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Holger Fehlauer, Adam L Nekimken, Anna A Kim, Beth L Pruitt, Miriam B Goodman, Michael Krieg
One central goal of mechanobiology is to understand the reciprocal effect of mechanical stress on proteins and cells. Despite its importance, the influence of mechanical stress on cellular function is still poorly understood. In part, this knowledge gap exists because few tools enable simultaneous deformation of tissue and cells, imaging of cellular activity in live animals, and efficient restriction of motility in otherwise highly mobile model organisms, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The small size of C...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Tian, Wei Zhang, Van Phuc Nguyen, Xueding Wang, Yannis M Paulus
Photoacoustic ocular imaging is an emerging ophthalmic imaging technology that can noninvasively visualize ocular tissue by converting light energy into sound waves and is currently under intensive investigation. However, most reported work to date is focused on the imaging of the posterior segment of the eyes of small animals, such as rats and mice, which poses challenges for clinical human translation due to small eyeball sizes. This manuscript describes a novel photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) dual-modality system for posterior segment imaging of the eyes of larger animals, such as rabbits...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tiffany Guess, Hoyin Lai, Serenah E Smith, Linda Sircy, Kirsten Cunningham, David E Nelson, Erin E McClelland
The polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is the primary virulence factor and one of the most commonly studied aspects of this pathogenic yeast. Capsule size can vary widely between strains, has the ability to grow rapidly when introduced to stressful or low nutrient conditions, and has been positively correlated with strain virulence. For these reasons, the size of the capsule is of great interest to C. neoformans researchers. The growth of the C. neoformans capsule is induced during phenotypic testing to help understand the effects of different treatments on the yeast or size differences between strains...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hoda Fathali, Johan Dunevall, Soodabeh Majdi, Ann-Sofie Cans
Amperometry recording of cells subjected to osmotic shock show that secretory cells respond to this physical stress by reducing the exocytosis activity and the amount of neurotransmitter released from vesicles in single exocytosis events. It has been suggested that the reduction in neurotransmitters expelled is due to alterations in membrane biophysical properties when cells shrink in response to osmotic stress and with assumptions made that secretory vesicles in the cell cytoplasm are not affected by extracellular osmotic stress...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zakaria Aboulbanine, Naïma El Khayati
The use of phase space in medical linear accelerator Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly improves the execution time and leads to results comparable to those obtained from full calculations. The classical representation of phase space stores directly the information of millions of particles, producing bulky files. This paper presents a virtual source model (VSM) based on a reconstruction algorithm, taking as input a compressed file of roughly 800 kb derived from phase space data freely available in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Aeysha Chaudhry, Shakoor Hajat, Najwa Rizkallah, Ala'a Abu-Rub
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential for a child's growth and development. However, research on micronutrients in the occupied Palestinian territory is scarce. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies in children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: The Palestinian Micronutrient Survey in 2013 measured concentrations of vitamin A in 1054 children (569 children in the West Bank and 485 children in the Gaza Strip) and vitamin D in 150 children (75 children in the West Bank and 75 children in the Gaza Strip)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Natasha A Lannin, Louise Ada, Coralie English, Julie Ratcliffe, Maria Crotty
Rationale Although clinical practice guidelines recommend that management of moderate to severe spasticity include the use of botulinum toxin-A in conjunction with therapy, there is currently no evidence to support the addition of therapy. Aims To determine the effect and cost-benefit of adding evidence-based movement training to botulinum toxin-A. Sample size estimate A total of 136 participants will be recruited in order to be able to detect a between-group difference of seven points on the Goal Attainment Scale T-score with 80% power at a two-tailed significance level of 0...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Na Xu, Jun Chu, Min Wang, Ling Chen, Liang Zhang, Zhongwen Xie, Jinsong Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Daxiang Li, Xiaochun Wan
Large yellow tea is a traditional beverage in China with unique toasty flavor. Preliminary study using 3T3-L1 cells indicted that large yellow tea, possessed more potent lipid-lowering efficacy than green, black, dark and white teas. In the present study we further investigated its influence on metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model with an emphasis on dose response. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD+2.5% large yellow tea hot-water extract (YT, equivalent to 10 cups of tea daily for humans), HFD+0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Piran R Kidambi, Dhanushkodi D Mariappan, Nicholas T Dee, Andrey Vyatskikh, Sui Zhang, Rohit Karnik, A John Hart
Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tokio Higaki, Osamu Aramaki, Masamichi Moriguchi, Hisashi Nakayama, Yutaka Midorikawa, Tadatoshi Takayama
Conventional regimens for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are considered of limited effectiveness. To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion of IA-call (a fine-powder formulation of cisplatin) plus oral S-1 in patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological data and long-term outcome of 12 patients who were received with IA-call plus S-1 were compared with those of 16 patients who were received other treatments, such as radiation therapy, trans-arterial chemoembolization, and systemic chemotherapy...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Mersedeh TariVerdi, Elise Miller-Hooks, Thomas Kirsch
Mass casualty incidents are a concern in many urban areas. A community's ability to cope with such events depends on the capacities and capabilities of its hospitals for handling a sudden surge in demand of patients with resource-intensive and specialized medical needs. This paper uses a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate medical staff, resources, and space for the purpose of investigating hospital responsiveness to mass casualty incidents. It provides details of probable demand patterns of different mass casualty incident types in terms of patient categories and arrival patterns, and accounts for related transient system behavior over the response period...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Wen-Wen Sun, Jin-Xia Dou, Lin Zhang, Li-Kui Qiao, Na Shen, Wen-Yuan Gao
To compare the therapeutic effects of different treatment methods on the nude mice bearing colon cancer HT29 cells. BalB/C nude mice colon cancer stem cell models were established and randomly divided into the following four groups, with 8 nude mice in each group: blank control group, DC-CIK group, Huaier group, and Huaier combined with DC-CIK group (combined treatment group). The mice in DC-CIK group and combined treatment group received 1×10⁶ DC-CIK cells treatment by tail vein injectionafter the tumor stem cells were inoculated for 4 days,2 times a week for three weeks...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ying Li, Li-Fang Wang, Jin-Ling Wang, Peng-Fei Tu
This study aimed to prepare andrographolide (AP)-loaded glycyrrhizic acid (GA) micelles (AP-GA)-PMs to enhance the solubility and anti-tumor effect of andrographolide. Firstly, andrographolide (AP) was used as the model drug and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as carriers to prepare (AP-GA)-PMs. Then the preparation methods and the ratios of drug and carrier were screened and optimized based on particle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading capacity of micelles. Finally, the pharmaceutical characters and the inhibition rate on HepG2 cells were evaluated on the (AP-GA)-PMs prepared by optimal process...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nishit Bhatnagar, Siddharth Sharma, Virender Kumar Gautam, Ajeet Kumar, Anurag Tiwari
PURPOSE: Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee affects the medial femoral condyle in patients above 55 years of age. Many reports and studies are available from western countries. But there is a gross paucity of literature on spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) in the Indian subcontinent, either it is under-reported or detected at a later stage. The aim of our study was to detect SPONK in Indian population and describe its characteristics, treatment, and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted over a period of three years...
March 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Hardaway Chun-Kwan Chan, Weeraya Ka-Yan Ho, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung
Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sprint cycling training on the intermittent run performance, sprinting speed, and change of direction (COD) ability of recreational intermittent sports athletes. Methods: Sixteen participants participated in the study. The experimental group (EG, n = 8) received a total of 12 sessions of sprint cycling training in a 4-week period and the control group (CG, n = 8) received no training. Both EG and CG were instructed to maintain their daily activity during the 4-week period...
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology
Ramón Cugat, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Xavier Cuscó, Jordi Navarro, Gilbert Steinbacher, Pedro Álvarez-Díaz, Roberto Seijas, David Barastegui, Montse García-Balletbó
Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transtibial technique provides successful clinical outcomes. However, a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft with the transtibial technique has not been used by some surgeons because of concerns with graft passage from the tibial to the femoral tunnels (sharp turn) that can damage graft fibers. In the present surgical technique, an arthroscopic, transtibial, single-bundle technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the BTB autograft with an easy and effective technical tip to facilitate graft passage is presented...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Jannis Köhler, Jegor Ruschke, Katja Bettina Ferenz, Cemal Esen, Michael Kirsch, Andreas Ostendorf
Albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based capsules are promising as artificial oxygen carriers with high solubility. However, these capsules have to be studied further to allow initial human clinical tests. The aim of this paper is to provide and characterize a holographic optical tweezer to enable contactless trapping and moving of individual capsules in an environment that mimics physiological (in vivo) conditions most effectively in order to learn more about the artificial oxygen carrier behavior in blood plasma without recourse to animal experiments...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
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