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Tissue Preparation techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809829/horizontal-whole-mount-a-novel-processing-and-imaging-protocol-for-thick-three-dimensional-tissue-cross-sections-of-skin
#1
Lucia Salz, Ryan R Driskell
Processing a tissue of interest to generate a microscopic image that supports a scientific argument can be challenging. The acquisition of high-quality microscopic images is not entirely dependent upon the quality of the microscope, but also upon the methods of tissue processing, which often involve multiple critical actions or steps. Furthermore, mesenchymal cell types in the skin and other tissues represent a new challenge for tissue preparation and imaging. Here, we present a complete process, from tissue harvest to microscopy...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808996/preparation-and-immunoaffinity-depletion-of-fresh-frozen-tissue-homogenates-for-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-in-the-context-of-drug-target-biomarker-discovery
#2
DaRue A Prieto, King C Chan, Donald J Johann, Xiaoying Ye, Gordon Whitely, Josip Blonder
The discovery of novel drug targets and biomarkers via mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis of clinical specimens has proven to be challenging. The wide dynamic range of protein concentration in clinical specimens and the high background/noise originating from highly abundant proteins in tissue homogenates and serum/plasma encompass two major analytical obstacles. Immunoaffinity depletion of highly abundant blood-derived proteins from serum/plasma is a well-established approach adopted by numerous researchers; however, the utilization of this technique for immunodepletion of tissue homogenates obtained from fresh frozen clinical specimens is lacking...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806996/improved-passive-catheter-tracking-with-positive-contrast-for-cmr-guided-cardiac-catheterization-using-partial-saturation-psat
#3
Mari Nieves Velasco Forte, Kuberan Pushparajah, Tobias Schaeffter, Israel Valverde Perez, Kawal Rhode, Bram Ruijsink, Mazen Alhrishy, Nicholas Byrne, Amedeo Chiribiri, Tevfik Ismail, Tarique Hussain, Reza Razavi, Sébastien Roujol
BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization is a common procedure in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Although cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) represents a promising alternative approach to fluoroscopy guidance, simultaneous high contrast visualization of catheter, soft tissue and the blood pool remains challenging. In this study, a novel passive tracking technique is proposed for enhanced positive contrast visualization of gadolinium-filled balloon catheters using partial saturation (pSAT) magnetization preparation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805140/a-rat-model-for-the-in-vivo-assessment-of-biological-and-tissue-engineered-valvular-and-vascular-grafts
#4
Yukiharu Sugimura, Anna Kathrin Schmidt, Artur Lichtenberg, Alexander Assmann, Payam Akhyari
The demand for an improvement of the biocompatibility and durability of vascular and valvular implants requires translational animal models to study the in vivo fate of cardiovascular grafts. In the present article, a review on the development and application of a microsurgical rat model of infrarenal implantation of aortic grafts and aortic valved conduits is provided. By refinement of surgical techniques and inclusion of hemodynamic considerations, a functional model has been created, which provides a modular platform for the in vivo assessment of biological and tissue-engineered grafts...
August 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799956/peripheral-blunt-dissection-using-a-microhoe-facilitated-method-for-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-donor-tissue-preparation
#5
Armand M Borovik, Mauricio Perez, Tova Lifshitz, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Nir Sorkin, Tanguy Boutin, Mahmood Showail, Amir Rosenblatt, David S Rootman
PURPOSE: To describe a modified technique for Descemet membrane donor tissue preparation that facilitates the original Melles stripping technique. METHODS: Descemet membrane is prepared using a Rootman/Goldich modified Sloane microhoe, using a blunt instrument as opposed to a sharp blade or needle and begins dissection within the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular tissue is dissected for 360 degrees, and then Descemet membrane is stripped to approximately 50%. A skin biopsy punch is then used to create fenestration in the cornea, which is used to mark an "F...
August 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796234/electron-microscopy-using-the-genetically-encoded-apex2-tag-in-cultured-mammalian-cells
#6
Jeffrey D Martell, Thomas J Deerinck, Stephanie S Lam, Mark H Ellisman, Alice Y Ting
Electron microscopy (EM) is the premiere technique for high-resolution imaging of cellular ultrastructure. Unambiguous identification of specific proteins or cellular compartments in electron micrographs, however, remains challenging because of difficulties in delivering electron-dense contrast agents to specific subcellular targets within intact cells. We recently reported enhanced ascorbate peroxidase 2 (APEX2) as a broadly applicable genetic tag that generates EM contrast on a specific protein or subcellular compartment of interest...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792863/addition-of-insulin-to-parenteral-nutrition-for-control-of-hyperglycemia
#7
Adam McCulloch, Vishakha Bansiya, Jeremy M Woodward
Administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) may result in hyperglycemia in patients with preexisting diabetes or disease-related insulin resistance, and it can be associated with increased rates of complications. Treatment requires insulin therapy. Insulin can be administered subcutaneously, intravenously via a variable rate sliding scale, or by adding it directly to the PN. The last method is a potentially attractive technique for a number of reasons-it could deliver the insulin intravenously at a steady rate alongside carbohydrates, and in malnourished patients with little subcutaneous tissue, it may prevent the need for frequent insulin injections...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792626/advanced-three-dimensional-culture-of-equine-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#8
A Stieler Stewart, J M Freund, L M Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. OBJECTIVES: To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities...
August 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778063/coaxial-electrospun-pcl-gelatin-ma-fibers-as-scaffolds-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#9
P Coimbra, P Santos, P Alves, Sónia P Miguel, Marco P Carvalho, Kevin D de Sá, I J Correia, P Ferreira
Coaxial electrospinning is a technique that allows the production of nanofibers with a core-shell structure. Such fibers present several advantages as materials for the preparation of scaffolds, namely due to the possibility of combining a core with the desired mechanical properties with a shell prepared from biocompatible materials that will establish proper interactions with the host. Herein, core-shell fibrous meshes, composed of a polycaprolactone (PCL) core and a functionalized gelatin shell, were prepared by coaxial electrospinning and then photocrosslinked under UV light aiming to be used in vascular tissue regeneration...
July 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777137/natural-compounds-for-skin-tissue-engineering-by-electrospinning-of-nylon-beta-vulgaris
#10
Parviz Ranjbarvan, Matin Mahmoudifard, Mousa Kehtari, Ali Babaie, Shokoh Hamedi, Samaneh Mirzaei, Masoud Soleimani, Simzar Hosseinzadeh
Natural compounds containing polysaccharide ingredients have been employed as candidates for treatment of skin tissue. Herein, for the first time, electrospinning setup was proposed to fabricate an efficient composite nanofibrous structure of Beta vulgaris (obtained from Beet [Chenopodiaceae or Amaranthaceae]) belonged to polysaccharides and an elastic polymer named nylon 66 for skin tissue engineering. Both prepared scaffolds including noncomposite and composite types were studied by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical assay, and contact angle...
August 2, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776693/a-comparison-of-tracheal-scaffold-strategies-for-pediatric-transplantation-in-a-rabbit-model
#11
Elizabeth F Maughan, Colin R Butler, Claire Crowley, Gui Zhen Teoh, Margot Den Hondt, Nicholas J Hamilton, Robert E Hynds, Peggy Lange, Tahera Ansari, Luca Urbani, Samuel M Janes, Paolo De Coppi, Martin A Birchall, Martin J Elliott
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Despite surgical advances, childhood tracheal stenosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Various tracheal scaffold strategies have been developed as the basis for bioengineered substitutes, but there is no consensus on which may be superior in vivo. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in morbidity and mortality between three competing scaffold strategies in rabbits. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot preclinical study. METHODS: Tracheal scaffolds were prepared by three methods that have been applied clinically and reported: preserved cadaveric ("Herberhold") allografts, detergent-enzymatically decellularized allografts, and synthetic scaffolds (nanocomposite polymer [polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU)])...
August 4, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773189/evaluation-of-3d-printed-polycaprolactone-scaffolds-coated-with-freeze-dried-platelet-rich-plasma-for-bone-regeneration
#12
Junda Li, Meilin Chen, Xiaoying Wei, Yishan Hao, Jinming Wang
Three-dimensional printing is one of the most promising techniques for the manufacturing of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. However, a pure scaffold is limited by its biological properties. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to have the potential to improve the osteogenic effect. In this study, we improved the biological properties of scaffolds by coating 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with freeze-dried and traditionally prepared PRP, and we evaluated these scaffolds through in vitro and in vivo experiments...
July 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772890/biomaterials-and-tissue-biomechanics-a-match-made-in-heaven
#13
EDITORIAL
Amir A Zadpoor
Biomaterials and tissue biomechanics have been traditionally separate areas of research with relatively little overlap in terms of methodological approaches. Recent advances in both fields on the one hand and developments in fabrication techniques and design approaches on the other have prepared the ground for joint research efforts by both communities. Additive manufacturing and rational design are examples of the revolutionary fabrication techniques and design methodologies that could facilitate more intimate collaboration between biomaterial scientists and biomechanists...
May 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771375/recent-development-and-biomedical-applications-of-self-healing-hydrogels
#14
Yinan Wang, Christian K Adokoh, Ravin Narain
Hydrogels are of special importance, owing to their high-water content and various applications in biomedical and bio-engineering research. Self-healing properties is a common phenomenon in living organisms. Their endowed property of being able to self-repair after physical/chemical/mechanical damage to fully or partially its original properties demonstrates their prospective therapeutic applications. Due to complicated preparation and selection of suitable materials, the application of many host-guest supramolecular polymeric hydrogels are so limited...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768230/thermal-stress-analysis-of-ceramic-laminate-veneer-restorations-with-different-incisal-preparations-using-micro-computed-tomography-based-3d-finite-element-models
#15
Alper Tunga Celebi, Esra Icer, Meltem Mert Eren, Cengiz Baykasoglu, Ata Mugan, Esra Yildiz
Main objective of this study is to investigate the thermal behavior of ceramic laminate veneer restorations of the maxillary central incisor with different incisal preparations such as butt joint and palatinal chamfer using finite element method. In addition, it is also aimed to understand the effect of different thermal loads which simulates hot and cold liquid imbibing in the mouth. Three-dimensional solid models of the sound tooth and prepared veneer restorations were obtained using micro-computed tomography images...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764853/a-revised-method-for-the-preparation-of-dry-bone-samples-used-in-histological-examination-five-simple-steps
#16
J G García-Donas, A Dalton, I Chaplin, E F Kranioti
Histology of dry bone tissue has many scientific applications. The histological analysis of bone requires the production of good quality thin sections. Many researchers have developed new histological techniques and/or they have refined existing ones. In this paper, we describe a revision of histological techniques for obtaining thin sections from modern dry bone. The method is easy to apply and the equipment required is commonly found in a histology laboratory. In comparison to other techniques presented in the literature, this adapted method reduces the number of consumables and steps, thereby improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the procedure...
July 15, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763610/bone-regeneration-by-means-of-a-three-dimensional-printed-scaffold-in-a-rat-cranial-defect
#17
Doo Yeon Kwon, Ji Hoon Park, So Hee Jang, Joon Yeong Park, Ju Woong Jang, Byoung Hyun Min, Wan-Doo Kim, Hai Bang Lee, Junhee Lee, Moon Suk Kim
Recently, computer-designed three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques have emerged as an active research area with almost unlimited possibilities. In this study, we used a computer-designed 3D scaffold to drive new bone formation in a bone defect. Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and bioactive β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were simply mixed to prepare ink. PLLA+TCP showed good printability from the micronozzle and solidification within few seconds, indicating that it was indeed printable ink for layer-by-layer printing...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763195/immunohistochemistry-microarrays
#18
Huiyan Li, Gabrielle Brewer, Grant Ongo, Frédéric Normandeau, Atilla Omeroglu, David Juncker
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue sections is widely used for quantifying the expression patterns of proteins and is part of the standard of care for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, but is limited to staining a single protein per tissue. Tissue microarray and microfluidics staining methods have emerged as powerful high throughput techniques, but either only permit the analysis of a single protein per slide, or require complex instrumentation and expertise while only staining isolated areas. Here, we introduce IHC microarrays (IHCµA) for multiplexed staining of intact tissues with preserved histological and spatial information...
August 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762960/zinc-and-strontium-based-phosphate-glass-beads-a-novel-material-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#19
Mustafa Alqaysi, Alaa Aldaadaa, Nicky Mordan, Rishma Shah, Jonathan C Knowles
Degradable phosphate-based glasses that contain strontium, zinc and calcium were investigated to examine its function as an osteoconductive material. Glass beads of the general formula of (P2O5)-(Na2O)-(TiO2)-(CaO)-(SrO) or (ZnO) were prepared by melt quench technique followed by milling and spheroidisation. Glass bead size distribution was initially measured by SEM. Then, some of these samples were immersed in deionized water to evaluate both the surface changes and measure the ion release rate, whereas other glass beads samples were incubated in culture media to determine pH changes...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762869/endocultivation-of-scaffolds-with-rhbmp-2-and-vegf165-in-the-omentum-majus-in-a-rabbit-model
#20
Falk Birkenfeld, Andre Sengebusch, Chiara Voelschow, Hendrik Naujokat, Björn Möller, Henning Wieker, Joerg Wiltfang
The reconstruction of defects in the mandible are still challenging. Despite several adequate microvascular bone reconstruction techniques there is a need for ectopic bone endocultivation without drawbacks by donor site morbidity. The omentum majus is described as a good vascularized fleece with undifferentiated cells with potential for bone culturing. In the omentum majus of six rabbits two hydroxyapatite blocks were incorporated for 12 weeks each. The blocks were prepared with rhBMP-2 or VEGF165+rhBMP-2 and wrapped into the omentum...
August 1, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
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