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Tissue Preparation techniques

Yasushi Takata, Junsuke Nakase, Takeshi Oshima, Kengo Shimozaki, Kazuki Asai, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
INTRODUCTION: We developed a novel technique of creating a rounded rectangular femoral bone tunnel for anatomical, single-bundle, autologous hamstring tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although this tunnel has many advantages, its non-circular shape has raised concerns regarding excessive graft shift within the bone tunnel. This study aimed to compare the graft shift between round and rounded rectangular tunnels using a graft diameter tester for simulating the femoral bone tunnel...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Dipti Rai, Swagata Dey, Krishanu Ray
BACKGROUND: Synapse density is an essential indicator of development and functioning of the central nervous system. It is estimated indirectly through the accumulation of pre and postsynaptic proteins in tissue sections. 3D reconstruction of the electron microscopic images in serial sections is one of the most definitive means of estimating the formation of active synapses in the brain. It is tedious and highly skill-dependent. Confocal imaging of whole mounts or thick sections of the brain provides a natural alternative for rapid gross estimation of the synapse density in large areas...
May 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Gerardo Pellegrino, Achille Tarsitano, Valerio Taraschi, Tomaso Vercellotti, Claudio Marchetti
Zygomatic implant site preparation could be considered a challenging procedure because of the use of a very long twist drill that could sometimes be difficult to control due to the need for drilling the malar bone on an oblique surface. Ultrasound was recently suggested to achieve better control, but the specific long tips required are not readily available, and the elongated tip also tends to reduce the efficacy. This technical note describes a proposal of a novel computer-aided technique to simplify the procedure of zygomatic implant site preparation...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Federico Mussano, Tullio Genova, Marco Laurenti, Elisa Zicola, Luca Munaron, Paola Rivolo, Pietro Mandracci, Stefano Carossa
PURPOSE: This research aimed to assess whether pink-shaded anodized surfaces could enhance the adhesion of soft tissue cells compared with untreated machined titanium surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of Ti-Al-V titanium samples were prepared: machined titanium (Ti) and anodized titanium (AnoTi). The microstructure was studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out as well. The wetting properties were investigated by the sessile drop technique with water and diiodomethane...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Lorenzo Tavelli, Shayan Barootchi, Trang V N Nguyen, Mustafa Tattan, Andrea Ravidà, Hom-Lay Wang
BACKGROUND: Tunnel technique (TUN) has recently gained popularity among clinicians for its promising clinical and esthetic results when treating gingival recessions (GRs) defects. However, the evidence of the efficacy of TUN in the literature is still to be determined. Therefore, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the predictability of TUN and its comparison to coronally advanced flap (CAF) procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search on PubMed, Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, and hand-searched journals until November 2017 was conducted to identify clinical studies investigating TUN for root coverage procedures...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Berin A Boughton, Dinaiz Thinagaran
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a developing technique to measure the spatiotemporal distribution of many biomolecules in tissues. Over the preceding decade MSI has been adopted by plant biologists and applied in a broad range of areas including: primary metabolism, natural products, plant defense, plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress, plant lipids, and the developing field of spatial metabolomics. This methods chapter covers preparation of plant tissues for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, including sample embedding and freezing, sectioning, mounting, and matrix deposition using both sublimation and spray deposition prior to MSI analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Thusitha W T Rupasinghe, Ute Roessner
Lipids are defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic small molecules which consist of a number of structurally and functionally distinct molecules that span from nonpolar to neutral to polar compounds. Lipidomics is the comprehensive analysis of all lipids in a biological system. Changes in lipid metabolism and composition, as well as of distinct lipid species have been linked with altered plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses including salinity. Recently, improved liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based techniques have provided the rapid expansion of lipidomics research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiyong Huang, Michael D Protheroe, Ahmed M Al-Jumaily, Sharad P Paul, Andrew N Chalmers
Immigration and epidemiological studies provide evidence indicating the correlation of high ultraviolet exposure during childhood and increased risks of melanoma in later life. While the explanation of this phenomenon has not been found in the skin, a class of hair has been hypothesized to be involved in this process by transmitting sufficient ultraviolet rays along the hair shaft to possibly cause damage to the stem cells in the hair follicle, ultimately resulting in melanoma in later life. First, the anatomy of hair and its possible contribution to melanoma development, and the tissue optical properties are briefly introduced to provide the necessary background...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Bingjun Zhang, Hongyu Li, Lei He, Zhiwei Han, Teng Zhou, Wei Zhi, Xiaobo Lu, Xiong Lu, Jie Weng
In the process of bone regeneration, relatively early biological events including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, or stem cell homing, help the accompanying target actions of cell differentiation and calcification. Herein, we proposed a novel cell-guided tissue engineering system based on a surface-functionalized porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with the ability to recruit cells and accelerate the differentiation of them along the osteoblastic lineage for optimizing large-sized bone defect repair. Inspired by microstructural properties of natural bone, HA scaffolds similar to the trabecular bone structure were prepared via a sugar sphere leaching technique, in which the inter-pore opening size was controllable...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ziba Naghizadeh, Akbar Karkhaneh, Arash Khojasteh
Injectable in situ forming hydrogels has great potential in tissue engineering. Simple and easy preparation of these hydrogels with low toxicity and stability is a great advantage. In the present study, two types of self-crosslinking in situ forming alginate based hydrogels with different formulation were synthesized, characterized and compared in order to introduce an optimal injectable scaffold in minimally invasive applications in tissue engineering. To this end, the hydrogels consist of oxidized alginate (AD), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) or gelatin (GEL) was synthesized...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Sadia Sharmeen, A F M Mustafizur Rahman, Mostakima M Lubna, Kh Samaher Salem, Rafiqul Islam, Mubarak A Khan
This research work blooms the new idea of developing a safe and controlled drug releasing matrix using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In aqueous solution, uniform and highly stable dispersion of MWCNTs was obtained after secondary functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) which was studied by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Solution casting method was used to prepare MWCNTs/gelatin-chitosan nanocomposite films and the effect of MWCNTs on physico-mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated...
September 2018: Bioactive Materials
Ming Li, Pan Xiong, Feng Yan, Sijie Li, Changhong Ren, Zhichen Yin, Ang Li, Huafang Li, Xunming Ji, Yufeng Zheng, Yan Cheng
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an attractive bioceramic for hard tissue repair and regeneration due to its physicochemical similarities to natural apatite. However, its low fracture toughness, poor tensile strength and weak wear resistance become major obstacles for potential clinical applications. One promising method to tackle with these problems is exploiting graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) as nanoscale reinforcement fillers to fabricate graphene-based hydroxyapatite composites in the form of powders, coatings and scaffolds...
March 2018: Bioactive Materials
Saeed Moeini, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Abdolreza Simchi
The interest in biodegradable polymer-matrix nanocomposites with bone regeneration potential has been increasing in recent years. In the present work, a solvothermal process is introduced to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorod-reinforced polycaprolactone in-situ . A non-aqueous polymer solution containing calcium and phosphorous precursors is prepared and processed in a closed autoclave at different temperatures in the range of 60-150 °C. Hydroxyapatite nanorods with varying aspect ratios are formed depending on the processing temperature...
September 2017: Bioactive Materials
Touseef Amna
At present, hydroxyapatite is being frequently used for diverse biomedical applications as it possesses excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to recycle bone waste for synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to be used as bone extracellular matrix. For this reason, we for the first time utilized bio-waste of cow bones of Albaha city. The residual bones were utilized for the extraction of natural bone precursor hydroxyapatite. A facile scientific technique has been used to synthesize hydroxyapatite nanoparticles through calcinations of wasted cow bones without further supplementation of chemicals/compounds...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Lieven Pouillon, Valérie Laurent, Marc Pouillon, Peter Bossuyt, Christiana Bonifacio, Silvio Danese, Parakkal Deepak, Edward V Loftus, David H Bruining, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Cross-sectional MRI is an attractive alternative to endoscopy for the objective assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diffusion-weighted imaging is a specialised technique that maps the diffusion of water molecules in biological tissues and can be done without intravenous gadolinium contrast injection. Diffusion-weighted imaging further expands the capability of traditional MRI sequences in IBD. However, the use of quantitative parameters, such as the apparent diffusion coefficient, is limited by low reproducibility...
June 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohammad Enamul Haque, Bing Han, Bin Wang, Yue Wang, Aizhong Liu
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is usually a reliable technique to find the binding sites of a transcription factor. In the current study, we developed a suitable ChIP method using developing castor bean seeds. A castor bean seed with large and persistent endosperm contains high amounts of storage lipids (ca. 50-60%) and is often considered as a model material to studying seed biology. In oleaginous seeds, due to the rich oils which could seriously affect immunoprecipitation and DNA isolation, it is often difficult to carry out a successful ChIP experiment...
2018: PloS One
Anastasiya Svirkova, Anna Turyanskaya, Lukas Perneczky, Christina Streli, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI MSI) is a technique that provides localized information on intact molecules in a sample. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) imaging allows the examination of the spatial distribution of elements in a sample without any morphological changes. These methods have already been applied separately to different tissues, organs, plants and bacterial films, but, to the best of our knowledge, they have yet to be coupled in a multimodal analysis...
May 8, 2018: Analyst
Anders Palmquist
Osseointegrated implants are frequently used in reconstructive surgery, both in the dental and orthopedic field, restoring physical function and improving the quality of life for the patients. The bone anchorage is typically evaluated at micrometer resolution, while bone tissue is a dynamic composite material composed of nanoscale collagen fibrils and apatite crystals, with defined hierarchical levels at different length scales. In order to understand the bone formation and the ultrastructure of the interfacial tissue, analytical strategies needs to be implemented enabling multiscale and multimodal analyses of the intact interface...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Sareen Sheik, Sana Sheik, Rajesha Nairy, G K Nagaraja, Ashwini Prabhu, P D Rekha, Kalappa Prashantha
The current study delineates the preparation of novel chitosan grafted silk fibre reinforced Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite films with desirable properties. Although silk fibroin has been extensively used for various biomedical applications, its properties could be further re-tailored for its suitability in the field of regenerative medicine. Chitosan was successfully grafted over silk, via acylation with succinic anhydride and thereby the fibres were incised and used for the preparation of the films...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tianxin Miao, Junqing Wang, Yun Zeng, Gang Liu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Polysaccharides or polymeric carbohydrate molecules are long chains of monosaccharides that are linked by glycosidic bonds. The naturally based structural materials are widely applied in biomedical applications. This article covers four different types of polysaccharides (i.e., alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, and dextran) and emphasizes their chemical modification, preparation approaches, preclinical studies, and clinical translations. Different cargo fabrication techniques are also presented in the third section...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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