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Tissue Procurement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071246/family-perspectives-on-organ-and-tissue-donation-for-transplantation-a-principlist-analysis
#1
Marcelo José Dos Santos, Lydia Feito
BACKGROUND: The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. METHOD: This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060077/ethical-issues-in-transnational-eye-banking
#2
Dominique E Martin, Richard Kelly, Gary L A Jones, Heather Machin, Graeme A Pollock
PURPOSE: To review ethical issues that may arise in the setting of transnational eye banking activities, such as when exporting or importing corneal tissue for transplantation. METHODS: A principle-based normative analysis of potential common dilemmas in transnational eye banking activities was performed. RESULTS: Transnational activities in eye banking, like those in other fields involving procurement and use of medical products of human origin, may present a number of ethical issues for policy makers and professionals...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058213/face-transplantation-anesthetic-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Aparna Dalal
Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045778/a-14-year-audit-and-analysis-of-human-skin-allograft-discards
#4
Jordan Spradbrow, Matthew Etchells, Robert Cartotto, Alison Halliday, Yulia Lin, Andrew Simor, Raj Visvalingam, Jeannie Callum
The objective of this study was to review the incidence of skin allograft discard and bacterial contamination due to donor bioburden at the Ontario Professional Firefighters Skin Bank over a 14-year period. We sought to determine whether modifications to our prerecovery donor preparation process have been effective in reducing skin bioburden and identify other potential risk factors of allograft contamination. A retrospective review of all skin donors (n = 259) processed from 2002 to 2015 was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine whether donor-related factors and procurement-related factors were significantly associated with microbial contamination predisinfection and discard secondary to contamination...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017811/use-of-fitc-inulin-as-a-marker-for-intestinal-ischemic-injury
#5
Abedalrazaq AlKukhun, Giorgio Caturegli, Armando Salim Munoz-Abraham, Sami Judeeba, Roger Patron-Lozano, Raffaella Morotti, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, John P Geibel
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia is observed in conditions such as mesenteric ischemia, or during traumatic events such as intestinal transplantation. Intestinal ischemia leads to pathophysiological disruptions that present as increased fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen. We propose a novel method to detect real-time ischemic injury that is employed in an in vitro model that is applicable to intestinal transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: Small intestine segments from rats were procured...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005098/allografts-for-ligament-reconstruction-where-are-we-now
#6
Frank B Wydra, Philip J York, Christopher R Johnson, Lorenzo Silvestri
The use of musculoskeletal allografts by orthopedic surgeons continues to rise. The process of procuring and sterilizing allografts is evolving with much consideration to limiting the spread of infectious diseases and preserving tissue integrity. Research involving the application of allografts, particularly for ligament repair, is quite active, necessitating an update for the practicing orthopedist. Avoiding donor site morbidities is one of the most commonly cited advantages of allografts over autografts. There is controversy amongst studies for allografts in terms of their biological incorporation and clinical outcomes compared to autografts...
November 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982363/-efficiency-indicators-to-assess-the-organ-donation-and-transplantation-process-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#7
Marina Martins Siqueira, Claudia Affonso Araujo, Bartira de Aguiar Roza, Janine Schirmer
Objective: To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. Method: In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939038/novel-technique-for-harvesting-the-sternoclavicular-graft
#8
Sujata Mohanty, Sanchaita Kohli, Jitender Dabas, Chandravir Singh
PURPOSE: Originally introduced for mandibular reconstruction more than 40 years ago, the sternoclavicular graft (SCG) has gained widespread popularity for the reconstruction of the ramus-condyle unit (RCU) owing to its anatomic and histological likeness to the normal mandibular condyle. Conventional longitudinal osteotomy design for its harvest has been fraught with considerable complications at the donor site including fracture clavicle and major neurovascular injury. In an attempt to alleviate these ill effects, a new technique for procuring the sternoclavicular graft is presented...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924070/modified-methods-for-isolation-of-pancreatic-stellate-cells-from-human-and-rodent-pancreas
#9
Liangtao Zhao, Baobao Cai, Zipeng Lu, Lei Tian, Song Guo, Pengfei Wu, Dong Qian, Qingcheng Xu, Kuirong Jiang, Yi Miao
Primary cultures of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) remain an important basis for in vitro study. However, effective methods for isolating abundant PSCs are currently lacking. We report on a novel approach to isolating PSCs from normal rat pancreases and human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue. After anaesthesia and laparotomy of the rat, a blunt cannula was inserted into the pancreatic duct through the anti-mesentery side of the duodenum, and the pancreas was slowly infused with an enzyme solution until all lobules were fully dispersed...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918354/ethical-issues-in-transnational-eye-banking
#10
Dominique E Martin, Richard Kelly, Gary L A Jones, Heather Machin, Graeme A Pollock
PURPOSE: To review ethical issues that may arise in the setting of transnational eye banking activities, such as when exporting or importing corneal tissue for transplantation. METHODS: A principle-based normative analysis of potential common dilemmas in transnational eye banking activities was performed. RESULTS: Transnational activities in eye banking, like those in other fields involving procurement and use of medical products of human origin, may present a number of ethical issues for policy makers and professionals...
December 1, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908471/-removal-and-transplant-synchronised-surgical-procedures
#11
Jacques Hubert, Luc Frimat
Since 2001, the team of the organ and tissue procurement unit of Nancy general hospital has practised the minimally invasive laparoscopic organ removal procedure through robot-assisted surgery. Here the team shares its expertise in the area of kidney removal from a living donor. Perfectly synchronised with the procedure of the team in charge of the transplant, the surgical stages are carried out in sequence ensuring optimal safety for the donor and recipient.
December 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879599/total-human-eye-allotransplantation-developing-surgical-protocols-for-donor-and-recipient-procedures
#12
Edward H Davidson, Eric W Wang, Jenny Y Yu, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Dawn J Wang, Nikisha Richards, Maxine Miller, Joel S Schuman, Kia M Washington
BACKGROUND: Vascularized composite allotransplantation of the eye is an appealing, novel method for reconstruction of the nonfunctioning eye. The authors' group has established the first orthotopic model for eye transplantation in the rat. With advancements in immunomodulation strategies together with new therapies in neuroregeneration, parallel development of human surgical protocols is vital for ensuring momentum toward eye transplantation in actual patients. METHODS: Cadaveric donor tissue harvest (n = 8) was performed with orbital exenteration, combined open craniotomy, and endonasal approach to ligate the ophthalmic artery with a cuff of paraclival internal carotid artery, for transection of the optic nerve at the optic chiasm and transection of cranial nerves III to VI and the superior ophthalmic vein at the cavernous sinus...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879190/transplantation-in-africa-an-overview
#13
Elmi Muller
Africa is underdeveloped in terms of treatment options for patients with end-stage renal failure. Economic growth and corresponding increases in health expenditures in the African region mean that we can confidently anticipate increased demand for organ transplantation within the region over the next few years. Renal failure in Africa occurs mainly due to glomerular nephropathies, hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. For the subset of the population that might be considered medically suitable for transplantation, demand for transplantation is tightly constrained by the availability of specialist physicians and surgeons, pathology facilities, capacity to achieve acceptable graft outcomes, cultural and religious attitudes towards organ donation, trust in the health system, and the extent to which patients are able to meet the costs of surgery and ongoing immunosuppression...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867479/donor-pretreatment-with-carbon-monoxide-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-following-heart-transplantation-in-rats
#14
Noritomo Fujisaki, Keisuke Kohama, Takeshi Nishimura, Hayato Yamashita, Michiko Ishikawa, Akihiro Kanematsu, Taihei Yamada, Sungsoo Lee, Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Joji Kotani, Atsunori Nakao
Because inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) provides potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that treatment of organ donors with inhaled CO would decrease graft injury after heart transplantation. Hearts were heterotopically transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats after 8 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Donor rats were exposed to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million for 24 hours via a gas-exposure chamber. Severity of myocardial injury was determined by total serum creatine phosphokinase and troponin I levels at three hours after reperfusion...
July 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861305/trends-and-determinants-of-familial-consent-for-corneal-donation-in-chinese
#15
Allie Lee, Michael Y Ni, Amanda C K Luk, Jessie K P Lau, Karen S Y Lam, Tom K Li, Catherine S M Wong, Victoria W Y Wong
PURPOSE: Corneal transplantation is the treatment of choice for many corneal diseases. At present, there is a global shortage of corneal transplant tissues, and failure to obtain consent from families of potential donors is a major limiting factor in tissue procurement. METHODS: All family members of potential donors after cardiac death approached by the local eye bank staff members from January 2008 to December 2014 in Hong Kong were included. Reasons for consent or refusal and sociodemographic details of the deceased and the family members approached were reviewed...
November 16, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837561/banking-of-adipose-and-cord-tissue-derived-stem-cells-technical-and-regulatory-issues
#16
David T Harris
Stem cells are found in all multicellular organisms and are defined as cells that can differentiate into specialized mature cells as well as divide to produce more stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were among the first stem cell types to be utilized for regenerative medicine. Although initially isolated from bone marrow, based on ease and costs of procurement, MSC derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSC) and umbilical cord tissue (CT-MSC) are now preferred stem cell sources for these applications. Both adipose tissues and cord tissue present unique problems for biobanking however, in that these are whole tissues, not cellular suspensions...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835889/immunoscore-encompassing-cd3-and-cd8-t-cell-densities-in-distant-metastasis-is-a-robust-prognostic-marker-for-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#17
Yoonjin Kwak, Jiwon Koh, Duck-Woo Kim, Sung-Bum Kang, Woo Ho Kim, Hye Seung Lee
BACKGROUND: The immunoscore (IS), an index based on the density of CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor center (CT) and invasive margin (IM), has gained considerable attention as a prognostic marker. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have also been reported to have prognostic value. However, its clinical significance has not been fully clarified in patients with advanced CRC who present with distant metastases. METHODS: The density of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+, CD68+, and CD163+ immune cells within CRC tissue procured from three sites-the primary CT, IM, and distant metastasis (DM)-was determined using immunohistochemistry and digital image analyzer (n=196)...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819779/-quality-of-corneal-tissue-procured-by-trained-non-ophthalmologist-medical-personnel
#18
Karla Verdiguel-Sotelo, Arturo Carrasco-Quiroz, Paul Alejandro López-Macías, Roberto Ortiz-Lerma
BACKGROUND: The cornea is the first tissue awaiting transplantation at a national level. It is imperative to train health personnel in procurement technique with excision of corneoscleral button in situ. The objective was to compare the quality of corneal tissue procured by social service medical interns and Ophthalmology residents in a third level hospital. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental pilot study with two groups: group 1, which included trained social service medical interns, and group 2, which included trained residents of Ophthalmology...
November 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756300/pitfalls-of-improperly-procured-adjacent-non-neoplastic-tissue-for-somatic-mutation-analysis-using-next-generation-sequencing
#19
Lei Wei, Antonios Papanicolau-Sengos, Song Liu, Jianmin Wang, Jeffrey M Conroy, Sean T Glenn, Elizabeth Brese, Qiang Hu, Kiersten Marie Miles, Blake Burgher, Maochun Qin, Karen Head, Angela R Omilian, Wiam Bshara, John Krolewski, Donald L Trump, Candace S Johnson, Carl D Morrison
BACKGROUND: The rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing provides an efficient system for detecting somatic alterations in neoplasms. The detection of such alterations requires a matched non-neoplastic sample for adequate filtering of non-somatic events such as germline polymorphisms. Non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to the excised neoplasm is often used for this purpose as it is simultaneously collected and generally contains the same tissue type as the neoplasm. Following NGS analysis, we and others have frequently observed low-level somatic mutations in these non-neoplastic tissues, which may impose additional challenges to somatic mutation detection as it complicates germline variant filtering...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748517/the-expanding-role-of-the-clinical-haematologist-in-the-new-world-of-advanced-therapy-medicinal-products
#20
REVIEW
Mark W Lowdell, Amy Thomas
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres...
January 2017: British Journal of Haematology
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