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Systemic photoprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240311/systemic-changes-in-photosynthesis-and-ros-homeostasis-in-shoots-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-infected-with-beet-cyst-nematode-heterodera-schachtii
#1
Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Weronika Czarnocka, Mirosław Sobczak, Jolanta Maria Dzik
Photosynthetic efficiency and redox homeostasis are important for plant physiological processes during regular development as well as defence responses. The second-stage juveniles of the Heterodera schachtii, induce syncytial feeding sites in host roots. To ascertain whether development of the syncytia alters photosynthesis and metabolism of ROS, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and antioxidant responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots at the day of inoculation and at 3, 7 and 15 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154200/uvr-and-par-absorbing-compounds-of-marine-brown-macroalgae-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-of-the-brazilian-coast
#2
Caroline Schmitz, Fernanda Ramlov, Leidson Allan Ferreira de Lucena, Virgilio Uarrota, Manuela Bernardes Batista, Marina Nasri Sissini, Iara Oliveira, Bruno Briani, Cintia D L Martins, José Marcos de Castro Nunes, Leonardo Rörig, Paulo Antunes Horta, Félix L Figueroa, Nathalie Korbee, Marcelo Maraschin, José Bonomi-Barufi
Absorption spectra are indicative of biological sample chemical composition and can be used as a basis for the construction of descriptive and predictive models for biotechnological screening or assays. In marine algae, chemical composition can vary due to species-specific differences in biochemistry, as well as intra-specific responses to unique environmental variables. Different indices (UVCi, UVB+Ai and PARi) were proposed and calculated to evaluate how photoprotective compounds vary in 18 species of Phaeophyceae...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124692/ultraviolet-radiations-skin-defense-damage-mechanism
#3
Dheeraj Mohania, Shikha Chandel, Parveen Kumar, Vivek Verma, Kumar Digvijay, Deepika Tripathi, Khushboo Choudhury, Sandeep Kumar Mitten, Dilip Shah
UV-radiations are the invisible part of light spectra having a wavelength between visible rays and X-rays. Based on wavelength, UV rays are subdivided into UV-A (320-400 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-C (200-280 nm). Ultraviolet rays can have both harmful and beneficial effects. UV-C has the property of ionization thus acting as a strong mutagen, which can cause immune-mediated disease and cancer in adverse cases. Numbers of genetic factors have been identified in human involved in inducing skin cancer from UV-radiations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119916/cytoprotective-polyphenols-against-chronological-skin-aging-and-cutaneous-photodamage
#4
Sergio Davinelli, Juan Carlos Bertoglio, Ascanio Polimeni, Giovanni Scapagnini
BACKGROUND: Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to cumulative alterations of skin structure, function and appearance. Polyphenols, which are secondary plant metabolites, represent one of the largest classes of compounds used in dermatology and nutricosmetics to combat skin aging. The main objective is to provide an overview of the existing literature linking skin aging and the ability of polyphenols as regulatory elements able to maintain skin homeostasis...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090371/cutaneous-manifestations-of-dermatomyositis-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Carlo Selmi
Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by the presence of skin lesions and inflammation of skeletal muscles; however, this feature may be absent in amyopathic DM. DM is a rare disease, occurring at any age, and has two peaks of incidence: one in childhood between 5 and 15 years of age and one in adulthood between 40 and 60 years, with a female preponderance. DM has been associated with malignancy; therefore, every newly diagnosed patient should undergo screening investigations, but evidence-based guidelines on their extension are lacking...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069944/photosensitive-drugs-a-review-on-their-photoprotection-by-liposomes-and-cyclodextrins
#6
Giuseppina Ioele, Michele De Luca, Antonio Garofalo, Gaetano Ragno
Nowadays, an exciting challenge in the drug chemistry and technology research is represented by the development of methods aimed to protect molecular integrity and therapeutic activity of drugs from effects of light. The photostability characterization is ruled by ICH (The International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use), which releases details throughout basic protocols of stability tests to be performed on new medicinal products for human use. The definition of suitable photoprotective systems is fundamental for pharmaceutical manufacturing and for human healthy as well, since light exposure may affect either drugs or drug formulations giving rise even to allergenic or mutagenic by-products...
December 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053262/carotenoid-singlet-fission-reactions-in-bacterial-light-harvesting-complexes-as-revealed-by-triplet-excitation-profiles
#7
Jie Yu, Li-Min Fu, Long-Jiang Yu, Ying Shi, Peng Wang, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo, Jian-Ping Zhang
Carotenoids (Cars) in bacterial photosynthesis are known as accessory light harvesters and photoprotectors. Recently, the singlet fission (SF) reaction initiated by Car photoabsorption has been recognized to be an effective excitation deactivation channel disfavoring the light harvesting function. Since the SF reaction and the triplet sensitization reaction underlying photoprotection both yield triplet excited state Cars ((3)Car*), their contribution to the overall (3)Car* photoproduction are difficult to disentangle...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032637/electron-proton-transfer-mechanism-of-excited-state-hydrogen-transfer-in-phenol-nh3-n-n-3-and-5
#8
Mitsuhiko Miyazaki, Ryuhei Ohara, Claude Dedonder, Christophe Jouvet, Masaaki Fujii
Excited-state hydrogen transfer (ESHT) is responsible for various photochemical processes of aromatics, including photoprotection of nuclear basis. Its mechanism is explained by internal conversion from the aromatic ππ* to πσ* states via conical intersection. This means that the electron is transferred to a diffuse Rydberg-like σ* orbital apart from proton migration. This picture means the electron and the proton do not move together and the dynamics are different in principle. Here, we have applied picosecond time-resolved near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies to the phenol-(NH3)5 cluster, the benchmark system of ESHT, and monitored the electron transfer and proton motion independently...
October 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994020/vitamin-d-and-the-skin-an-update-for-dermatologists
#9
REVIEW
Elio Kechichian, Khaled Ezzedine
Vitamin D plays a key role in skeletal and cardiovascular disorders, cancers, central nervous system diseases, reproductive diseases, infections, and autoimmune and dermatological disorders. The two main sources of vitamin D are sun exposure and oral intake, including vitamin D supplementation and dietary intake. Multiple factors are linked to vitamin D status, such as Fitzpatrick skin type, sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Patients with photosensitive disorders tend to avoid sun exposure, and this practice, along with photoprotection, can put this category of patients at risk for vitamin D deficiency...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894198/functional-modulation-of-lhcsr1-protein-from-physcomitrella-patens-by-zeaxanthin-binding-and-low-ph
#10
Alberta Pinnola, Matteo Ballottari, Ilaria Bargigia, Marcelo Alcocer, Cosimo D'Andrea, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Bassi
Light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis is regulated to prevent the formation of harmful photoproducts by activation of photoprotective mechanisms safely dissipating the energy absorbed in excess. Lumen acidification is the trigger for the formation of quenching states in pigment binding complexes. With the aim to uncover the photoprotective functional states responsible for excess energy dissipation in green algae and mosses, we compared the fluorescence dynamic properties of the light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR1) protein, which is essential for fast and reversible regulation of light use efficiency in lower plants, as compared to the major LHCII antenna protein, which mainly fulfills light harvesting function...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793281/photosynthetic-limitation-and-mechanisms-of-photoprotection-under-drought-and-recovery-of-calotropis-procera-an-evergreen-c3-from-arid-regions
#11
Rebeca Rivas, Gabriella Frosi, Diego G Ramos, Silvia Pereira, Ana M Benko-Iseppon, Mauro G Santos
Calotropis procera is a C3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/Ci analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C...
July 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790428/an-unusual-role-for-the-phytyl-chains-in-the-photoprotection-of-the-chlorophylls-bound-to-water-soluble-chlorophyll-binding-proteins
#12
Alessandro Agostini, Daniel M Palm, Franz-Josef Schmitt, Marco Albertini, Marilena Di Valentin, Harald Paulsen, Donatella Carbonera
Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Proteins (WSCPs) from Brassicaceae are non-photosynthetic proteins which tetramerize upon binding four chlorophyll (Chl) molecules. The bound Chls are highly photostable, despite the lack of bound carotenoids known, in Chl-containing photosynthetic proteins, to act as singlet oxygen and Chl triplet ((3)Chl) quenchers. Although the physiological function of WSCPs is still unclear, it is likely to be related to their biochemical stability and their resistance to photodegradation. To get insight into the origin of this photostability, the properties of the (3)Chl generated in WSCPs upon illumination were investigated...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743100/studies-on-secondary-metabolite-profiling-anti-inflammatory-potential-in-vitro-photoprotective-and-skin-aging-related-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-malaxis-acuminata-a-threatened-orchid-of-nutraceutical-importance
#13
Biswajit Bose, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon, Suman Kumaria
Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabolite contents and biological activities against skin-aging related enzymes (anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) in different plant parts of wild and in vitro-derived plants of M...
August 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692021/additional-families-of-orange-carotenoid-proteins-in-the-photoprotective-system-of-cyanobacteria
#14
Han Bao, Matthew R Melnicki, Emily G Pawlowski, Markus Sutter, Marco Agostoni, Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Fei Cai, Beronda L Montgomery, Cheryl A Kerfeld
The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a structurally and functionally modular photoactive protein involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Using phylogenomic analysis, we have revealed two new paralogous OCP families, each distributed among taxonomically diverse cyanobacterial genomes. Based on bioinformatic properties and phylogenetic relationships, we named the new families OCP2 and OCPx to distinguish them from the canonical OCP that has been well characterized in Synechocystis, denoted hereafter as OCP1...
July 10, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667107/the-two-cryptochrome-photolyase-family-proteins-fulfill-distinct-roles-in-dna-photorepair-and-regulation-of-conidiation-in-the-gray-mold-fungus-botrytis-cinerea
#15
Kim C Cohrs, Julia Schumacher
The plant-pathogenic leotiomycete Botrytis cinerea is known for the strict regulation of its asexual differentiation programs by environmental light conditions. Sclerotia are formed in constant darkness; black/near-UV (NUV) light induces conidiation; and blue light represses both differentiation programs. Sensing of black/NUV light is attributed to proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). To elucidate the molecular basis of the photoinduction of conidiation, we functionally characterized the two CPF proteins encoded in the genome of B...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628680/current-perspectives-among-u-s-dermatologists-on-chemoprevention-of-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-a-survey-based-study
#16
Brittany Oliver, Serena Durrani, Joel L Cohen, Adam J Friedman
<p>Introduction: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the US Primary prevention of NMSC with physical photoprotective measures are often not sufficient to impact skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals. Chemoprevention is the use of agents to prevent, suppress, and reverse carcinogenic progression. Many agents have been investigated, but preclinical and clinical studies are often inconsistent.</p> <p>Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess current practices, perceptions, and general knowledge of U...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619535/evolution-and-regulation-of-bigelowiella-natans-light-harvesting-antenna-system
#17
Jonathan A D Neilson, Pattarasiri Rangsrikitphoti, Dion G Durnford
Bigelowiella natans is a mixotrophic flagellate and member of the chlorarachniophytes (Rhizaria), whose plastid is derived from a green algal endosymbiont. With the completion of the B. natans nuclear genome we are able to begin the analysis of the structure, function and evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus. B. natans has undergone substantial changes in photosystem structure during the evolution of the plastid from a green alga. While Photosystem II (PSII) composition is well conserved, Photosystem I (PSI) composition has undergone a dramatic reduction in accessory protein subunits...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566797/allochthonous-matter-an-important-factor-shaping-the-phytoplankton-community-in-the-baltic-sea
#18
J Paczkowska, O F Rowe, L Schlüter, C Legrand, B Karlson, A Andersson
It is well-known that nutrients shape phytoplankton communities in marine systems, but in coastal waters allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) may also be of central importance. We studied how humic substances (proxy of ADOM) and other variables influenced the nutritional strategies, size structure and pigment content of the phytoplankton community along a south-north gradient in the Baltic Sea. During the summer, the proportion of mixotrophs increased gradually from the phosphorus-rich south to the ADOM-rich north, probably due to ADOM-fueled microbes...
January 2017: Journal of Plankton Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487674/uncovering-potential-applications-of-cyanobacteria-and-algal-metabolites-in-biology-agriculture-and-medicine-current-status-and-future-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Madhulika Singh, Andrzej Bajguz, Jitendra Kumar, Samiksha Singh, Vijay P Singh, Sheo M Prasad
Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464994/genotoxic-effects-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-nasal-mucosa-cells-are-antagonized-by-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#20
Stephan Hackenberg, Agmal Scherzed, Angela Zapp, Katrin Radeloff, Christian Ginzkey, Thomas Gehrke, Pascal Ickrath, Norbert Kleinsasser
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are often used in sunscreens and other consumer products due to their photoprotective properties. However, concern exists regarding them possibly causing cyto- and genotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess cyto- and genotoxicity of these nanomaterials after single or combined exposure. For this purpose, a battery of cell culture test systems for human nasal mucosa (monolayer, air-liquid interface and mini organ culture) were exposed to 0...
April 2017: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
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