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Sacral dorsal roots

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931549/sacral-neuromodulation-blocks-pudendal-inhibition-of-reflex-bladder-activity-in-cats-insight-into-the-efficacy-of-sacral-neuromodulation-in-fowler-s-syndrome
#1
Xing Li, Jamie Uy, Michelle Yu, Shun Li, Katherine Theisen, Jeffrey Browning, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
This study tested the hypothesis that sacral neuromodulation, i.e. electrical stimulation of afferent axons in sacral spinal root, can block pudendal afferent inhibition of the micturition reflex. In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at 3-5 Hz was used to inhibit bladder reflex activity while the sacral S1 or S2 dorsal root was stimulated at 15-30 Hz to mimic sacral neuromodulation and to block the bladder inhibition induced by PNS. The intensity threshold (T) for PNS or S1/S2 dorsal root stimulation (DRS) to induce muscle twitch of anal sphincter or toe was determined...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862789/creating-a-strain-relief-loop-during-s1-transforaminal-lead-placement-for-dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-for-foot-pain-a-technical-note
#2
Valery van Velsen, Noud van Helmond, Kenneth B Chapman
Chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to conventional medical treatments and leads to significant disability and socio-economic burden. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has recently emerged as a treatment for persistent neuropathic pain, but creating a strain relief loop on the S1 level has thus far been a challenging technical component of DRG lead placement. We describe a refined technique for strain relief loop formation on the S1 level using a transforaminal approach that we employed in a 45-year old patient with intractable foot pain...
September 1, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844763/hyperexcitability-in-synaptic-and-firing-activities-of-spinal-motoneurons-in-an-adult-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Mingchen C Jiang, Adesoji Adimula, Derin Birch, Charles J Heckman
Hyperexcitability is hypothesized to contribute to the degeneration of spinal motoneurons (MNs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies, thus far, have not linked hyperexcitability to the intrinsic properties of MNs in the adult ALS mouse model with the G93A-mutated SOD1 protein (mSOD1(G93A)). In this study, we obtained two types of measurements: ventral root recordings to assess motor output and intracellular recordings to assess synaptic properties of individual MNs. All studies were carried out in an in vitro preparation of the sacral spinal cords of mSOD1(G93A) mice and their non-transgenic (NT) littermates, both in the age range of 50-90days...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723774/relationship-between-first-dorsal-sacral-foramen-and-lumbar-facet-joint-connecting-line-in-south-korea-populations-retrospective-study
#4
Young Deog Cha, Jae Kyu Choi, Chun Woo Yang, Hyun Kyoung Lim, Gyoung A Heo, Byung-Gun Kim
The first sacral nerve root block (S1 nerve root block) is a practical procedure for patients with radiating lower back pain. In general, S1 nerve root block is performed under x-ray fluoroscopy. It is necessary to adjust the position of the patient and angle of fluoroscopy to properly visualize the first dorsal sacral foramen (dorsal S1 foramen). The purpose of this study was to analyze the location of dorsal S1 foramen and lumbar facet joint in S1 nerve root block.A total of 388 patients undergoing x-ray fluoroscopy-guided S1 nerve root block in the prone position were examined...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656519/where-are-we-headed-with-neuromodulation-for-overactive-bladder
#5
REVIEW
Kaitlin Jaqua, Charles R Powell
Overactive bladder (OAB) affects millions of people around the world and decreases quality of life for those affected. Over the past two decades, significant advances in treatment have transformed the lives of those with OAB. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM), posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), and dorsal genital nerve stimulation are the most effective contemporary treatment modalities. New techniques and bio-sensing schemes offer promise to advance therapy beyond what is currently available. Current neuromodulation techniques do not use real-time data from the body or input from the patient...
August 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615976/clinical-utility-of-neurostimulation-devices-in-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-current-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Dick Aw Janssen, Frank Mj Martens, Liesbeth L de Wall, Hendrikje Mk van Breda, John Pfa Heesakkers
OBJECTIVES: This review describes the evidence from established and experimental therapies that use electrical nerve stimulation to treat lower urinary tract dysfunction. METHODS: Clinical studies on established treatments such as percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (P-PTNS), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) and sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) are evaluated. In addition, clinical evidence from experimental therapies such as dorsal genital nerve (DGN) stimulation, pudendal nerve stimulation, magnetic nerve stimulation and ankle implants for tibial nerve stimulation are evaluated...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521343/tarlov-cyst-causing-sacral-insufficiency-fracture
#7
Ross C Puffer, Marcus J Gates, William Copeland, William E Krauss, Jeremy Fogelson
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377582/nociceptive-drg-neurons-express-muscle-lim-protein-upon-axonal-injury
#8
Evgeny Levin, Anastasia Andreadaki, Philipp Gobrecht, Frank Bosse, Dietmar Fischer
Muscle lim protein (MLP) has long been regarded as a cytosolic and nuclear muscular protein. Here, we show that MLP is also expressed in a subpopulation of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in response to axonal injury, while the protein was not detectable in naïve cells. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis of L4/L5 DRG revealed ~3% of MLP-positive neurons 2 days after complete sciatic nerve crush and maximum ~10% after 4-14 days. Similarly, in mixed cultures from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral DRG ~6% of neurons were MLP-positive after 2 days and maximal 17% after 3 days...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322213/chronic-monitoring-of-lower-urinary-tract-activity-via-a-sacral-dorsal-root-ganglia-interface
#9
Abeer Khurram, Shani E Ross, Zachariah J Sperry, Aileen Ouyang, Christopher Stephan, Ahmad A Jiman, Tim M Bruns
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to develop an interface that integrates chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract (LUT) activity with stimulation of peripheral pathways. APPROACH: Penetrating microelectrodes were implanted in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult male felines. Peripheral electrodes were placed on or in the pudendal nerve, bladder neck and near the external urethral sphincter. Supra-pubic bladder catheters were implanted for saline infusion and pressure monitoring...
June 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178092/a-randomized-comparison-between-ultrasound-and-fluoroscopy-guided-sacral-lateral-branch-blocks
#10
Roderick J Finlayson, John-Paul B Etheridge, Maria Francisca Elgueta, Atikun Thonnagith, Frederick De Villiers, Bill Nelems, De Q Tran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This randomized trial compared ultrasound (US)- and fluoroscopy-guided sacral lateral branch (SLB) blocks. We hypothesized that US would require a shorter performance time. METHODS: Forty patients who required unilateral sacral lateral branch blocks for chronic low back pain were randomized to US or fluoroscopy guidance. Before the performance of the assigned block, an investigator who was not involved in patient care carried out baseline analgesic testing...
May 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920880/conditional-electrical-stimulation-in-animal-and-human-models-for-neurogenic-bladder-working-toward-a-neuroprosthesis
#11
C R Powell
Sacral neuromodulation has had a tremendous impact on the treatment of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms for patients with neurologic conditions. This stimulation does not use real-time data from the body or input from the patient. Incorporating this is the goal of those pursuing a neuroprosthesis to enhance bladder function for these patients. Investigators have demonstrated the effectiveness of conditional (also called closed-loop) feedback in animal models as well as limited human studies...
December 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906951/changes-in-neuroglial-activity-in-multiple-spinal-segments-after-caudal-epidural-pulsed-radiofrequency-in-a-rat-model-of-lumbar-disc-herniation
#12
Hee Kyung Cho, Jae Hoon Kang, So-Yeon Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Se Jin Hwang, Yun-Woo Cho, Sang-Ho Ahn
BACKGROUND: Herniated lumbar discs can induce sciatica by mechanical compression and/or chemical irritation. It was recently reported that neuroglial cellular activity after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to a single dorsal root ganglion (DRG) attenuated neuroglial activity at the corresponding spinal dorsal horn. Recently, caudal epidural PRF has been used to manage neuropathic pain, but evidence of molecular changes after the administration of caudal epidural PRF to attenuate neuropathic pain is lacking, and it has not been determined whether caudal epidural PRF affects neuroglial activity at different spinal levels...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866657/distribution-and-chemical-coding-of-sensory-neurons-innervating-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#13
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
February 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730701/neurotransmitter-mechanisms-underlying-sacral-neuromodulation-of-bladder-overactivity-in-cats
#14
Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, Vladimir Lamm, Victor Chang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of opioid, β-adrenergic, and metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors in sacral neuromodulation of bladder overactivity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) irritated the bladder and induced bladder overactivity. Electric stimulation (5 Hz, 0.2 ms, 0.16-0.7V) of S1 or S2 sacral dorsal roots inhibited the bladder overactivity. Naloxone, propranolol, or MTEP were given intravenously (i...
January 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729478/contribution-of-gabaa-glycine-and-opioid-receptors-to-sacral-neuromodulation-of-bladder-overactivity-in-cats
#15
Xuewen Jiang, Thomas W Fuller, Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats, we examined the role of GABAA, glycine, and opioid receptors in sacral neuromodulation-induced inhibition of bladder overactivity elicited by intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA). AA irritation significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 59.5 ± 4.8% of saline control. S1 or S2 dorsal root stimulation at threshold intensity for inducing reflex twitching of the anal sphincter or toe significantly (P < 0.01) increased bladder capacity to 105.3 ± 9...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677040/the-tarlov-cyst-a-cause-of-sciatica
#16
Samia Frioui Mahmoudi, Mohamed Layeb, Saoussen Layouni, Sonia Jemni, Mariem Gaddour, Khalil Ben Jeddou, Faycel Khachnaoui
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to study through this observation and review of the literature the role of Tarlov cyst in the occurrence of lombosciatalgias and therapeutic possibilities. OBSERVATIONS: Mrs. H.M 48 years old, with no notable medical history, is hospitalized in Physical Medicine and Functional Rehabilitation department CHU Sahloul for a right S1 radiculopathy associated with a subjective feeling of lower extremity weakness evolving for one year. Clinical examination found a spinal syndrome, absence of discoradicular conflict signs and a plantar flexion deficit of the right ankle...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616276/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-channels-in-visceral-nociception-and-hypersensitivity
#17
Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kanako Takagi, Atsumi Kato, Takuya Ishibashi, Yasuo Mori, Kimihito Tashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Syunji Horie
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that TRPM2 is important for visceral nociception and the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of TRPM2 channels and their involvement in visceral nociception in normal physiology and under pathological conditions that cause visceral hypersensitivity in rats...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607169/18f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-secondary-to-leptomeningeal-metastatic-breast-cancer
#18
Lilja B Solnes, Mehrbod S Javadi, Steven P Rowe
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is an uncommon entity that may be caused by a variety of conditions. It refers to dysfunction of the ventral, dorsal, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots in the region of the filum terminale. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman with a history of BRCA1-positive metastatic breast cancer who complained of lower extremity muscle weakness increasing over a 2-week period and decreased sensation of the lower extremities accompanied by severe constipation and suspected urinary retention with overflow incontinence...
November 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571328/sacral-neuromodulation-of-nociceptive-bladder-overactivity-in-cats
#19
Zhaocun Zhang, Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, Vladimir Lamm, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
AIMS: To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation of sacral dorsal/ventral roots on irritation-induced bladder overactivity, reveal possible different mechanisms under nociceptive bladder conditions, and establish a large animal model of sacral neuromodulation. METHODS: Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Electrical stimulation (5, 15, or 30 Hz) was applied to individual S1-S3 dorsal or ventral roots at or below motor threshold intensity...
June 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520434/hysteretic-behavior-of-bladder-afferent-neurons-in-response-to-changes-in-bladder-pressure
#20
Shani E Ross, Zachariah J Sperry, Colin M Mahar, Tim M Bruns
BACKGROUND: Mechanosensitive afferents innervating the bladder increase their firing rate as the bladder fills and pressure rises. However, the relationship between afferent firing rates and intravesical pressure is not a simple linear one. Firing rate responses to pressure can differ depending on prior activity, demonstrating hysteresis in the system. Though this hysteresis has been commented on in published literature, it has not been quantified. RESULTS: Sixty-six bladder afferents recorded from sacral dorsal root ganglia in five alpha-chloralose anesthetized felines were identified based on their characteristic responses to pressure (correlation coefficient ≥ 0...
August 12, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
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