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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786975/a-comparison-of-one-stage-vs-two-stage-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-methods-a-simulation-study
#1
Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis allows for the exploration of heterogeneity and can identify subgroups that most benefit from an intervention (or exposure), much more successfully than meta-analysis of aggregate data. One-stage or two-stage IPD meta-analysis is possible, with the former using mixed-effects regression models and the latter obtaining study-estimates through simpler regression models before aggregating using standard meta-analysis methodology. However, a comprehensive comparison of the two methods, in practice, is lacking...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786974/embryonic-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-reduces-the-size-of-song-control-nuclei-in-a-songbird
#2
Margaret L Eng, Viktoria Winter, John E Elliott, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Tony D Williams
Environmental contaminants have the potential to act as developmental stressors and impair development of song and the brain of songbirds, but they have been largely unstudied in this context. 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) is a brominated flame retardant congener that has demonstrated endocrine disrupting effects, and has pervaded the global environment. We assessed the effects of in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 on the neuroanatomy of the song-control system in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786924/reproductive-ecology-of-ocotea-catharinensis-an-endangered-tree-species
#3
Tiago Montagna, Juliano Zago da Silva, Tiago Georg Pickart, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis
Ocotea catharinensis (Lauraceae) is an endangered tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Currently, little is known about the reproductive ecology of this species. Aiming to propose conservation measures, we described aspects related to phenology, floral biology, pollination, seed dispersal, and mating system of O. catharinensis. We conducted phenological observations in 62 individuals for two years. In one reproductive event, we evaluated nectar production, stigmatic receptivity, and pollen viability...
May 22, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786908/opposing-patterns-of-intraspecific-and-interspecific-differentiation-in-sex-chromosomes-and-autosomes
#4
Peter A Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothee Cezard, Judith E Risse, Michael G Ritchie, Nathan W Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786874/meta-analysis-of-the-association-of-alcohol-related-social-media-use-with-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-related-problems-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
REVIEW
Brenda L Curtis, Samantha J Lookatch, Danielle E Ramo, James R McKay, Richard S Feinn, Henry R Kranzler
Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786840/spray-drying-of-milk-blackberry-pulp-mixture-effect-of-carrier-agent-on-the-physical-properties-of-powder-water-sorption-and-glass-transition-temperature
#6
Matheus Boeira Braga, Sandra Cristina Dos Santos Rocha, Miriam Dupas Hubinger
Spray dryer was used to produce particles from a milk-blackberry pulp mixture (25%:75% (w/w)). Maltodextrin 10DE and 20DE and gum Arabic were used as adjuvants in order to improve powder quality. The particles were analyzed with emphasis on physical and physicochemical characteristics: moisture content, bulk density, particle size, morphology, water activity, anthocyanins retention, anthocyanins content, hygroscopicity, solubility, water sorption, and glass transition temperature. The best results were obtained for the paste composition of 25% concentrated milk-70% blackberry pulp-5% gum Arabic, yielding high anthocyanins retention (>87...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786750/microrna%C3%A2-20b%C3%A2-5p-promotes-ventricular-remodeling-by-targeting-the-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury
#7
Zhao-Guang Liang, Hong Yao, Rong-Sheng Xie, Chun-Lin Gong, Ye Tian
Myocardial ischemic injury results from severe impairment of the coronary blood supply and may lead to metabolic and ultrastructural changes, thereby causing irreversible damage. MicroRNA (miR)‑20b‑5p has been demonstrated to be involved in malignancies of the breast, colorectum, stomach, blood and oropharynx. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of miR‑20b‑5p on ventricular remodeling following myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion (IR) injury in rats by targeting small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7) via the transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β)/Smad signaling pathway...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786658/melatonin-as-a-therapy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-published-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Emily McGreevy, Lan Pham, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL's documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786641/photothermal-effectiveness-of-magnetite-nanoparticles-dependence-upon-particle-size-probed-by-experiment-and-simulation
#9
Robert J G Johnson, Jonathan D Schultz, Benjamin J Lear
The photothermal effect of nanoparticles has proven efficient for driving diverse physical and chemical processes; however, we know of no study addressing the dependence of efficacy on nanoparticle size. Herein, we report on the photothermal effect of three different sizes (5.5 nm, 10 nm and 15 nm in diameter) of magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) driving the decomposition of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC). We find that the chemical effectiveness of the photothermal effect is positively correlated with particle volume...
May 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786631/comparison-between-elite-and-subelite-swimmers-on-dry-land-and-tumble-turn-leg-extensor-force-time-characteristics
#10
Julian V Jones, David B Pyne, G Greg Haff, Robert U Newton
Jones, JV, Pyne, DB, Haff, GG, and Newton, RU. Comparison between elite and subelite swimmers on dry land and tumble turn leg extensor force-time characteristics. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1762-1769, 2018-Elite swimmers demonstrate faster swimming turn times that are potentially a result of having better strength-power characteristics than subelite swimmers. We quantified differences between dry-land and swimming turn force-time characteristics in elite swimmers and subelite swimmers. Subelite (11 males: 17...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786604/size-shape-and-compositional-effects-on-the-order-disorder-phase-transitions-in-au-cu-and-pt-m-m-fe-co-and-ni-nanocluster-alloys
#11
Forrest H Kaatz, Adhemar Bultheel
Au-Cu and Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) nanocluster alloys are currently being investigated world-wide by many researchers for their interesting catalytic and nanophase properties. The low temperature behavior of the phase diagrams is not well understood for alloys with nanometer sizes and shapes. We consider two models for low temperature ordering in the phase diagrams of Au-Cu and Pt-M nanocluster alloys. These models are valid for sizes ∼ 5 nm and approach bulk values for sizes ∼ 20 nm. We study the phase transitions in nanoclusters with cubic, octahedral, and cuboctahedral shapes, covering the compositions of interest...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786534/-the-gynecological-pessary-is-it-really-a-device-of-another-age-a-fig-leaf
#12
E Nohuz, E Jouve, G Clement, B Jacquetin
OBJECTIVES: The use of pessary to put back up prolapsed organs to their normal position dates back prior to several millennia. This work aims to discuss its place in our clinical practice through an updated bibliographic review and emphasizes a hands-on approach to pessary fitting and management in terms of indication, pessary type selection, device' size, insertion, removal, follow-up visits and care. METHODS: A review of the literature, in the light of the latest publications and recommendations of French and international learned societies, as well as our own experience, were analyzed...
May 18, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786471/the-effects-of-polyphenol-supplementation-on-adipose-tissue-morphology-and-gene-expression-in-overweight-and-obese-humans
#13
Jasper Most, Ines Warnke, Mark V Boekschoten, Johan W E Jocken, Philip de Groot, Angelika Friedel, Igor Bendik, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
Dietary polyphenols have beneficial effects on adipose tissue mass and function in rodents, but human studies are scarce. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 25 (10 women) overweight and obese humans received a combination of the polyphenols epigallocatechin-gallate and resveratrol (282 mg/d, 80 mg/d, respectively, EGCG+RES, n = 11) or placebo (PLA, n = 14) supplementation for 12 weeks. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were collected for assessment of adipocyte morphology and micro-array analysis...
May 1, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786460/counterexample-driven-genetic-programming-heuristic-program-synthesis-from-formal-specifications
#14
Iwo Błądek, Krzysztof Krawiec, Jerry Swan
Conventional genetic programming (GP) can only guarantee that synthesized programs pass tests given by the provided input-output examples. The alternative to such test-based approach is synthesizing programs by formal specification, typically realized with exact, non-heuristic algorithms. In this paper, we build on our earlier study on Counterexample-Based Genetic Programming (CDGP), an evolutionary heuristic that synthesizes programs from formal specifications. The candidate programs in CDGP undergo formal verification with a Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solver, which results in counterexamples that are subsequently turned into tests and used to calculate fitness...
May 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786162/hospitals-and-the-generic-versus-brand-name-prescription-decision-in-the-outpatient-sector
#15
Gerald J Pruckner, Thomas Schober
Health care payers try to reduce costs by promoting the use of cheaper generic drugs. We show strong interrelations in drug prescriptions between the inpatient and outpatient sectors by using a large administrative dataset from Austria. Patients with prior hospital visits have a significantly lower probability of receiving a generic drug in the outpatient sector. The size of the effect depends on both the patient and doctor characteristics, which could be related to the differences in hospital treatment and heterogeneity in the physicians' adherence to hospital choices...
May 22, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786154/topical-polyhydroxy-acid-treatment-for-autosomal-recessive-congenital-ichthyosis-in-the-golden-retriever-a-prospective-pilot-study
#16
Anna Puigdemont, Nicla Furiani, Michela De Lucia, Isaac Carrasco, Laura Ordeix, Dolors Fondevila, Laura Ramió-Lluch, Pilar Brazis
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) in golden retrievers is due to a PNPLA1 gene mutation, which plays a role in epidermal lipid organization and metabolism. Topical therapies are used to reduce scaling; however, there are few published efficacy studies. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of topical treatment based on gluconolactone, a polyhydroxy acid with known beneficial effects on stratum corneum structure. ANIMALS: Sixteen golden retriever dogs with clinical signs of ARCI and PCR-confirmed PNPLA1 gene mutation...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786135/scientific-update-on-nanoparticles-in-dentistry
#17
REVIEW
Gottfried Schmalz, Reinhard Hickel, Kirsten L van Landuyt, Franz-Xaver Reichl
Nanoparticles having a size from 1 to 100 nm are present in nature and are successfully used in many products of daily life. In dental materials, nanoparticles are typically embedded but they may also exist as by-products from milling processes. Possible adverse effects of nanoparticles have gained increased interest, with the lungs being the main target organ. Exposure to nanoparticles in the dental laboratory is addressed by legal regulations. In dental practice, nanoparticles are mainly produced by intra-oral grinding/polishing and removal of materials, by wear of restorations or release from dental implants...
May 22, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785976/the-study-of-attenuation-levels-and-the-comfort-of-earplugs
#18
Alessandra G Samelli, Raquel F Gomes, Tiago V Chammas, Bárbara G Silva, Renata R Moreira, Ana C Fiorini
Introduction: This study aimed to analyze and compare four different types of earplugs, divided into premolded plugs and foam plug models, in relation to the level of attenuation, comfort, and the size of the external acoustic meatus (EAM) in an attempt to identify how these variables influence the choice of specific hearing protection devices (HPDs). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in a sample of 49 participants, oriented toward the ideal placement of four HPDs, two premolded and two foam plugs (3M™)...
May 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785893/evaluating-vaccination-strategies-to-control-foot-and-mouth-disease-a-country-comparison-study
#19
T G Rawdon, M G Garner, R L Sanson, M A Stevenson, C Cook, C Birch, S E Roche, K A Patyk, K N Forde-Folle, C Dubé, T Smylie, Z D Yu
Vaccination is increasingly being recognised as a potential tool to supplement 'stamping out' for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in non-endemic countries. Infectious disease simulation models provide the opportunity to determine how vaccination might be used in the face of an FMD outbreak. Previously, consistent relative benefits of specific vaccination strategies across different FMD simulation modelling platforms have been demonstrated, using a UK FMD outbreak scenario. We extended this work to assess the relative effectiveness of selected vaccination strategies in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK and Canada...
May 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785802/bayesian-measurement-error-driven-hidden-markov-regression-model-for-calibrating-the-effect-of-covariates-on-multistate-outcomes-application-to-androgenetic-alopecia
#20
Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Hsiu-Hsi Chen
Multistate Markov regression models used for quantifying the effect size of state-specific covariates pertaining to the dynamics of multistate outcomes have gained popularity. However, the measurements of multistate outcome are prone to the errors of classification, particularly when a population-based survey/research is involved with proxy measurements of outcome due to cost consideration. Such a misclassification may affect the effect size of relevant covariates such as odds ratio used in the field of epidemiology...
May 21, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
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