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Tissue Preparation techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435449/zero-order-controlled-release-of-bmp2-derived-peptide-p24-from-the-chitosan-scaffold-by-chemical-grafting-modification-technique-for-promotion-of-osteogenesis-in-vitro-and-enhancement-of-bone-repair-in-vivo
#1
Yan Chen, Xujie Liu, Rui Liu, Yong Gong, Mingbo Wang, Qianli Huang, Qingling Feng, Bo Yu
Combination of tissue-engineered bone scaffolds with cell-adhesive, osteoconductive, or osteoinductive biomolecules is a critical strategy to improve their properties that significantly influence cellular behaviors, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, which is beneficial for critical-sized bone defects repairing. However, the traditional surface modification techniques, such as physical adsorption, coating, and plasma treatment, et al, have great limitations for immobilization of bioactive molecules due to undesirable controlled delivery performance or overly complex multistep procedures...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428689/experimental-validation-of-antidiabetic-potential-of-cayratia-trifolia-l-domin-an-indigenous-medicinal-plant
#2
Shahid Iqbal Mohammed, Narendra Subhash Salunkhe, Kishor Sukhlal Vishwakarma, Vijay Laxminarayan Maheshwari
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Cayratia trifolia root extract against streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental rats to scientifically validate its use against diabetes in some parts of India. Ethanolic extract, showing the highest activity in in vitro experiments, was prepared in saline and administered orally to streptozotocin induced albino Wistar diabetic rats for 21 days. Biochemical parameters liver and muscles glycogen and in vivo antioxidant activity in normal, diabetic control, standard (metformin) and treated animals were determined and compared...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418454/an-indirect-indentation-method-for-evaluating-the-linear-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-brain-tissue
#3
Aref Samadi-Dooki, George Z Voyiadjis, Rhett W Stout
Indentation experiments offer a robust, fast, and repeatable testing method for evaluating the mechanical properties of solid state materials in a wide stiffness range. With the advantage of requiring a minimal sample preparation and multiple tests on a small piece of specimen, this method has recently become a popular technique for measuring the elastic properties of the biological materials, especially the brain tissue whose ultra-soft nature makes its mechanical characterization very challenging. Nevertheless, some limitations are associated with the indentation of the brain tissue, such as improper surface detection, negative initial contact force due to tip-tissue moisture interaction, partial contact between the tip and the sample, etc...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417373/a-rapid-procedure-for-the-purification-of-8-aminopyrene-trisulfonate-apts-labeled-glycans-for-capillary-electrophoresis-ce-based-enzyme-assays
#4
Hayden J Danyluk, Leona K Shum, Wesley F Zandberg
Purified glycan standards are required for glycan arrays, characterizing substrate specificities of glycan-active enzymes, and to serve as retention-time or mobility standards for various separation techniques. This chapter describes a method for the rapid separation, and subsequent desalting, of glycans labeled with the highly fluorescent fluorophore 8-aminopyrene 1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS). By using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) on polyacrylamide gels, which utilizes equipment readily available in most molecular biology laboratories, many APTS-labeled glycans can be simultaneously resolved...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415497/modeling-and-optimization-of-gelatin-chitosan-micro-carriers-preparation-for-soft-tissue-engineering-using-response-surface-methodology
#5
Payam Radaei, Shohreh Mashayekhan, Saeid Vakilian
Electrospray ionization is a wide spread technique for producing polymeric microcarriers (MCs) by applying electrostatic force and ionic cross-linker, simultaneously. In this study, fabrication process of gelatin-chitosan MCs and its optimization using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is reported. Gelatin/chitosan (G/C) blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate, their individual and interaction effects on the diameter and mechanical strength of the MCs were investigated. The obtained models for diameter and mechanical strength of MCs have a quadratic relationship with G/C blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415475/novel-non-cytotoxic-bioactive-and-biodegradable-hybrid-materials-based-on-polyurethanes-tio2-for-biomedical-applications
#6
Dulce M González-García, L Téllez Jurado, R Jiménez-Gallegos, Luis M Rodríguez-Lorenzo
Titanium compounds have demonstrated great interfacial properties with biological tissues whereas a wide variety of polyurethanes have also been successfully probed in medical applications. However, studies about hybrids based on polyurethanes/TiO2 for medical applications are scarce. The aim of this work is to design novel biodegradable hybrid materials based on polyurethanes/TiO2 (80% organic-20% inorganic) and to perform a preliminary study of the potential applications in bone regeneration. The hybrids have been prepared by a sol-gel reaction using titanium isopropoxide as precursor of the inorganic component and polyurethane as the organic one...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413748/thiamine-assays-advances-challenges-and-caveats
#7
REVIEW
Katie A Edwards, Nicole Tu-Maung, Krystal Cheng, Binbin Wang, Antje J Baeumner, Clifford E Kraft
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of all living organisms and deficiency has long been associated with diseases in animals such as fish, birds, alligators, and domesticated ruminant mammals. Thiamine is also implicated in several human diseases including Alzheimer's, diabetes, dementia, depression and, most notably, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Beriberi disease. Yet, highly sensitive and specific detection of thiamine remains an analytical challenge, as pM to nm levels of thiamine need to be detected in environmental and human samples, respectively, various phosphorylated variants need to be discriminated, and rapid on-site detection would be highly desirable...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411354/preventing-the-complications-associated-with-the-use-of-dermal-fillers-in-facial-aesthetic-procedures-an-expert-group-consensus-report
#8
REVIEW
Fernando Urdiales-Gálvez, Nuria Escoda Delgado, Vitor Figueiredo, José V Lajo-Plaza, Mar Mira, Francisco Ortíz-Martí, Rosa Del Rio-Reyes, Nazaret Romero-Álvarez, Sofía Ruiz Del Cueto, María A Segurado, Cristina Villanueva Rebenaque
BACKGROUND: The use of dermal fillers in minimally invasive facial aesthetic procedures has become increasingly popular of late, yet as the indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications is also likely to increase. Paying special attention to specific patient characteristics and to the technique used can do much to avoid these complications. Indeed, a well-trained physician can also minimize the impact of such problems when they do occur. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of experts in aesthetic treatments reviewed the main factors associated with the complications that arise when using dermal fillers...
April 14, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409571/-getting-an-insight-into-the-brain-new-optical-clearing-techniques-and-imaging-using-light-sheet-microscope
#9
Monika Pawłowska, Diana Legutko, Marzena Stefaniuk
One of the biggest challenges in neuroscience is to understand how brain operates. For this, it would be the best to image the whole brain with at least cellular resolution, preserving the three-dimensional structure in order to capture the connections between different areas. Most currently available high-resolution imaging techniques are based on preparing thin brain sections that are next photographed one by one and subsequently bigger structures are reconstructed. These techniques are laborious and create artifacts...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405375/a-modified-nanosuit%C3%A2-preserves-wet-samples-in-high-vacuum-direct-observations-on-cells-and-tissues-in-field-emission-scanning-electron-microscopy
#10
Yasuharu Takaku, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Ohta, Daisuke Ishii, Satoshi Hirakawa, Takami Tsutsui, Haruko Matsumoto, Sayuri Takehara, Chinatsu Nakane, Kana Sakaida, Chiaki Suzuki, Yoshinori Muranaka, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Konno, Masatsugu Shimomura, Takahiko Hariyama
Although field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) has proven very useful in biomedical research, the high vacuum required (10(-3) to 10(-7) Pa) precludes direct observations of living cells and tissues at high resolution and often produces unwanted structural changes. We have previously described a method that allows the investigator to keep a variety of insect larvae alive in the high vacuum environment of the electron microscope by encasing the organisms in a thin, vacuum-proof suit, the 'NanoSuit®'...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401523/injection-of-pharmaceuticals-designed-for-oral-use-harms-experienced-and-effective-harm-reduction-through-filtration
#11
Stuart McLean, Rahul Patel, Raimondo Bruno
Several pharmaceutical products are liable to 'abuse' or use outside their prescription, which frequently involves their injection. Examples are slow-release forms of morphine and oxycodone, and sublingual buprenorphine. During injection preparation, the drug is extracted into water, after crushing and heating the tablet if considered necessary. Since these products are designed for oral administration, they can contain excipients (ingredients other than the drug) which are poorly soluble, resulting in suspension of particles in the injection solution...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397668/-topical-haemostatic-agents-in-neurosurgery
#12
Jon Foss-Skiftesvik, Rachid Bech-Azeddine
Haemostasis is of fundamental significance in neurosurgery, and insufficient control of bleeding is associated with morbidity and mortality. Topical haemostatic agents play an important role, as the characteristics of neuronal tissue limit the use of classical surgical haemostasis techniques. Appropriate choice of agent depends on the location and type of bleeding, but also on knowledge of the products' mechanisms of action, indications, price and accessibility. Biological products are superior to the mechanical in efficacy but require more preparation and are significantly more cost-intensive...
January 30, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397427/the-analysis-of-cytotoxicity-of-an-experimental-preparation-used-for-the-reduction-of-dentin-hypersensitivity
#13
Marta Tanasiewicz, Małgorzata Skucha-Nowak, Mirosław Gibas, Justyna Pawlak, Włodzimierz Więckiewicz, Anna Mertas, Wojciech Król
BACKGROUND: The problem of effective treatment of dentin hypersensitivity is still valid and not fully resolved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential toxicity against body tissues of an experimental preparation which is supposed to reduce dentin hypersensitivity and to compare it to a commercial formulation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) by means of measuring the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases (the MTT assay). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study used an original protective formulation which is supposed to eliminate hypersensitivity of dentin...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394544/fibrin-gel-as-a-scaffold-for-skin-substitute-production-and-clinical-experience
#14
(no author information available yet)
The purpose of this study was to create a fibrin-based human skin substitute in vitro with epidermal and dermal component and to assess its healing potential in deep partial and full thickness burns. Fibrin scaff olds were prepared from commercial fibrin glue kits. Human fibroblasts were cultured in fibrin gel. Human keratinocytes were seeded on the top of the gel. Viability of cells was determined fluorimetrically. Scanning electron microscope and immunocytochemistry analysis of cultured cells were performed...
June 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393929/an-elegant-analysis-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-using-a-graphene-oxide-methylene-blue-based-electrochemical-immunosensor-platform
#15
Anusha Natarajan, K S Shalini Devi, Sudhakaran Raja, Annamalai Senthil Kumar
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389072/the-characteristics-of-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-polycaprolactone-3-dimensional-scaffold-with-osteogenesis-properties-for-tissue-regeneration
#16
Yung-Cheng Chiu, Hsin-Yuan Fang, Tuan-Ti Hsu, Cheng-Yao Lin, Ming-You Shie
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mineral trioxide aggregate/polycaprolactone (MTA/PCL) hybrid 3-dimensional (3D) scaffold supplies a suitable microenvironment for the osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) and to further consider the effect of the MTA/PCL composite on the biological performance of hybrid scaffolds. METHODS: MTA was suspended in absolute alcohol and dropped slowly into PCL that was generated with the printable MTA-matrix...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387992/influence-of-post-space-preparation-on-the-apical-leakage-of-calamus-single-cone-and-cold-lateral-condensation-obturation-techniques-a-computerized-fluid-filtration-study
#17
Zeynep Özkurt-Kayahan, Güher Barut, Zuhal Ulusoy, Hasan Oruçoğlu, Mehmet Baybora Kayahan, Ender Kazazoğlu, Faruk Haznedaroğlu
PURPOSE: Apical microleakage between the root canal and periapical tissues is considered a common cause of endodontic failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical microleakage of various obturation techniques after immediate post space preparations with different drills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty human single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. The coronal portions were removed to achieve a uniform length of 15 mm. All root canals were instrumented with ProTaper Next rotary files using crown-down technique...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386392/roadmap-on-neurophotonics
#18
Yong Ku Cho, Guoan Zheng, George J Augustine, Daniel Hochbaum, Adam Cohen, Thomas Knöpfel, Ferruccio Pisanello, Francesco S Pavone, Ivo M Vellekoop, Martin J Booth, Song Hu, Jiang Zhu, Zhongping Chen, Yoko Hoshi
Mechanistic understanding of how the brain gives rise to complex behavioral and cognitive functions is one of science's grand challenges. The technical challenges that we face as we attempt to gain a systems-level understanding of the brain are manifold. The brain's structural complexity requires us to push the limit of imaging resolution and depth, while being able to cover large areas, resulting in enormous data acquisition and processing needs. Furthermore, it is necessary to detect functional activities and 'map' them onto the structural features...
September 2016: Journal of Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384401/computational-approach-to-measuring-myocyte-disarray-in-animal-models-of-heart-disease
#19
William Wan, Leslie Leinwand
In cardiovascular disease research, studies often include measuring cardiac function and performing histological examination of heart tissue. After measuring contractility, hearts from animals such as mice and rats are often frozen or fixed, sliced, and stained to quantify the morphology of various structures such as extracellular matrix proteins, cell nuclei, and F-actin. Traditional scoring methods have largely consisted of assessing sections of images for the presence or absence of myocyte disarray. These approaches require unbiased manual assessment, which can require extra personnel, and are not scalable to the quantity of data that can be generated by modern automated experimental techniques...
April 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378568/rapid-prototyping-technology-and-its-application-in-bone-tissue-engineering
#20
Bo Yuan, Sheng-Yuan Zhou, Xiong-Sheng Chen
Bone defects arising from a variety of reasons cannot be treated effectively without bone tissue reconstruction. Autografts and allografts have been used in clinical application for some time, but they have disadvantages. With the inherent drawback in the precision and reproducibility of conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, the results of bone surgery may not be ideal. This is despite the introduction of bone tissue engineering which provides a powerful approach for bone repair. Rapid prototyping technologies have emerged as an alternative and have been widely used in bone tissue engineering, enhancing bone tissue regeneration in terms of mechanical strength, pore geometry, and bioactive factors, and overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional technologies...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
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