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Tissue Procurement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908471/-removal-and-transplant-synchronised-surgical-procedures
#1
Jacques Hubert, Luc Frimat
Since 2001, the team of the organ and tissue procurement unit of Nancy general hospital has practised the minimally invasive laparoscopic organ removal procedure through robot-assisted surgery. Here the team shares its expertise in the area of kidney removal from a living donor. Perfectly synchronised with the procedure of the team in charge of the transplant, the surgical stages are carried out in sequence ensuring optimal safety for the donor and recipient.
December 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879599/total-human-eye-allotransplantation-developing-surgical-protocols-for-donor-and-recipient-procedures
#2
Edward H Davidson, Eric W Wang, Jenny Y Yu, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Dawn J Wang, Nikisha Richards, Maxine Miller, Joel S Schuman, Kia M Washington
BACKGROUND: Vascularized composite allotransplantation of the eye is an appealing, novel method for reconstruction of the nonfunctioning eye. The authors' group has established the first orthotopic model for eye transplantation in the rat. With advancements in immunomodulation strategies together with new therapies in neuroregeneration, parallel development of human surgical protocols is vital for ensuring momentum toward eye transplantation in actual patients. METHODS: Cadaveric donor tissue harvest (n = 8) was performed with orbital exenteration, combined open craniotomy, and endonasal approach to ligate the ophthalmic artery with a cuff of paraclival internal carotid artery, for transection of the optic nerve at the optic chiasm and transection of cranial nerves III to VI and the superior ophthalmic vein at the cavernous sinus...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879190/transplantation-in-africa-an-overview
#3
Elmi Muller
Africa is underdeveloped in terms of treatment options for patients with end-stage renal failure. Economic growth and corresponding increases in health expenditures in the African region mean that we can confidently anticipate increased demand for organ transplantation within the region over the next few years. Renal failure in Africa occurs mainly due to glomerular nephropathies, hypertension, diabetes, and HIV. For the subset of the population that might be considered medically suitable for transplantation, demand for transplantation is tightly constrained by the availability of specialist physicians and surgeons, pathology facilities, capacity to achieve acceptable graft outcomes, cultural and religious attitudes towards organ donation, trust in the health system, and the extent to which patients are able to meet the costs of surgery and ongoing immunosuppression...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867479/donor-pretreatment-with-carbon-monoxide-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-following-heart-transplantation-in-rats
#4
Noritomo Fujisaki, Keisuke Kohama, Takeshi Nishimura, Hayato Yamashita, Michiko Ishikawa, Akihiro Kanematsu, Taihei Yamada, Sungsoo Lee, Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Joji Kotani, Atsunori Nakao
Because inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) provides potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against ischemia reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that treatment of organ donors with inhaled CO would decrease graft injury after heart transplantation. Hearts were heterotopically transplanted into syngeneic Lewis rats after 8 hours of cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Donor rats were exposed to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million for 24 hours via a gas-exposure chamber. Severity of myocardial injury was determined by total serum creatine phosphokinase and troponin I levels at three hours after reperfusion...
July 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861305/trends-and-determinants-of-familial-consent-for-corneal-donation-in-chinese
#5
Allie Lee, Michael Y Ni, Amanda C K Luk, Jessie K P Lau, Karen S Y Lam, Tom K Li, Catherine S M Wong, Victoria W Y Wong
PURPOSE: Corneal transplantation is the treatment of choice for many corneal diseases. At present, there is a global shortage of corneal transplant tissues, and failure to obtain consent from families of potential donors is a major limiting factor in tissue procurement. METHODS: All family members of potential donors after cardiac death approached by the local eye bank staff members from January 2008 to December 2014 in Hong Kong were included. Reasons for consent or refusal and sociodemographic details of the deceased and the family members approached were reviewed...
November 16, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837561/banking-of-adipose-and-cord-tissue-derived-stem-cells-technical-and-regulatory-issues
#6
David T Harris
Stem cells are found in all multicellular organisms and are defined as cells that can differentiate into specialized mature cells as well as divide to produce more stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were among the first stem cell types to be utilized for regenerative medicine. Although initially isolated from bone marrow, based on ease and costs of procurement, MSC derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSC) and umbilical cord tissue (CT-MSC) are now preferred stem cell sources for these applications. Both adipose tissues and cord tissue present unique problems for biobanking however, in that these are whole tissues, not cellular suspensions...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835889/immunoscore-encompassing-cd3-and-cd8-t-cell-densities-in-distant-metastasis-is-a-robust-prognostic-marker-for-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#7
Yoonjin Kwak, Jiwon Koh, Duck-Woo Kim, Sung-Bum Kang, Woo Ho Kim, Hye Seung Lee
BACKGROUND: The immunoscore (IS), an index based on the density of CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor center (CT) and invasive margin (IM), has gained considerable attention as a prognostic marker. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have also been reported to have prognostic value. However, its clinical significance has not been fully clarified in patients with advanced CRC who present with distant metastases. METHODS: The density of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+, CD68+, and CD163+ immune cells within CRC tissue procured from three sites-the primary CT, IM, and distant metastasis (DM)-was determined using immunohistochemistry and digital image analyzer (n=196)...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819779/-quality-of-corneal-tissue-procured-by-trained-non-ophthalmologist-medical-personnel
#8
Karla Verdiguel-Sotelo, Arturo Carrasco-Quiroz, Paul Alejandro López-Macías, Roberto Ortiz-Lerma
BACKGROUND: The cornea is the first tissue awaiting transplantation at a national level. It is imperative to train health personnel in procurement technique with excision of corneoscleral button in situ. The objective was to compare the quality of corneal tissue procured by social service medical interns and Ophthalmology residents in a third level hospital. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental pilot study with two groups: group 1, which included trained social service medical interns, and group 2, which included trained residents of Ophthalmology...
November 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756300/pitfalls-of-improperly-procured-adjacent-non-neoplastic-tissue-for-somatic-mutation-analysis-using-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Lei Wei, Antonios Papanicolau-Sengos, Song Liu, Jianmin Wang, Jeffrey M Conroy, Sean T Glenn, Elizabeth Brese, Qiang Hu, Kiersten Marie Miles, Blake Burgher, Maochun Qin, Karen Head, Angela R Omilian, Wiam Bshara, John Krolewski, Donald L Trump, Candace S Johnson, Carl D Morrison
BACKGROUND: The rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing provides an efficient system for detecting somatic alterations in neoplasms. The detection of such alterations requires a matched non-neoplastic sample for adequate filtering of non-somatic events such as germline polymorphisms. Non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to the excised neoplasm is often used for this purpose as it is simultaneously collected and generally contains the same tissue type as the neoplasm. Following NGS analysis, we and others have frequently observed low-level somatic mutations in these non-neoplastic tissues, which may impose additional challenges to somatic mutation detection as it complicates germline variant filtering...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748517/the-expanding-role-of-the-clinical-haematologist-in-the-new-world-of-advanced-therapy-medicinal-products
#10
Mark W Lowdell, Amy Thomas
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747082/clinical-applications-of-liquid-biopsies-in-gastrointestinal-oncology
#11
Jason Zhu, John H Strickler
"Liquid biopsies" are blood based assays used to detect and analyze circulating tumor products, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating messenger RNA (mRNA), circulating microRNA (miRNA), circulating exosomes, and tumor educated platelets (TEP). For patients with gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies, blood based biopsies may offer several advantages. First, tumor tissue samples are often challenging to procure, and when obtainable, are often insufficient for genomic profiling...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743487/hydrogen-sulfide-protects-renal-grafts-against-prolonged-cold-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-specific-mitochondrial-actions
#12
I Lobb, J Jiang, D Lian, W Liu, A Haig, M N Saha, R Torregrossa, M E Wood, M Whiteman, A Sener
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is unavoidably caused by loss and subsequent restoration of blood flow during organ procurement and prolonged IRI results in increased rates of delayed graft function and early graft loss. The endogenously produced gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), is a novel molecule that mitigates hypoxic tissue injury. The current study investigates the protective mitochondrial effects of H2 S during in vivo cold storage and subsequent renal transplantation (RTx) and in vitro cold hypoxic renal injury...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742314/regional-survey-of-tissue-donation-among-the-general-public-and-medical-staffs-around-osaka-japan
#13
M Ogawa, T Fujita, N Fukushima, T Nakatani, S Kitamiura, Y Imamura, K Watanabe, S Iwata, A Kinjo
BACKGROUND: Because tissue transplantation (TTx) has not been familiar to the general public or even to medical staffs in Japan, awareness of TTx is very important to increase tissue donation. Our primary aim was to describe the current status of awareness of TTx in medical staffs and in the general public around Osaka. METHODS: Between July 2014 and February 2015, 1015 general public citizens, 203 medical staff members working in emergency hospitals, and 168 cardiothoracic surgeons were invited to complete a letter or web-based survey through the use of a self-designed questionnaire...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721114/serum-phospholipid-fraction-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-is-the-preferred-indicator-for-nutrition-and-health-status-in-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Bruce A Watkins, Jeffrey Kim, Hector Tamez, Julia Wenger, Ravi Thadhani, Allon N Friedman
Long chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of cell membrane phospholipids (PL) and serve as precursors for numerous bioactive lipid derivatives. Fatty acids (FA) are routinely analyzed in biological samples to assess composition of tissues, cells, and lipid fractions. In human studies, serum or plasma is often used because of their easy procurement. However, the lipid pool in serum and plasma is a mixture of triacylglycerol (TG), PL, cholesterol and its esters, and other components...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717191/clinicopathologic-and-histopathologic-renal-abnormalities-in-dogs-with-coccidioidomycosis
#15
L R Mehrkens, F C Mohr, J E Sykes
BACKGROUND: We observed evidence of protein-losing nephropathy in some dogs with coccidioidomycosis, suggestive of immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN). The goal of this study was to understand the prevalence of renal histopathologic lesions and proteinuria in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. HYPOTHESIS: Biochemical and histopathological evidence of glomerular lesions is present in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. ANIMALS: Hundred and fifty-six dogs with naturally occurring coccidioidomycosis...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673522/proximal-to-distally-elevated-superficial-circumflex-iliac-artery-perforator-flap-enabling-hybrid-reconstruction
#16
Hidehiko Yoshimatsu, Takumi Yamamoto, Akitatsu Hayashi, Takuya Iida
BACKGROUND: Most authors elevate the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap from the lateral edge of the skin paddle, and begin by dissecting a perforator perfusing the skin paddle. In this article, the authors introduce a modified technique for elevation of a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap, beginning with identification of the pedicle arteries, allowing inclusion of a variety of anatomical structures. METHODS: From August of 2012 to August of 2015, 27 patients with soft- and bony-tissue defects underwent reconstruction using proximal-to-distally elevated superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flaps...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672204/west-nile-virus-infection-in-human-and-mouse-cornea-tissue
#17
Bradley J Blitvich, Tian Wang, Vandana Saxena, Shemin Zeng, Karen M Harmon, Matthew D Raymond, Kenneth M Goins, Cynthia R Reed, Robert F Mullins, Mark A Greiner
The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro and ex vivo susceptibility of human corneal cells to West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate the ability of the virus to disseminate to the corneas of infected mice. Human corneal epithelial cells were challenged with WNV, incubated for 1-6 days, and tested for evidence of WNV infection. Viral RNA and antigen were detected at every time point, and the virus reached a peak titer of 2.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL at 3 days postinoculation (PI)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668706/histological-evaluation-disqualifies-imt-and-calcification-scores-as-surrogates-for-grading-coronary-and-aortic-atherosclerosis
#18
Armelle Meershoek, Rogier A van Dijk, Sander Verhage, Jaap F Hamming, Antoon J van den Bogaerdt, Ad J J C Bogers, Alexander F Schaapherder, Jan H Lindeman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Carotid intimal media thickness (IMT) and coronary calcium scores (CCS) are thought to reflect atherosclerotic burden. The validity of this assumption for IMT is challenged by recent meta-analyses; for CCS by absence of a relationship between negative scores, and freedom of future events. As such, we considered evaluation of the relationship between tissue IMT and CCS, and extend of atherosclerotic disease relevant. METHODS: Analyses were performed on donor aortas obtained during renal graft procurement, and on coronary arteries collected during heart valve procurement for tissue donation...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665214/histopathologic-features-of-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-graft-remnants-folds-and-detachments
#19
Thomas M Müller, Robert M Verdijk, Itay Lavy, Marieke Bruinsma, Jack Parker, Perry S Binder, Gerrit R J Melles
PURPOSE: To describe the histologic features of postmortem eyes after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) and their potential clinical implications. DESIGN: Histopathologic study. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven postmortem DMEK corneas of 8 patients who underwent surgery for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, with an average postoperative time of 4±1.9 years (range, 7 months-6.5 years). METHODS: Eleven corneas transplanted with a DMEK graft were procured after death and processed for light microscopy evaluation...
December 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647508/misoprostol-modulates-the-gene-expression-prostaglandin-e2-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-myometrial-cells
#20
Cristine Kolling Konopka, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Francine Carla Cadoná, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Eduardo Bortoluzzi Dornelles, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Misoprostol, prostaglandin E1 analogue, used for labour induction. However, one-third of patients who have labour induced with prostaglandins do not reach vaginal delivery. The differential expression of prostaglandin receptors in myometrial cells could account for this differential response. Since delivery physiology also involves modulation of oxidative metabolism that can be potentially affected by pharmacological drugs, in the present investigation the role of misoprostol on expression of prostaglandin receptors, and oxidative markers of myometrial cells was evaluated...
September 16, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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