biologic Specimen Repository (Biorepository) and Biologic Specimen and Data Repositories Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) programs for several years. METHODS: Study specimen profiles were compiled using the BioLINCC collection catalog. Cost assessments and calculations on the return on investments to consolidate or reduce a collection, were developed and implemented...
February 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
C S Ang, M S Baker, E C Nice
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality for both men and women, and the second leading cause of cancer death for men and women combined. If detected early, before metastasis has occurred, survival following surgical resection of the tumor is >90%. Early detection is therefore critical for effective disease surveillance. Unfortunately, current biomarker assays lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity for reliable early disease detection. Development of new robust, non- or minimally invasive specific and sensitive biomarkers or panels with improved compliance and performance is therefore urgently required...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
Małgorzata Witoń, Dominik Strapagiel, Joanna Gleńska-Olender, Anna Chróścicka, Katarzyna Ferdyn, Jarosław Skokowski, Leszek Kalinowski, Jakub Pawlikowski, Błażej Marciniak, Markus Pasterk, Agnieszka Matera-Witkiewicz, Łukasz Kozera
In Poland storage of human biological samples takes place at most universities and scientific institutions conducting research projects in the field of biomedicine. The First International Biobanking Conference organized by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2014 shed a light on the situation of Polish biobanking infrastructures. The country has around 40 large biorepositories, which store unique biological material such as whole brains, muscle fibers from patients with rare diseases, as well as thousands of samples from patients with lifestyle diseases...
January 19, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Evan L Pannkuk, Albert J Fornace, Evagelia C Laiakis
PURPOSE: Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation has increased in the past decades, primarily due to long distance travel and medical procedures. On the other hand, accidental exposures, nuclear accidents, and elevated threats of terrorism with the potential detonation of a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device in a major city, all have led to increased needs for rapid biodosimetry and assessment of exposure to different radiation qualities and scenarios...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Kirsty M Danielson, Renee Rubio, Fieda Abderazzaq, Saumya Das, Yaoyu E Wang
The presence and relative stability of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in biofluids has led to an emerging recognition of their promise as 'liquid biopsies' for diseases. Most prior studies on discovery of exRNAs as disease-specific biomarkers have focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) using technologies such as qRT-PCR and microarrays. The recent application of next-generation sequencing to discovery of exRNA biomarkers has revealed the presence of potential novel miRNAs as well as other RNA species such as tRNAs, snoRNAs, piRNAs and lncRNAs in biofluids...
2017: PloS One
Madhu Bagaria, Emily Shields, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of endometrial cancer at an early stage leads to better oncologic outcomes. To date, a screening test for endometrial cancer does not exist. RECENT FINDINGS: Evolving knowledge of molecular changes involved in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis paired with sensitive and high-throughput technological advancements are a promising combination that can be leveraged to detect tumor DNA and proteins. These molecular biomarkers can be identified in biospecimens collected via minimally invasive and noninvasive approaches...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rachel S Kelly, Amber Dahlin, Michael J McGeachie, Weiliang Qiu, Joanne Sordillo, Emily S Wan, Ann Chen Wu, Jessica Lasky-Su
Asthma is a complex disease well-suited to metabolomic profiling, both for the development of novel biomarkers and for the improved understanding of pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the 21 existing metabolomic studies of asthma in humans, all of which reported significant findings and concluded that individual metabolites and metabolomic profiles measured in exhaled breath condensate, urine, plasma, and serum could identify people with asthma and asthma phenotypes with high discriminatory ability...
February 2017: Chest
Francis Barchi, Madison T Little
BACKGROUND: Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. METHODS: An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country...
October 22, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Claire Lewis, Stephen McQuaid, Peter W Hamilton, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Darragh McArt, Jacqueline A James
Repositories containing high quality human biospecimens linked with robust and relevant clinical and pathological information are required for the discovery and validation of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, progression and response to treatment. Current molecular based discovery projects using either low or high throughput technologies rely heavily on ready access to such sample collections. It is imperative that modern biobanks align with molecular diagnostic pathology practices not only to provide the type of samples needed for discovery projects but also to ensure requirements for ongoing sample collections and the future needs of researchers are adequately addressed...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Ju-Yeun Moon, Man Ho Choi, Jayoung Kim
Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive...
October 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Michael C Sachs, Lisa M McShane
Omics technologies that generate a large amount of molecular data characterizing biospecimens have the potential to provide information about patients' disease characteristics above and beyond standard clinical features. By combining information from a large number of features into a multivariable model, called a biomarker signature, there is the opportunity to identify distinct subgroups of patients for whom treatment decisions can be personalized. The key challenge is to derive a signature with good performance and appropriately characterize its performance...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Howard L Kaufman, Lisa H Butterfield, Pierre G Coulie, Sandra Demaria, Robert L Ferris, Jérôme Galon, Samir N Khleif, Ira Mellman, Pamela S Ohashi, Willem W Overwijk, Suzanne L Topalian, Francesco M Marincola
The Common Rule is a set of ethical principles that provide guidance on the management of human subjects taking part in biomedical and behavioral research in the United States. The elements of the Common Rule were initially developed in 1981 following a revision of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1975. Most academic facilities follow the Common Rule in the regulation of clinical trials research. Recently, the government has suggested a revision of the Common Rule to include more contemporary and streamlined oversight of clinical research...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Stacey Pereira, Jill Oliver Robinson, Amy L McGuire
Advances in genomic technology make possible the large-scale collection of genomic data for research purposes. Many international initiatives seek to collect genomic data on large populations, often relying on existing collections to populate their databases. As these efforts progress, the debate over whether or not to return individual genetic research results to study participants remains an area of much contention. Some recommend returning results to participants only if the issue was addressed in the original study consent form...
November 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Eliezer M Van Allen, Dan Robinson, Colm Morrissey, Colin Pritchard, Alma Imamovic, Scott Carter, Mara Rosenberg, Aaron McKenna, Yi-Mi Wu, Xuhong Cao, Arul Chinnaiyan, Levi Garraway, Peter S Nelson
Advances in next generation sequencing technologies provide approaches to comprehensively determine genomic alterations within a tumor that occur as a cause or consequence of neoplastic growth. Though providers offering various cancer genomics assays have multiplied, the level of reproducibility in terms of the technical sensitivity and the conclusions resulting from the data analyses have not been assessed.We sought to determine the reproducibility of ascertaining tumor genome aberrations using whole exome sequencing (WES) and RNAseq...
August 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Mukesh Verma
This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry...
April 27, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Morwena J Solivio, Rebekah Less, Mathew L Rynes, Marcus Kramer, Alptekin Aksan
Despite abundant research conducted on cancer biomarker discovery and validation, to date, less than two-dozen biomarkers have been approved by the FDA for clinical use. One main reason is attributed to inadvertent use of low quality biospecimens in biomarker research. Most proteinaceous biomarkers are extremely susceptible to pre-analytical factors such as collection, processing, and storage. For example, cryogenic storage imposes very harsh chemical, physical, and mechanical stresses on biospecimens, significantly compromising sample quality...
April 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lue Ping Zhao, Hamid Bolouri
Maturing omics technologies enable researchers to generate high dimension omics data (HDOD) routinely in translational clinical studies. In the field of oncology, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provided funding support to researchers to generate different types of omics data on a common set of biospecimens with accompanying clinical data and has made the data available for the research community to mine. One important application, and the focus of this manuscript, is to build predictive models for prognostic outcomes based on HDOD...
April 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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