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Sacral dorsal root ganglion

Zhaoxia Wang, Limin Liao, Han Deng, Xing Li, Guoqing Chen, Xiwen Liao
AIM: To examine the roles of opioid receptors in the inhibition of nociceptive and nonnociceptive bladder reflexes by sacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation in cats. METHODS: Hook electrodes were placed in the right S1 and S2 DRG of cats. The bladders were infused with physiologic saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA). Naloxone (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg), an opioid receptor antagonist, was administered intravenously. S1 or S2 DRG stimulation was applied before and after administering the drug...
June 4, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Firoozeh Ahmadi, Farnaz Akhbari
Background: Perineural cysts formed within the nerve-root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion. They are most commonly located in the arachnoid covering the junction of the dorsal ganglion and nerve root. They are usually asymptomatic, incidental findings, usually located in the lumbar and sacral region of the spinal canal. It is important to consolidate the imaging findings of this rare disease so clinicians can become more clinically relevant in the evaluation of these cysts. Case: Herein we report a case of perineural cyst misdiagnosed with hydrosalpinx by pelvic ultrasonography and finally diagnosed with magnetic resonance image...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Hernán Chaves, Mariana Bendersky, Romina Goñi, César Gómez, Martín Carnevale, Claudia Cejas
INTRODUCTION: Disorders affecting the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) can alter root diameter. Our aim was to determine normal LSP nerve root dimensions using magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven asymptomatic patients (ages: 18-53, mean: 34 years) underwent MRN of the LSP on a 3T scanner with an 8-channel torso-PA coil. IDEAL T2-weighted images were acquired and nerve root dimensions were measured from the second lumbar (L2) to the first sacral (S1) vertebrae on the coronal plane, 5 mm from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG)...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Maria Anna Hulens, Wim Dankaerts, Ricky Rasschaert, Frans Bruyninckx, Marie-Laure Willaert, Charlotte Vereecke, Greet Vansant
BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are expanded nerve root sheaths that occur near the dorsal root ganglion and result from increased intraspinal hydrostatic pressure. TCs most frequently affect the lumbosacral plexus and therefore may cause specific symptoms such as perineal pain and neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sphincter problems. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has symptomatic Tarlov cysts (STCs). However, STCs appear to be underdiagnosed, with the pain reported by patients commonly attributed to degenerative alterations seen on MRI...
April 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Zhaoxia Wang, Limin Liao, Han Deng, Xing Li, Guoqing Chen
PURPOSE: To investigate the inhibitory effects of electrical stimulation of sacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on bladder activity under non-nociceptive and nociceptive bladder conditions in cats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 cats were divided into non-nociceptive and nociceptive groups. Saline was used to distend the bladder and induce non-nociceptive bladder activity, while acetic acid (AA, 0.25%) was used to induce nociceptive bladder overactivity, S1 or S2 DRG stimulation was applied via a pair of hook electrodes placed in the right S1 and S2 DRG...
May 2018: World Journal of Urology
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study has been to verify the inter- and intraganglionic distribution pattern of porcine urinary bladder-projecting (UBP) neurons localized in the sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). The morphology and chemical phenotype of these cells have also been investigated. These neurons were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) which was injected bilaterally into the urinary bladder wall of five juvenile female pigs. The intraganglionic distribution showed that small- and medium-sized FB+ perikarya were mainly located in the central (S3 -S4 ) and periphero-central (S2 ) region of the ganglia, while large cells were heterogeneously distributed...
March 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Valery van Velsen, Noud van Helmond, Kenneth B Chapman
Chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to conventional medical treatments and leads to significant disability and socio-economic burden. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has recently emerged as a treatment for persistent neuropathic pain, but creating a strain relief loop at the S1 level has thus far been a challenging technical component of DRG lead placement. We describe a refined technique for strain relief loop formation at the S1 level using a transforaminal approach that we employed in a 45-year-old patient with intractable foot pain...
April 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Ross C Puffer, Marcus J Gates, William Copeland, William E Krauss, Jeremy Fogelson
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Hee Kyung Cho, Jae Hoon Kang, So-Yeon Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Se Jin Hwang, Yun-Woo Cho, Sang-Ho Ahn
BACKGROUND: Herniated lumbar discs can induce sciatica by mechanical compression and/or chemical irritation. It was recently reported that neuroglial cellular activity after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to a single dorsal root ganglion (DRG) attenuated neuroglial activity at the corresponding spinal dorsal horn. Recently, caudal epidural PRF has been used to manage neuropathic pain, but evidence of molecular changes after the administration of caudal epidural PRF to attenuate neuropathic pain is lacking, and it has not been determined whether caudal epidural PRF affects neuroglial activity at different spinal levels...
November 2016: Pain Physician
Tim Godel, Mirko Pham, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Bäumer
PURPOSE: To develop an in-vivo imaging method for the measurement of dorsal-root-ganglia-(DRG) perfusion, to establish its normal values in patients without known peripheral nerve disorders or radicular pain syndromes and to determine the physiological spatial perfusion pattern within the DRG. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. 46 (24 female, 22 male, mean age 46...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Praveen Anand, Yiangos Yiangou, Uma Anand, Gaurav Mukerji, Marco Sinisi, Michael Fox, Anthony McQuillan, Tom Quick, Yuri E Korchev, Peter Hein
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP), activated by its endogenous peptide ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), exerts several effects including modulation of pain signalling. We have examined, for the first time, the tissue distribution of the NOP receptor in clinical visceral and somatic pain disorders by immunohistochemistry and assessed functional effects of NOP and μ-opioid receptor activation in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Quantification of NOP-positive nerve fibres within the bladder suburothelium revealed a remarkable several-fold increase in detrusor overactivity (P < 0...
2016: Pain
X Zuidema, J Breel, F Wille
Chronic perineal pain limits patients in physical and sexual activities, leading to social and psychological distress. In most cases, this pain develops after surgery in the urogenital area or as a consequence of trauma. Neuromodulation is one of the options in chronic postsurgical perineal pain treatment. We present a case of refractory perineal pain after right sided surgical resection of a Bartholin's cyst which was treated with third sacral nerve root/dorsal root ganglion stimulation using the transforaminal approach...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Carly J McCarthy, Eugenia Tomasella, Mariana Malet, Kim B Seroogy, Tomas Hökfelt, Marcelo J Villar, G F Gebhart, Pablo R Brumovsky
Using immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized changes in the expression of several neurochemical markers in lumbar 4-sacral 2 (L4-S2) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron profiles (NPs) and the spinal cord of BALB/c mice after axotomy of the L6 and S1 spinal nerves, major tributaries of the pelvic (targeting pelvic visceral organs) and pudendal (targeting perineum and genitalia) nerves. Sham animals were included. Expression of cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF3), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) types 1 and -2 was analysed seven days after injury...
May 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Simone Vigneri, Gianfranco Sindaco, Giampiero Gallo, Matteo Zanella, Valentina Paci, Marco La Grua, Laura Ravaioli, Gilberto Pari
BACKGROUND: Lumbosacral radicular pain is a common clinical finding with a statistical prevalence ranging from 9.9% to 25% in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal root ganglion pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain and neuropathic features. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series clinical outcome study. METHODS: We evaluated 34 patients with lumbosacral neuropathic pain who underwent PRF at the corresponding level of radicular symptoms distribution (ranging from L3 to S1)...
November 2014: Pain Physician
Pradeep Kannampalli, Soumya Pochiraju, Mitchell Bruckert, Reza Shaker, Banani Banerjee, Jyoti N Sengupta
The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats...
March 15, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
C-L Li, X-L Yang, J-J Wang, G-H Du, W-M Yang, H-P Zhang
This study aimed to explore the effects of intracavernous injection (ICI) of P2X3 and NK1 receptor antagonists on erectile dysfunction (ED) induced by spinal cord transection in rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the following three groups (20 rats each group): sham operation group (C group), thoracic spinal cord transection group (T group) and sacral spinal cord transection group (S group). An ED model was established through complete transection of the thoracic or sacral spinal cord...
February 2015: Andrologia
Shelley L Forrest, Peregrine B Osborne, Janet R Keast
Bladder sensation is mediated by lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion neurons and is essential for normal voiding and nociception. Numerous electrophysiological, structural, and molecular changes occur in these neurons following inflammation. Defining which neurons undergo these changes is critical for understanding the mechanism underlying bladder pain and dysfunction. Our first aim was to define the chemical classes of bladder sensory neurons that express receptors for the endogenous modulators of nociceptor sensitivity, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the related neurotrophic factor, artemin, and estrogens...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jun-Ming Tan, Jianxin Wu, Jian-Gang Shi, Guo-Dong Shi, Yan-Ling Liu, Xiao-Hong Liu, Chao-Yang Wan, De-Chun Chen, Shun-Min Xing, Lian-Bing Shen, Lian-Shun Jia, Xiao-Jian Ye, Jia-Shun Li
To determine the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in experimental dog model of severe acute cauda equina syndrome, which was induced by multiple cauda equina constrictions throughout the entire lumbar (L), sacral (S) and coccygeal (Co) spinal cord and their central processes of the dorsal root ganglia neurons. Adult male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups. The experiment group (n=4) was subjected to multiple cauda equina constrictions. The control group (n=4) was subjected to cauda equina exposure without constrictions...
2013: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
A Dudek, A Chrószcz, M Janeczek, W Sienkiewicz, J Kaleczyc
The aim of the study was to investigate the sensory innervation of the hip joint capsule in the rabbit. Individual animals were injected with retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) into the lateral aspect of the left hip joint capsule (group LAT, n = 5) or into the medial aspect of the hip joint capsule (group MED, n = 5), respectively. FB-positive (FB+) neurons were found within ipsilateral lumbar (L) and sacral (S) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from L7 to S2 (group LAT) and from L6 to S4 (group MED). They were round or oval in shape with a diameter of 20-90 μm...
December 2013: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
D Marino, M A Carluccio, I Di Donato, F Sicurelli, E Chini, L Di Toro Mammarella, F Rossi, A Rubegni, A Federico
Tarlov cyst syndrome is a rare, often asymptomatic disorder, characterised by isolated or multiple nerve-root cysts, usually occurring in the sacral spine, near the dorsal root ganglion, between the perineurium and endoneurium. The cysts may cause lower back pain, sacral radiculopathy, dyspareunia and urinary incontinence. There is little data in the literature on the relationship between Tarlov cysts and symptoms. Here, we report further details on the clinical impact of Tarlov cysts and investigate their pathogenesis and role as a cause of lumbosacral symptoms...
September 2013: Neurological Sciences
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