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Tissue Preparation techniques

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087407/polymeric-micelles-for-ocular-drug-delivery-from-structural-frameworks-to-recent-preclinical-studies
#1
REVIEW
Abhirup Mandal, Rohit Bisht, Ilva D Rupenthal, Ashim K Mitra
Effective intraocular drug delivery poses a major challenge due to the presence of various elimination mechanisms and physiological barriers that result in low ocular bioavailability after topical application. Over the past decades, polymeric micelles have emerged as one of the most promising drug delivery platforms for the management of ocular diseases affecting the anterior (dry eye syndrome) and posterior (age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma) segments of the eye. Promising preclinical efficacy results from both in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies have led to their steady progression through clinical trials...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079697/infectious-loss-of-tissue-expanders-in-breast-reconstruction-are-we-treating-the-right-organisms
#2
Gabriel M Klein, Brett T Phillips, Alexander B Dagum, Duc T Bui, Sami U Khan
BACKGROUND: Postoperative infections following tissue expander-based breast reconstruction represent a significant threat to the reconstructive process. Studies have found the incidence to be as high as 29%. There has been abundant research into the risk factors associated with these infections, although very few studies have focused on the causative organisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bacterial flora associated with tissue expander infections after breast reconstruction...
February 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070600/transvaginal-sacrospinous-ligament-fixation-for-posthysterectomy-vaginal-vault-prolapse-repair
#3
Rodolfo Milani, Matteo Frigerio, Stefano Manodoro
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse repair is a challenge for urogynecologists. Surgical management can be successful with native tissue by the vaginal approach with sacrospinous ligament fixation. However, severe complications have been described, including nerve injury and life-threatening hemorrhage. METHODS: A 68-year-old woman with symptomatic stage III vaginal vault prolapse was admitted for transvaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation according to the described technique...
January 9, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070472/utilizing-the-veraflo%C3%A2-instillation-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-system-with-advanced-care-for-a-case-study
#4
Rita K Driver
BACKGROUND:  Mankind has always suffered wounds throughout time due to trauma, disease, and lifestyles. Many wounds are non-healing and have continued to be challenging. However, utilizing advanced wound care treatments, such as negative pressure wound treatment with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d), has proven beneficial. NPWTi-d is indicated in a variety of wounds, such as trauma, surgical, acute, pressure injuries, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous leg ulcers. Bacteria and bioburden interrupts wound healing by increasing the metabolic needs, ingesting, and robbing the necessary nutrients and oxygen...
November 30, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069420/the-authors-herby-confirm-that-this-manuscript-has-neither-been-published-nor-submitted-to-any-other-journal-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-neurosurgery-an-alternative-to-instantaneous-sections
#5
David Breuskin, Jacek Szczygielski, Steffi Urbschat, Yoo-Jin Kim, Joachim Oertel
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative distinction of brain tumor from the surround brain is one of the crucial challenges in neurooncological surgery. In this study, confocal laser endomicroscope (CLE) findings were directly compared with intraoperative instantaneous sections by the neuropathologist in a blinded fashion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The imaging device comprises of a rigid endoscope with Hopkins-Rod lenses and a red wave length laser with a scanning depth of 80 μm...
January 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063057/quantitative-assessment-of-cerebral-basement-membranes-using-electron-microscopy
#6
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Anton Page, Alan Morris, Roy O Weller, Roxana O Carare
In this chapter we describe in detail the tissue processing techniques we employ for the study of cerebral tissue by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, we explain a technique that enables quantification of changes in cerebral basement membranes at the ultrastructural level. This is significant, as age related pathological conditions affecting the brain are often accompanied by ultrastructural changes in the cerebral vasculature.Briefly, experimental mice are fixed by perfusion and their brains removed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060407/mammalian-cell-tissue-culture-techniques
#7
Katy Phelan, Kristin M May
Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in molecular biology studies. A number of special skills are required in order to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of cells in culture. This appendix describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060334/measuring-nitrite-and-nitrate-metabolites-in-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-in-biological-materials-using-the-chemiluminescence-method
#8
Barbora Piknova, Ji Won Park, Katelyn S Cassel, Cameron N Gilliard, Alan N Schechter
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the main regulator molecules in vascular homeostasis and also a neurotransmitter. Enzymatically produced NO is oxidized into nitrite and nitrate by interactions with various oxy-heme proteins and other still not well known pathways. The reverse process, reduction of nitrite and nitrate into NO had been discovered in mammals in the last decade and it is gaining attention as one of the possible pathways to either prevent or ease a whole range of cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular disorders that are thought to be associated with decreased levels of NO...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056167/filter-paper-assisted-cell-transfer-fact-technique-a-novel-cell-sampling-technique-for-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-tumors
#9
Jumpei Kawamura, Shingo Kamoshida, Takaaki Shimakata, Yurie Hayashi, Kuniko Sakamaki, Tamami Denda, Kenji Kawai, Sadahito Kuwao
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides critical guidance to surgeons in the determination of surgical resection margins and treatment. The techniques and preparations used for the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors include frozen sectioning and cytologic methods (squash smear and touch imprint). Cytologic specimens, which do not have freezing artifacts, are important as an adjuvant tool to frozen sections. However, if the amount of submitted tissue samples is limited, then it is difficult to prepare both frozen sections and squash smears or touch imprint specimens from a single sample at the same time...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050835/chemical-imaging-of-xylem-by-raman-microspectroscopy
#10
András Gorzsás
Raman microspectroscopic techniques provide highly detailed chemical information about xylem tissue at submicron spatial resolution. The techniques are generally sensitive and they provide a powerful, yet inexpensive way to probe the chemical composition of individual cells or cell wall layers in situ, non-destructively, in a confocal manner, simultaneously detecting all chemical compounds without the need of external agents (label, dyes, stains). Problems with limited specificity in complex chemical matrices such as cell walls may arise, compounded by fluorescence problems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046867/su-f-p-06-moving-from-computed-radiography-to-digital-radiography-a-collaborative-approach-to-improve-image-quality
#11
D Sandoval, D Valenti, T Bateman, V Norris, G Mlady, R Selwyn
PURPOSE: To bring together radiologists, technologists, and physicists to utilize post-processing techniques in digital radiography (DR) in order to optimize image acquisition and improve image quality. METHODS: Sub-optimal images acquired on a new General Electric (GE) DR system were flagged for follow-up by radiologists and reviewed by technologists and medical physicists. Various exam types from adult musculoskeletal (n=35), adult chest (n=4), and pediatric (n=7) were chosen for review...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045231/needleless-electrohydrodynamic-cojetting-of-bicompartmental-particles-and-fibers-from-an-extended-fluid-interface
#12
Jacob H Jordahl, Stacy Ramcharan, Jason V Gregory, Joerg Lahann
Electrohydrodynamic cojetting can result in fibers (electrospinning) and particles (electrospraying) with complex, bicompartmental architectures. An important consideration for application of bicompartmental particles and fibers is the limited throughput derived from the use of parallel capillaries, which require laminar flow to form a multifluidic interface. Here, a novel synthesis approach that takes advantage of an extended bicompartmental fluid interface formed at the sharp edge of a 2D plate is reported...
January 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038344/application-based-on-the-canny-edge-detection-algorithm-for-recording-contractions-of-isolated-cardiac-myocytes
#13
Jair Trapé Goulart, Rosana Almada Bassani, José Wilson Magalhães Bassani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The isolated cardiomyocyte preparation is amenable to several experimental approaches not suitable to the myocardial tissue, which has allowed the gain of important information on the pathophysiology of the cardiac muscle. Thus, the development of techniques for functional studies in this preparation is important. The goal of the present study was to develop a computer program to extract contraction traces generated by cyclic cell shortening from cardiomyocyte video image files...
December 21, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035663/using-deep-learning-to-segment-breast-and-fibroglanduar-tissue-in-mri-volumes
#14
Mehmet Ufuk Dalmş, Geert Litjens, Katharina Holland, Arnaud Setio, Ritse Mann, Nico Karssemeijer, Albert Gubern-Mérida
PURPOSE: Automated segmentation of breast and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) is required for various computer-aided applications of breast MRI. Traditional image analysis and computer vision techniques, such atlas, template matching or edge and surface detection have been applied to solve this task. However, applicability of these methods is usually limited by the characteristics of the images used in the study datasets, while breast MRI vary with respect to the different MRI protocols used, in addition to the variability in breast shapes...
December 30, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035612/transdermal-adhesive-patches-loaded-with-ketoprofen-evaluated-by-dynamic-detection-of-percutaneous-absorption
#15
Menglin Wang, Longwei Li, Junxia Xie, Yinghua Sun, Guixia Ling, Zhonggui He
Topical delivery has many benefits toward NSAIDs administration, and the best-selling transdermal preparation in 2015 was the NSAID patch MOHRUS®. Herein, we report a ketoprofen adhesive patch (KAP) and evaluate the penetration and absorption compared to MOHRUS®. Microdialysis sampling technique was applied to determine drug penetration in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Simultaneously, blood samples were withdrawn over time to obtain the drug absorption in plasma. The ketoprofen concentrations in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and plasma were compared with the commercially available patch (MOHRUS®)...
December 29, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033183/investigation-of-osteoinductive-effects-of-different-compositions-of-bioactive-glass-nanoparticles-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#16
AmirHossein Tavakolizadeh, Mehdi Ahmadian, MohammadHossein Fathi, Ali Doostmohammadi, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Bioactive glasses (BG) is one of the well-known materials that used as dental and bone implants, for this reason it is always interesting for researchers has been to increase BG efficiency in the bone tissue engineering. The aim of this work was to evaluate the osteoinductivity of BG different composition nanoparticles with SiO2-CaO-P2O5. The 45S, 58S, and 63S compositions were prepared via the sol-gel technique. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE) were used...
December 26, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028985/using-an-electron-scanning-microscope-to-assess-the-penetrating-abilities-of-an-experimental-preparation-with-features-of-a-dental-infiltrant-preliminary-study
#17
Małgorzata Skucha-Nowak, Anna Mertas, Marta Tanasiewicz
BACKGROUND: The resin infiltration technique is one of the micro-invasive methods whose aim is the penetration of demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. This technique allows the dentist to avoid the application of mechanical means of treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this preliminary study was to attempt to determine the possibilities of using an electron microscope to assess the penetrating abilities of an experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant and to compare the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with an infiltrant available on the market...
November 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028300/high-quality-cell-block-preparation-from-scraping-of-conventional-cytology-slide-a-technical-report-on-a-modified-cytoscrape-cell-block-technique
#18
Y I Choi, M Jakhongir, S J Choi, L Kim, I S Park, J Y Han, J M Kim, Y C Chu
BACKGROUND: Immunocytochemistry (ICC) on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cell blocks is an ancillary tool commonly recruited for differential diagnoses of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples. However, the quality of conventional cell blocks in terms of adequate cellularity and evenness of distribution of cytologic material is not always satisfactory for ICC. We introduce a modified agarose-based cytoscrape cell block (CCB) technique that can be effectively used for the preparation of cell blocks from scrapings of conventional FNAC slides...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024566/electrospun-polyurethane-membranes-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#19
Laís P Gabriel, Ana Amélia Rodrigues, Milton Macedo, André L Jardini, Rubens Maciel Filho
Tissue Engineering proposes, among other things, tissue regeneration using scaffolds integrated with biological molecules, growth factors or cells for such regeneration. In this research, polyurethane membranes were prepared using the electrospinning technique in order to obtain membranes to be applied in Tissue Engineering, such as epithelial, drug delivery or cardiac applications. The influence of fibers on the structure and morphology of the membranes was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA)...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017155/nanofibers-new-insights-for-drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering
#20
Mohammad Karim Haidar, Hakan Eroğlu
Nanofibers became one of the major research areas for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications in the last decade. Depending on the simplicity of the preparation method and high drug loading capacity, nanofibers have many advantages for therapeutic perspectives. In addition, combined systems such as embedding nanoparticles into the nanofiber structures provide a second option for delivery of dual active ingredients in the same formulation. The release rate of the active ingredients can also be modified easily by the formulation parameters depending on the desired release time for the treatment...
December 21, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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