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endothelial cell and metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526925/polyphenolic-extract-attenuates-fatty-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepatic-and-endothelial-cells
#1
Laura Vergani, Giulia Vecchione, Francesca Baldini, Elena Grasselli, Adriana Voci, Piero Portincasa, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro A Casazza, Patrizia Perego
PURPOSE: Phenolic compounds (PC) of virgin olive oil exert several biochemical and pharmacological beneficial effects. Some dietary PC seem to prevent/improve obesity and metabolic-related disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the possible effects of PC extracted from olive pomace (PEOP) and of the main single molecules present in the extract (tyrosol, apigenin, oleuropein, p-coumaric and caffeic acid) in protecting hepatocytes and endothelial cells against triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523459/plasma-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-associated-with-the-first-phase-of-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-function-of-%C3%AE-cell
#3
J Wu, H Wei, H Qu, Z Feng, J Long, Q Ge, H Deng
PURPOSE: To detect plasma vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) in individuals with different glucose tolerance and investigate the relationship between plasma VEGF-B levels and the first phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), and 39 Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects, all of whom underwent intravenous glucose tolerance test...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521866/neovascular-deterioration-impaired-nadph-oxidase-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-adipose-derived-multipotent-cells-from-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Said Lhamyani, Leticia Coín-Aragüez, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Juan Alcaide-Torres, Elena María Yubero-Serrano, Rajaa El Bekay, Francisco José Tinahones
OBJECTIVE: Expansion of adipose tissue depends on the growth of its vascular network and it has been shown that adipose tissue dysfunction in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. In this study we examined the neovascular properties, expression levels of proteins involved in cellular redox balance and inflammatory cytokines in adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells (ASCs) of subjects with different metabolic profiles...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516428/cerebrovascular-angiogenic-reprogramming-upon-lrp1-repression-impact-on-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated-signaling-in-brain-endothelial-cell-chemotactism
#5
Amélie Vézina, Cyndia Charfi, Alain Zgheib, Borhane Annabi
Switches in sphingolipid metabolism have recently been associated with oncogenic transformation, and a role for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) proangiogenic signaling inferred. S1P signaling crosstalk with LRP1 in brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is however unclear. Transient in vitro siLRP1 gene silencing was compared to stable shLRP1 knockdown. We observed decreased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor for which multiple binding sites are found within the promoter sequences of all five S1P receptor members, upon stable but not transient LRP1 repression...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516138/data-on-metabolic-dependent-antioxidant-response-in-the-cardiovascular-tissues-of-living-zebrafish-under-stress-conditions
#6
Emiliano Panieri, Massimo M Santoro
In this article we used transgenic zebrafish lines that express compartment-specific isoforms of the roGFP2-Orp1 and Grx1-roGFP2 biosensors, described in Panieri et al (2017) [1], to test the contribute of the pentose phosphate pathway and of the glutathione biosynthesis in the antioxidant capacity of myocardial and endothelial cells in vivo. The transgenic zebrafish embryos were subdued to metabolic inhibition and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or the redox-cycling agent menadione to respectively mimic acute or chronic oxidative stress...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513806/increased-activity-of-vascular-adenosine-deaminase-in-atherosclerosis-and-therapeutic-potential-of-its-inhibition
#7
Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Lukasz Mateuszuk, Paulina Zukowska, Agnieszka Jasztal, Magdalena A Zabielska, Marta Toczek, Patrycja Jablonska, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Barbara Sitek, Jan Rogowski, Romuald Lango, Ewa M Slominska, Stefan Chlopicki, Ryszard T Smolenski
Aims: Extracellular nucleotides and adenosine that are formed or degraded by membrane-bound ecto-enzymes could affect atherosclerosis by regulating the inflammation and thrombosis. This study aimed to evaluate a relation between ecto-enzymes that convert extracellular adenosine triphosphate to adenine dinucleotide phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine, and inosine on the surface of the vessel wall with the severity or progression of experimental and clinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine deaminase will block the development of experimental atherosclerosis...
November 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512152/papers-of-note-in-nature545-7653
#8
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight colon cancer stem cells; cooperative signaling that maintains intestinal stem cell self-renewal; a newly developed Wnt agonist; and metabolic changes in endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis.
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499911/aging-associated-metabolic-disorder-induces-nox2-activation-and-oxidative-damage-of-endothelial-function
#9
Lampson M Fan, Sarah Cahill-Smith, Li Geng, Junjie Du, Gavin Brooks, Jian-Mei Li
Oxidative stress attributable to the activation of a Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase is involved in the development of vascular diseases and in aging. However, the mechanism of Nox2 activation in normal aging remains unclear. In this study, we used age-matched wild-type (WT) and Nox2 knockout (KO) mice at 3-4 months (young); 11-12 months (middle-aged) and 21-22 months (aging) to investigate age-related metabolic disorders, Nox2 activation and endothelial dysfunction. Compared to young mice, middle-aged and ageing WT mice had significantly hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, systemic oxidative stress and higher blood pressure...
May 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499383/nintedanib-antiangiogenic-inhibitor-effectiveness-in-delaying-adenocarcinoma-progression-in-transgenic-adenocarcinoma-of-the-mouse-prostate-tramp
#10
Raquel Frenedoso da Silva, Ellen Nogueira-Pangrazi, Larissa Akemi Kido, Fabio Montico, Sarah Arana, Dileep Kumar, Komal Raina, Rajesh Agarwal, Valéria Helena Alves Cagnon
BACKGROUND: In recent times, anti-cancer treatments have focused on Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors so as to target tumor angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. One such drug is Nintedanib; the present study evaluated the effectiveness of Nintedanib treatment against in vitro proliferation of human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, and growth and progression of different grades of PCa lesions in pre-clinical PCa transgenic adenocarcinoma for the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497570/-laps-insulin115-a-novel-ultra-long-acting-basal-insulin-with-a-unique-action-profile
#11
Nina Wronkowitz, Thorsten Hartmann, Sven Görgens, Daniela Dietze-Schroeder, Ira Indrakusuma, In Young Choi, Sung Hee Park, Young-Mi Lee, Se Chang Kwon, Yeonjoo Kang, Marcus Hompesch, Juergen Eckel
AIMS: Developing a safe, while more convenient long-acting basal insulin for diabetic patients is still an unmet medical need. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive pre-clinical study of the novel ultra-long acting insulin analogue (LAPS) Insulin115. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies comparing (LAPS) Insulin115 with other basal insulins were conducted in (db/db) mice. Insulin signaling in the major target organs was analysed by Western blot after single subcutaneous injection in wildtype male Wistar rats...
May 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495997/extracellular-vesicles-in-metabolic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
M Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells...
May 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493600/endurance-training-selectively-increases-hdl-bound-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-the-plasma
#13
Monika Książek, Małgorzata Charmas, Andrzej Klusiewicz, Piotr Zabielski, Barbara Długołęcka, Adrian Chabowski, Marcin Baranowski
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysosphingolipid that is found in relatively high concentration in human plasma. Erythrocytes, endothelial cells, and activated platelets are the main sources of circulating S1P. The majority of plasma S1P is transported bound to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and albumin. In recent years HDL-bound S1P attracted much attention due to its cardioprotective and anti-atherogenic properties. We have previously found that endurance-trained athletes are characterized by higher plasma S1P concentration compared to untrained individuals...
May 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493326/hyperglycaemia-and-aberrated-insulin-signalling-stimulate-tumour-progression-via-induction-of-the-extracellular-matrix-component-hyaluronan
#14
Sören Twarock, Christina Reichert, Ulrike Peters, Daniel J Gorski, Katharina Röck, Jens W Fischer
Epidemiological studies have detected a higher incidence of various tumour entities in diabetic patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain insufficiently understood. Glucose-derived pericellular and extracellular hyaluronan (HA) promotes tumour progression and development. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diabetic metabolic state, characterised by hyperglycaemia and concomitant aberrant insulin signalling, stimulates tumour progression via the induction of HA synthesis. In a streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mouse tumour xenograft model, hyperglycaemia and lack of insulin caused an increased formation of tumour-associated HA-matrix, which in turn accelerated tumour progression and neoangiogenesis...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489600/oleate-induced-ptx3-promotes-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-through-the-up-regulation-of-vimentin
#15
Shih-Hung Chan, Jhih-Peng Tsai, Chih-Jie Shen, Yu-Han Liao, Ben-Kuen Chen
The association between metabolic diseases and the risk of developing cancer is emerging. However, the impact of long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) on dyslipidemia-associated tumor metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we found that oleate induced PTX3 expression and secretion through the activation of Akt/NF-κB pathway in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The activation of NF-κB was essential for the oleate-induced stabilization of PTX3 mRNA. In addition, both the depletion of PTX3 and the inhibition of NF-κB significantly inhibited oleate-induced tumor cell migration and invasion...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487545/mechanisms-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#16
REVIEW
Takuma Tsuchida, Scott L Friedman
Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process characterized by the net accumulation of extracellular matrix resulting from chronic liver injury of any aetiology, including viral infection, alcoholic liver disease and NASH. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) - transdifferentiation of quiescent, vitamin-A-storing cells into proliferative, fibrogenic myofibroblasts - is now well established as a central driver of fibrosis in experimental and human liver injury. Yet, the continued discovery of novel pathways and mediators, including autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, retinol and cholesterol metabolism, epigenetics and receptor-mediated signals, reveals the complexity of HSC activation...
May 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486940/binding-of-plasmodium-falciparum-to-cd36-can-be-shielded-by-the-glycocalyx
#17
Casper Hempel, Christian William Wang, Jørgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals, Trine Staalsø
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the microcirculation due to interaction between surface-expressed parasite proteins and endothelial receptors. Endothelial cells are covered in a carbohydrate-rich glycocalyx that shields against undesired leukocyte adhesion. It was investigated if the cellular glycocalyx affects the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to CD36 in vitro. METHODS: Glycocalyx growth was followed in vitro by using azido sugars and cationized ferritin detecting O-glycoproteins and negatively charged proteoglycans, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485159/fbp1-modulates-cell-metabolism-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#18
L Shi, C He, Z Li, Z Wang, Q Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the function of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in regulating cell growth and metabolism through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-dependent hypoxic response in breast cancer cells. Two human breast carcinoma cell lines, including luminal-like cell line MCF-7 and basal-like cell line MDA-MB-468, were cultured under hypoxia condition, then the expressions of FBP1 and HIF-1α were detected by western blotting. In addition, up-regulated FPB1 in MDA-MB-468 cells were induced by lentivirus...
May 9, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484449/interleukin-6-signaling-pathway-and-its-role-in-kidney-disease-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Hua Su, Chun-Tao Lei, Chun Zhang
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that not only regulates the immune and inflammatory response but also affects hematopoiesis, metabolism, and organ development. IL-6 can simultaneously elicit distinct or even contradictory physiopathological processes, which is likely discriminated by the cascades of signaling pathway, termed classic and trans-signaling. Besides playing several important physiological roles, dysregulated IL-6 has been demonstrated to underlie a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, metabolic abnormalities, and malignancies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482051/biomarkers-of-chronic-acrolein-inhalation-exposure-in-mice-implications-for-tobacco-product-induced-toxicity
#20
Daniel J Conklin, Marina V Malovichko, Iris Zeller, Trinath P Das, Tatiana V Krivokhizhina, Blake H Lynch, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Abhinav Agarwal, Nalinie Wickramasinghe, Petra Haberzettl, Srinivas D Sithu, Jasmit Shah, Timothy E O'Toole, Shesh N Rai, Aruni Bhatnagar, Sanjay Srivastava
Exposure to tobacco smoke, which contains several harmful and potentially harmful constituents such as acrolein increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although high acrolein levels induce pervasive cardiovascular injury, the effects of low-level exposure remain unknown and sensitive biomarkers of acrolein toxicity have not been identified. Identification of such biomarkers is essential to assess the toxicity of acrolein present at low levels in the ambient air or in new tobacco products such as e-cigarettes...
May 8, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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