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endothelial cell and metabolism

Annalisa Trenti, Serena Tedesco, Carlotta Boscaro, Lucia Trevisi, Chiara Bolego, Andrea Cignarella
Estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular physiology and the immune system by inducing direct effects on multiple cell types including immune and vascular cells. Sex steroid hormones are implicated in cardiovascular protection, including endothelial healing in case of arterial injury and collateral vessel formation in ischemic tissue. Estrogen can exert potent modulation effects at all levels of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Their action is mediated by interaction with classical estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, as well as the more recently identified G-protein coupled receptor 30/G-protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Sarah Berndt, Mark E Issa, Gilles Carpentier, Muriel Cuendet
The effects of genistein on angiogenesis remain poorly understood. Some studies claim an antiangiogenic effect and others claim a pro-angiogenic one. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if genistein may exhibit bivalent angiogenic effects. To address this question, genistein angiogenic modulatory effects were examined using an in vitro 3D angiogenesis model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this model, a bivalent effect of genistein was demonstrated on sprouting angiogenesis, with angiogenic stimulation at low concentrations (0...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Danh T Tran, Scott Esckilsen, Jennifer Mulligan, Shikhar Mehrotra, Carl Atkinson, Satish N Nadig
BACKGROUND: Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are central to an allograft's immunogenicity. Cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with static cold storage and warm reperfusion activates ECs and increases the immunogenicity of the allograft. Following reperfusion, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the allograft, which correlates to alloimmune rejection. Current understanding of this relationship, however, centers on the whole allograft instead of ECs...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Ramkumar T Annamalai, Tapan Girish Naik, Haley Prout, Andrew J Putnam, Jan P Stegemann
Microtissues created from the protein fibrin and containing embedded cells can be used in modular tissue engineering approaches to create larger, hierarchical and complex tissue structures. In this paper we demonstrate an emulsification-based method for the production of such fibrin microtissues containing fibroblasts and endothelial cells and designed to promote tissue vascularization. Surfactants can be beneficial in the microtissue fabrication process to reduce aggregation and to facilitate recovery of microtissues from the emulsion, thereby increasing yield...
March 14, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Eva Nüsken, Jörg Dötsch, Lutz T Weber, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lei Zhao, Z Varghese, J F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Background: CD36 is a multi-functional class B scavenger receptor, which acts as an important modulator of lipid homeostasis and immune responses. Sources of data: This review uses academic articles. Areas of agreement: CD36 is closely related to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Areas of controversy: Both persistent up-regulation of CD36 and deficiency of CD36 increase the risk for atherosclerosis...
March 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Caixia Guo, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Tian Chen, Yang Li, Yang Yu, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a marker of hyperlipidemia, plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis through the induction of macrophage-derived foam cell formation and thereafter apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated that silica nanoparticle (SiNPs) may exert a proatherogenic role, which could induce endothelial dysfunction, and monocytes infiltration. However, little is known about SiNPs' effects on macrophage-derived foam cell formation and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tiago Pereira-da-Silva, Madalena Coutinho Cruz, Catarina Carrusca, Rui Cruz Ferreira, Patrícia Napoleão, Miguel Mota Carmo
AIMS: Atherosclerosis is associated with altered circulating microRNA profiles. It is yet unclear whether the expression of these potential biomarkers differs according to the location of atherosclerosis. We assessed whether atherosclerosis of different arterial territories, except the coronary, is associated with specific circulating microRNA profiles. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was carried out using a retrieval strategy including MESH and non-MSH terms...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Jessica M Skeie, Benjamin T Aldrich, Andrew S Goldstein, Gregory A Schmidt, Cynthia R Reed, Mark A Greiner
The objective of this study was to characterize the proteome of the corneal endothelial cell layer and its basement membrane (Descemet membrane) in humans with various severities of type II diabetes mellitus compared to controls, and identify differentially expressed proteins across a range of diabetic disease severities that may influence corneal endothelial cell health. Endothelium-Descemet membrane complex tissues were peeled from transplant suitable donor corneas. Protein fractions were isolated from each sample and subjected to multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin D Fellows, Nardine Ghobrial, Elliot Mappus, Andrew Hargett, Mark Bolding, Delphine Dean, Olin Thompson Mefford
Restenosis by neointimal hyperplasia is still an ongoing concern in endovascular surgery. Slowing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by reversing the phenotype change, would allow vessel healing and re-endotheliazation. To accomplish this, we have developed heparin-coated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug therapy of neointimal hyperplasia. Iron oxide nanoparticles were modified with a poly (ethylene oxide) based coating and then further functionalized with heparin. In vitro experiments were conducted to observe changes in phenotype, metabolic activity, and viability of three relevant cell lines including VSMC, endothelial cells and fibroblasts...
March 8, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Philipp Störmann, Juliane Kupsch, Kerstin Kontradowitz, Maximilian Leiblein, René Verboket, Caroline Seebach, Ingo Marzi, Dirk Henrich, Christoph Nau
INTRODUCTION: Meanwhile, the osteoconductive properties of frequently used synthetic bone grafts can be improved by the use of osteoinductive cells and growth factors. Nevertheless, the cultivation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) seems to be difficult and requires a pre-conditioning of the scaffolds with fibronectin. Additionally, the influence of the scaffolds' design on cell cultivation is not fully elucidated. METHODS: As scaffold, a commercially available β-tricalcium phosphate was used...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Tatsiana Suvorava, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
Moderate exercise training is a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. Shear-induced upregulation of eNOS activity and function in the vascular endothelium is considered as one of the main molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been reported that levels of plasma nitrite, which are largely dependent on eNOS activity, were increased in healthy subjects after acute exercise, while this increase was abolished in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Bridget Shafit-Zagardo, Ross C Gruber, Juwen C DuBois
Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk, referred to as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are instrumental in maintaining cell survival and homeostasis in mammals. TAM receptors interact with multiple signaling molecules to regulate cell migration, survival, phagocytosis and clearance of metabolic products and cell debris called efferocytosis. The TAMs also function as rheostats to reduce the expression of proinflammatory molecules and prevent autoimmunity. All three TAM receptors are activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the vitamin K-dependent growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)...
March 4, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tomoki Nakashima
Recent studies of mouse genetics and human gene mutations has greatly contributed to clarifying the molecular mechanism of bone metabolism. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication among bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and endothelial cells...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Burkhard Kleuser
Two decades ago, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered as a novel bioactive molecule that regulates a variety of cellular functions. The plethora of S1P-mediated effects is due to the fact that the sphingolipid not only modulates intracellular functions but also acts as a ligand of G protein-coupled receptors after secretion into the extracellular environment. In the plasma, S1P is found in high concentrations, modulating immune cell trafficking and vascular endothelial integrity. The liver is engaged in modulating the plasma S1P content, as it produces apolipoprotein M, which is a chaperone for the S1P transport...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yanyan Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Jiayu Tang, Shuang Zhao, Chen Li, Yong-Pan Huang, Minhan Yi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Genetic or nutritional deficiencies in homocysteine (Hcy)metabolism lead to the accumulation of Hcy and its metabolites in the blood. This can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that HHcy leads to endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherosclerosis, which may explain this link. The precise mechanism remains unclear, but a strong possibility is excessive HHCy-induced autophagy. Autophagy has been better studied in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries, and previous work showed that Oxymatrine (OMT), a quinolizidine alkaloid, protects cells against myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting autophagy...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xavier Vidal-Gómez, Daniel Pérez-Cremades, Ana Mompeón, Ana Paula Dantas, Susana Novella, Carlos Hermenegildo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Estrogen signalling plays an important role in vascular biology as it modulates vasoactive and metabolic pathways in endothelial cells. Growing evidence has also established microRNA (miRNA) as key regulators of endothelial function. Nonetheless, the role of estrogen regulation on miRNA profile in endothelial cells is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine how estrogen modulates miRNA profile in human endothelial cells and to explore the role of the different estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ and GPER) in the regulation of miRNA expression by estrogen...
February 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kang Zhang, Yidan Chen, Tian Zhang, Lu Huang, Yi Wang, Tieying Yin, Juhui Qiu, Hans Gregersen, Guixue Wang
Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) has been shown to be involved in adipogenesis and metabolism, which may contribute to atherosclerotic progression. However, it remains unclear how Id1 regulates endothelial cell functions and atherosclerosis in response to oscillatory shear stress. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of oscillatory shear stress on LDL uptake by endothelial cells and to delineate the roles of Id1 in this process. Using an in vivo ligation model of ApoE-/- mice and applying low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in vitro, we found that OSS can effectively promote lipid uptake...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Valeria De Nigris, Francesco Prattichizzo, Elettra Mancuso, Rosangela Spiga, Gemma Pujadas, Antonio Ceriello
High-glucose-induced oxidative stress contributes to cardiovascular endothelial damage in diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is beneficial to endothelial cells, but its effects are diminished when cells are continuously exposed to high glucose. Teneligliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that prevents oxidative stress, apoptosis and the metabolic memory effect. We explored the potential additive effects of Teneligliptin and GLP-1 in hyperglycemia-damaged endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to normal-glucose (5 mmol/L) or high-glucose (HG, 25 mmol/L) for 21 days, or to HG for 14 days followed by normal-glucose for 7 days (HM)...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
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