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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428541/tissue-engineered-cornea-constructed-with-compressed-collagen-and-laser-perforated-electrospun-mat
#1
Bin Kong, Wei Sun, Guoshi Chen, Song Tang, Ming Li, Zengwu Shao, Shengli Mi
While Plastic Compressed (PC) collagen technique is often used to fabricate bioengineered constructs, PC collagen gels are too weak to be sutured or conveniently handled for clinical applications. To overcome this limitation, electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) mats, which have excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties, were combined with PC collagen to fabricate sandwich-like hybrid constructs. By laser-perforating holes with different sizes and spacings in the electrospun mats to regulate the mechanical properties and light transmittance of the hybrid constructs, we produced hybrid constructs with properties very suitable to apply in corneal tissue engineering...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425395/comparing-phlebotomy-by-tail-tip-amputation-facial-vein-puncture-and-tail-vein-incision-in-c57bl-6-mice-by-using-physiologic-and-behavioral-metrics-of-pain-and-distress
#2
Elizabeth S Moore Thomas A Cleland Wendy O Williams Christine M Peterson Bhupinder Singh Teresa L Southard Bret Pasch Rachael N Labitt And Erin K Daugherity
Tail tip amputation with minimal restraint is not widely used for mouse phlebotomy. In part, this infrequency may reflectpolicies influenced by tail tip amputation procedures for genotyping, which involve greater handling and tissue removal. Toassess tail tip amputation with minimal restraint as a phlebotomy technique, we compared it with 2 more common methods:scruffing with facial vein puncture and lateral tail vein incision with minimal restraint. Blood glucose levels, audible and ultrasonic vocalizations, postphlebotomy activity and grooming behavior, open field and elevated plus maze behaviors,nest-building scores, and histologic changes at the phlebotomy site were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424375/mitochondria-a-central-target-for-sex-differences-in-pathologies
#3
REVIEW
Renée Ventura-Clapier, Maryline Moulin, Jérôme Piquereau, Christophe Lemaire, Mathias Mericskay, Vladimir Veksler, Anne Garnier
It is increasingly acknowledged that a sex and gender specificity affects the occurrence, development, and consequence of a plethora of pathologies. Mitochondria are considered as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce the majority of energy-rich phosphate bonds in the form of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) but they also participate in many other functions like steroid hormone synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ionic regulation, and cell death. Adequate cellular energy supply and survival depend on mitochondrial life cycle, a process involving mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and quality control via mitophagy...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417536/stretchable-and-soft-electronics-using-liquid-metals
#4
REVIEW
Michael D Dickey
The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415542/bladder-smooth-muscle-cells-on-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffold-promote-bladder-regeneration-in-a-canine-model
#5
Nasser Shakhssalim, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad M Dehghan, Javad Rasouli, Masoud Taghizadeh-Jahed, Peyman M Torbati, Mohammad Naji
Engineering of urinary bladder has been the focus of numerous studies in recent decade. Novel biomaterials, innovative fabrication methods and various modification processes of scaffolds are the critical issues to find supportive matrices. Supportive characteristics of electrospun PCL/PLLA nano-scaffold for bladder augmentation in canine model and the role of bladder cells in regeneration process were appraised. Electrospun PCL/PLLA was fabricated by co-electrospinning of PCL and PLLA. Bladder cells were isolated and transduced with lentiviral particles encoding eGFP and JRed proteins...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414565/new-regenerative-vascular-grafts-for-hemodialysis-access-evaluation-of-a-preclinical-animal-model
#6
Karen Tatiana Valencia Rivero, Juliana Jaramillo Escobar, Sergio David Galvis Forero, Maria Clara Miranda Saldaña, Rocío Del Pilar López Panqueva, Néstor Fernando Sandoval Reyes, Juan Carlos Briceño Triana
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a suitable animal model for the in vivo evaluation of patency and vascular tissue regeneration in small intestinal submucosa (SIS) vascular grafts for hemodialysis access. First, a 4-mm U-shaped SIS vascular graft was implanted between the internal carotid artery (CA) and the external jugular vein (JV) in five sheep and six swine. The U-shape grafts remained functional for 53 ± 4 days in sheep and 32 ± 2 days in swine. The sheep model presented exaggerated inflammation, so the swine model was selected for the in vivo study...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411722/kinematic-and-ergonomic-assessment-of-laparoendoscopic-single-site-surgical-instruments-during-simulator-training-tasks
#7
M Susan Hallbeck, Bethany R Lowndes, Bernadette McCrory, Melissa M Morrow, Kenton R Kaufman, Chad A LaGrange
While laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) appears to be feasible and safe, instrument triangulation, tissue handling, and other bimanual tasks are difficult even for experienced surgeons. Novel technologies emerged to overcome LESS' procedural and ergonomic difficulties of "tunnel vision" and "instrument clashing." Surgeon kinematics, self-reported workload and upper body discomfort were used to compare straight, bent and two articulating instruments while performing two basic surgical tasks in a LESS simulator...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411354/preventing-the-complications-associated-with-the-use-of-dermal-fillers-in-facial-aesthetic-procedures-an-expert-group-consensus-report
#8
REVIEW
Fernando Urdiales-Gálvez, Nuria Escoda Delgado, Vitor Figueiredo, José V Lajo-Plaza, Mar Mira, Francisco Ortíz-Martí, Rosa Del Rio-Reyes, Nazaret Romero-Álvarez, Sofía Ruiz Del Cueto, María A Segurado, Cristina Villanueva Rebenaque
BACKGROUND: The use of dermal fillers in minimally invasive facial aesthetic procedures has become increasingly popular of late, yet as the indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications is also likely to increase. Paying special attention to specific patient characteristics and to the technique used can do much to avoid these complications. Indeed, a well-trained physician can also minimize the impact of such problems when they do occur. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of experts in aesthetic treatments reviewed the main factors associated with the complications that arise when using dermal fillers...
April 14, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406991/a-mathematical-model-for-active-contraction-in-healthy-and-failing-myocytes-and-left-ventricles
#9
Li Cai, Yongheng Wang, Hao Gao, Yiqiang Li, Xiaoyu Luo
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, in particular myocardial dysfunction, which may lead to heart failure eventually. Understanding the electro-mechanics of the heart will help in developing more effective clinical treatments. In this paper, we present a multi-scale electro-mechanics model of the left ventricle (LV). The Holzapfel-Ogden constitutive law was used to describe the passive myocardial response in tissue level, a modified Grandi-Pasqualini-Bers model was adopted to model calcium dynamics in individual myocytes, and the active tension was described using the Niederer-Hunter-Smith myofilament model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404627/multiphasic-regulation-of-systemic-and-peripheral-organ-metabolic-responses-to-cardiac-hypertrophy
#10
Chong Wee Liew, Shanshan Xu, Xuerong Wang, Maximilian McCann, Hyerim Whang Kong, Andrew C Carley, Jingbo Pang, Giamila Fantuzzi, J Michael O'Donnell, E Douglas Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Reduced fat oxidation in hypertrophied hearts coincides with a shift of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I from muscle to increased liver isoforms. Acutely increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase I in normal rodent hearts has been shown to recapitulate the reduced fat oxidation and elevated atrial natriuretic peptide message of cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because of the potential for reduced fat oxidation to affect cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide, and thus, induce adipose lipolysis, we studied peripheral and systemic metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice model of transverse aortic constriction in which left ventricular hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks without functional decline until 16 weeks (ejection fraction, -45...
April 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395010/inflammation-and-metabolic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
Excessive feeding is associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic disturbance induces chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolically-important organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue. Many of the inflammatory signalling pathways are directly triggered by nutrients. The pro-inflammatory mediators in adipocytes and macrophages infiltrating adipose tissue promote both local and systemic pro-inflammatory status...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393162/human-cell-based-taste-perception-a-bittersweet-job-for-industry
#12
K Riedel, D Sombroek, B Fiedler, K Siems, M Krohn
Covering: 2000 to 2016On the molecular level humans sense food by a variety of specialized tissues which express sensory receptors to handle nutritive value. In general, this means the interplay of gustatory, olfactory, trigeminal and haptic sensation is translated into perception and leads, in terms of taste, to descriptions like sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. Further perceptions include astringent, cool, hot, prickle, lingering, kokumi and fatty to name predominant characterizations. It is still not fully understood how this plethora of impressions can be perceived by quite a limited number of receptors obviously being the initial compilers to judge palatability...
April 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391346/what-can-target-kidney-fibrosis
#13
Irina A Leaf, Jeremy S Duffield
Fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, is now recognized to be an independent predictor of disease progression. Deposition of pathological matrix in the walls of glomerular capillaries, the interstitial space and around arterioles both predicts and contributes to functional demise of the nephron and its surrounding vasculature. Recent identification of the major cell populations of fibroblast precursors in the kidney interstitium as pericytes and tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells, and in the glomerulus as podocytes, parietal epithelial and mesangial cells, has enabled the study of the fibrogenic process in much greater depth directly in the fibroblast precursors...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391052/bio-orthogonal-conjugation-and-enzymatically-triggered-release-of-proteins-within-multi-layered-hydrogels
#14
Chen Guo, Heejae Kim, Elisa M Ovadia, Christine M Mourafetis, Mingrui Yang, Wilfred Chen, April M Kloxin
Hydrogels are facile architectures for the controlled presentation of proteins with far-reaching applications, from fundamental biological studies in three-dimensional culture to new regenerative medicine and therapeutic delivery strategies. Here, we demonstrate a versatile approach for spatially-defined presentation of engineered proteins within hydrogels through i) immobilization using bio-orthogonal strain-promoted alkyne-azide click chemistry and ii) dynamic proteasedriven protein release using exogenously applied enzyme...
April 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387180/mycobacterium-marinum
#15
Alexandra Aubry, Faiza Mougari, Florence Reibel, Emmanuelle Cambau
Mycobacterium marinum is a well-known pathogenic mycobacterium for skin and soft tissue infections and is associated with fishes and water. Among nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), it is the leading cause of extrarespiratory human infections worldwide. In addition, there is a specific scientific interest in M. marinum because of its genetic relatedness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and because experimental infection of M. marinum in fishes mimics tuberculosis pathogenesis. Microbiological characteristics include the fact that it grows in 7 to 14 days with photochromogenic colonies and is difficult to differentiate from Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing NTM on a molecular basis...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386852/polyurethane-siloxane-membranes-containing-graphene-oxide-nanoplatelets-as-antimicrobial-wound-dressings-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations
#16
Elias Shams, Hamid Yeganeh, Hossein Naderi-Manesh, Reza Gharibi, Zuhair Mohammad Hassan
Preserving wounds from bacterial and fungal infections and retaining optimum moist environment over damaged tissue are major challenges in wound care management. Application of wound dressings with antimicrobial activity and appropriate wound exudates handling ability is of particular significance for promoting wound healing. To this end, preparation and evaluation of novel wound dres1sings made from polyurethane/siloxane network containing graphene oxide (GO) nanoplatelets are described. The particular sol-gel hydrolysis/condensation procedure applied for the preparation of dressings leads to an appropriate distribution of GO nanoplatelets in the dressing membranes...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383473/pro-coagulant-activity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Barbara A Christy, Maryanne C Herzig, Robbie K Montgomery, Christopher Delavan, James A Bynum, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma, based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity in order to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382681/a-western-style-obesogenic-diet-alters-maternal-metabolic-physiology-with-consequences-for-fetal-nutrient-acquisition-in-mice
#18
Barbara Musial, Owen R Vaughan, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Peter Voshol, Susan E Ozanne, Abigail L Fowden, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
KEY POINTS: In the Western world, obesogenic diets containing high fat and high sugar (HFHS) are commonly consumed during pregnancy, although their effects on the metabolism of the mother, in relation to feto-placental glucose utilization and growth, are unknown. In the present study, the consumption of an obesogenic HFHS diet compromised maternal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in late pregnancy in association with dysregulated lipid and glucose handling by the dam. These maternal metabolic changes induced by HFHS feeding were related to altered feto-placental glucose metabolism and growth...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378146/use-of-a-highly-parallel-microfluidic-flow-cell-array-to-determine-therapeutic-drug-dose-response-curves
#19
Jesús A Arellano, Taylor A Howell, James Gammon, Sungpil Cho, Margit M Janát-Amsbury, Bruce Gale
A high-throughput, microfluidic flow cell array (MFCA) system has been modified to enable drug screening against small-volume cell-, and tissue cultures. The MFCA is composed of a 3D channel network that simultaneously flows fluids through forty-eight 830 μm by 500 μm flow cells, which physically divide and fluidically seal an existing culture into multiple compartments when docked onto the surface of a cell or tissue culture dish. The modified system provides temperature (37 °C) and CO2/pH level controls, while continuously flowing solutions (media or other liquid such as drug suspensions) over the cells/tissues...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376960/periodontal-disease-its-impact-on-restorative-dentistry
#20
Shauna Culshaw
A healthy periodontium provides stable gingival margins and stable tooth position prior to tooth preparations for indirect restorations. Good periodontal health allows easier tissue handling during tooth preparation, impression taking and restoration fitting. Periodontal health is integral to successful restorative care. This report documents common clinical scenarios in which periodontal problems cause aesthetic concern.
February 28, 2017: Primary Dental Journal
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