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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346025/linkage-of-metabolic-defects-to-activated-pik3ca-alleles-in-endothelial-cells-derived-from-lymphatic-malformation
#2
Kathryn Glaser, Peter Dickie, Derek Neilson, Alexander Osborn, Belinda Hsi Dickie
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) derived from lymphatic malformations (LMs) bear activated PIK3CA alleles yet display an inflammatory gene expression profile. A basis for the inflammatory phenotype was sought by screening for coexisting somatic mutations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen independent LEC populations bearing activated PIK3CA alleles were isolated from LM. These were characterized by the expression of growth and inflammatory genes (VEGFC, IL-6, COX-2, IL-8, HO-1, E-SEL) by qRT-PCR...
January 18, 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345349/enhanced-phosphorylation-of-sphingosine-and-ceramide-sustains-the-exuberant-proliferation-of-endothelial-progenitors-in-kaposi-sarcoma
#3
Loubna Abdel Hadi, Francesca Calcaterra, Lucia Brambilla, Claudia Carenza, Giovanni Marfia, Silvia Della Bella, Laura Riboni
Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), a unique endothelial stem cell population, are highly increased in the blood of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) patients. KS-derived ECFCs (KS-ECFCs) are also endowed with increased proliferative and vasculogenic potential, thus suggesting that they may be precursors of KS spindle cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased proliferative activity of KS-ECFCs remain poorly understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) are metabolically interconnected sphingoid mediators crucial to cell proliferation...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#4
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344258/involvement-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells-in-tumor-angiogenesis
#5
Yu Wang, Chen Li, Yuqiang Li, Zhitu Zhu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in the angiogenesis of breast cancer tumors. The expression levels of mutant p53, cluster of differentiation (CD)31, vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), in addition to human epidermal growth factor (HER)2, were detected in the blood vessels of human breast cancer (BC) tissue samples. CD44+/CD24-/low cells were selected from single-cell suspensions of BC tissues to assess the expression of CD31 and CD105, in addition to the ability of these cells to metabolize acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL)...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340859/comparative-proteomics-of-chromium-transformed-beas-2b-cells-by-2d-dige-and-maldi-tof-tof-ms
#6
Jian Lu, Miaomiao Tang, Yi Liu, Jin Wang, Zhanao Wu
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic, common heavy metal used in industrial production. There are two types of Cr in nature: hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and chromium trichloride (Cr(III)). Cr(III) is involved in the metabolism of sugars and lipids, whereas Cr(VI) is absorbed through the respiratory tract and skin and generates free radicals that result in secondary toxicity. Cr(VI) leads to cancer in the occupational population and is therefore recognized as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
January 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336891/cupua%C3%A3-u-extract-reduces-nitrosative-stress-and-modulates-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-kidneys-of-experimental-diabetes
#7
Giovana R Punaro, Deyse Y Lima, Adelson M Rodrigues, Samuel Pugliero, Margaret G Mouro, Marcelo M Rogero, Elisa M S Higa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have previously reported an increased nitrosative stress in the kidneys of diabetic animals, which was reduced by an antioxidant probiotic. The present study evaluated whether the extract of cupuaçu (EC), an antioxidant compound rich in polyphenols and theograndins, when administered at a dose that can be reasonably obtained through daily consumption, could delay the onset of diabetic complications in the kidney. METHODS: Mouse immortalized mesangial cells (MiMC) were placed in medium normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG), with or without EC (500, 100, 50 or 10 μg/mL) during 24, 48 or 72 h for analysis of viability, proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) levels and reactive oxygen species or nitrogen (ROS/RNS)...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335006/genetic-dissection-of-the-neuro-glio-vascular-machinery-in-the-adult-brain
#8
Gregory W Kirschen, Rachel Kéry, Hanxiao Liu, Afrinash Ahamad, Liang Chen, Wendy Akmentin, Ramya Kumar, Joel Levine, Qiaojie Xiong, Shaoyu Ge
The adult brain actively controls its metabolic homeostasis via the circulatory system at the blood brain barrier interface. The mechanisms underlying the functional coupling from neuron to vessel remain poorly understood. Here, we established a novel method to genetically isolate the individual components of this coupling machinery using a combination of viral vectors. We first discovered a surprising non-uniformity of the glio-vascular structure in different brain regions. We carried out a viral injection screen and found that intravenous Canine Adenovirus 2 (CAV2) preferentially targeted perivascular astrocytes throughout the adult brain, with sparing of the hippocampal hilus from infection...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332131/assessment-of-human-corneas-prior-to-transplantation-using-high-resolution-two-photon-imaging
#9
Ana Batista, Hans Georg Breunig, Aisada König, Andreas Schindele, Tobias Hager, Berthold Seitz, António Miguel Morgado, Karsten König
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using two-photon imaging (TPI) to assess the condition of human corneas for transplantation. Methods: Human corneas were imaged after different storage times: short-term (STS), medium-term (MTS), and long-term (LTS) storage. A high-resolution, custom-built 5-dimensional multiphoton microscope with 12-fs pulsed laser excitation was used for image acquisition. Results: Optical discrimination between different corneal layers and sublayers based on their morphologic characteristics revealed by two-photon autofluorescence (AF) is possible...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330663/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-mir-ul112-contributes-to-hcmv-mediated-vascular-diseases-by-inducing-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#10
Kai Shen, Liyun Xu, Dongdong Chen, Weiguo Tang, Yanyan Huang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been linked to the pathogenesis of vasculopathy by inducing dysfunction of vascular cells such as endothelial cells. Hcmv-miR-UL112 is the most well-characterized HCMV-encoded microRNA occurring in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, while the specific underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are yet to be defined. The current study investigated the effect of hcmv-miR-UL112 on the growth and proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs); it might also be associated with signaling pathways...
January 12, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329611/early-intervention-with-didang-decoction-delays-macrovascular-lesions-in-diabetic-rats-through-regulating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway
#11
Dan-Dan Ren, Jing Li, Bai Chang, Chun-Shen Li, Ju-Hong Yang
The study aimed to investigate the intervening role of Didang decoction (DDD) at different times in macrovascular endothelial defense function, focusing on its effects on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. The effects of DDD on mitochondrial energy metabolism were also investigated in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Type 2 diabetes were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high fat diet. Rats were randomly divided into non-intervention group, metformin group, simvastatin group, and early-, middle-, late-stage DDD groups...
November 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328414/malat1-enhanced-the-proliferation-of-human-osteoblasts-treated-with-ultra%C3%A2-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-by-targeting-vegf-via-mir%C3%A2-22%C3%A2-5p
#12
Xucheng Yang, Yingying Zhang, Yusheng Li, Ting Wen
Osteolysis associated with an implanted prosthesis is the major cause of failure in prosthesis implantation, and a severe public health issue worldwide. The type of bone metabolism associated with this disorder has been a major focus for improving the outcomes of patients with osteolysis. The role of metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1; a member of the long coding RNA family) during the onset of osteolysis and the related molecular regulatory mechanism in ultra‑high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)‑treated hFOB 1...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328364/genetically%C3%A2-modified-stem-cells-in-treatment-of-human-diseases-tissue-kallikrein-klk1-%C3%A2-based-targeted-therapy-review
#13
Marina Devetzi, Maria Goulielmaki, Nicolas Khoury, Demetrios A Spandidos, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Ioannis Christodoulou, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
The tissue kallikrein‑kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein metabolic cascade which is implicated in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system. Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) is a serine protease, component of the KKS that has been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in protection from tissue injury through its anti‑inflammatory, anti‑apoptotic, anti‑fibrotic and anti‑oxidative actions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute populations of well‑characterized, readily obtainable multipotent cells with special immunomodulatory, migratory and paracrine properties rendering them appealing potential therapeutics in experimental animal models of various diseases...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327317/transcript-levels-of-members-of-the-slc2-and-slc5-families-of-glucose-transport-proteins-in-eel-swimbladder-tissue-the-influence-of-silvering-and-the-influence-of-a-nematode-infection
#14
Gabriel Schneebauer, David Mauracher, Birgit Fiechtner, Bernd Pelster
The rate of glucose metabolism has been shown to be correlated to glucose uptake in swimbladder gas gland cells. Therefore, it is assumed that in the European eel silvering, i.e., the preparation of the eel for the spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea, coincides with an enhanced capacity for glucose uptake. To test this hypothesis expression of all known glucose transport proteins has been assessed at the transcript level in yellow and in silver eels, and we also included Anguillicola crassus infected swimbladders...
January 11, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320557/high-ahr-expression-in-breast-tumors-correlates-with-expression-of-genes-from-several-signaling-pathways-namely-inflammation-and-endogenous-tryptophan-metabolism
#15
Sophie Vacher, Patrice Castagnet, Walid Chemlali, François Lallemand, Didier Meseure, Marc Pocard, Ivan Bieche, Martine Perrot-Applanat
Increasing epidemiological and animal experimental data provide substantial support for the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of AhR have been clearly demonstrated in rodent models of breast carcinogenesis and in several established human breast cancer cell lines following exposure to AhR ligands or AhR overexpression. However, relatively little is known about the role of AhR in human breast cancers. AhR has always been considered to be a regulator of toxic and carcinogenic responses to environmental contaminants such as TCDD (dioxin) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305843/circulating-microparticles-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-diabetic-kidney-disease-a-case-control-research
#16
Kathryna Fontana Rodrigues, Nathalia Teixeira Pietrani, Ana Paula Fernandes, Adriana Aparecida Bosco, Maira Cândida Rodrigues de Sousa, Ieda de Fátima Oliveira Silva, Josianne Nicácio Silveira, Fernanda Magalhães Freire Campos, Karina Braga Gomes
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with chronic lowgrade inflammation. Microparticles (MPs) are extracellular microvesicles released during apoptosis and cellular activation. The MP's pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory activities are involved in endothelial dysfunction observed in T2DM patients. This study aimed to evaluate the circulating MPs profile in T2DM patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and correlate it with clinical and laboratorial parameters. METHODS: MPs derived from platelets (PMPs), leukocytes (LMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), and expressing tissue factor (TFMPs) were measured by flow cytometry, in plasma of 39 DKD patients and 30 non-diabetic controls...
January 3, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302580/protective-effect-of-allium-tuberosum-extract-on-vascular-inflammation-in-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#17
Haeng Jeon Hur, Ae Sin Lee
Background: Endothelial adhesion molecule expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokine plays an important role in vascular endothelial cell injury, leading to vascular disease. Allium tuberosum (AT), which is used as a functional food, has a thrombolytic effect. It contains vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and phosphorus. There are many carotenes that turn into vitamin A in the body. Also, it helps blood circulation and stimulates metabolism. The purpose of the this study was to estimate the anti-inflammatory effects of the AT extract...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299993/exosomes-in-cholesterol-metabolism-and-atherosclerosis
#18
Allison B Reiss, Nicholas A Vernice, Nicolle M Siegart, Joshua DeLeon, Lora J Kasselman
OBJECTIVE: Exosomes are small secreted membrane vesicles formed in the late endocytic compartments by inward budding. Interest in these extracellular vesicles and their role in atherosclerosis is growing, as they can affect multiple cellular processes that lead to lipid overload, cytokine secretion and cellular adhesion. Exosomes protect and transport lipids, proteins, and RNAs, fostering intercellular communication among different cell types involved in atherogenesis such as macrophages, endothelium and smooth muscle...
January 3, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299986/significance-of-hepatoprotective-liver-specific-targeted-drug-delivery-a-review-on-novel-herbal-and-formulation-approaches-in-management-of-hepatotoxicity
#19
Surbhi Rohilla, D C Bhatt
BACKGROUND: The liver is the largest and vital organ present in all vertebrates. It performs various major functions such as detoxification, metabolism, protein synthesis, excretion and so on. Liver cells are divided into parenchymal cells and non-parenchymal cells. Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells, etc are found in liver having different receptors present on their surface which can be used for liver targeting by binding to different ligands...
January 3, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296222/effect-of-cilostazol-on-plasma-levels-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9
#20
I-Chih Chen, Wei-Kung Tseng, Yi-Heng Li, Shih-Ya Tseng, Ping-Yen Liu, Ting-Hsing Chao
The protein complex proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serves as an important target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and lipid homeostasis. This study investigated the effect of cilostazol on plasma PCSK9 concentrations. We performed a post hoc analysis of two prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trials including 115 patients of whom 61 received cilostazol 200 mg/day and 54 received placebo for 12 weeks. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between several parameters and changes in PCSK9 levels...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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