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Sacral dorsal roots

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920880/conditional-electrical-stimulation-in-animal-and-human-models-for-neurogenic-bladder-working-toward-a-neuroprosthesis
#1
C R Powell
Sacral neuromodulation has had a tremendous impact on the treatment of urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms for patients with neurologic conditions. This stimulation does not use real-time data from the body or input from the patient. Incorporating this is the goal of those pursuing a neuroprosthesis to enhance bladder function for these patients. Investigators have demonstrated the effectiveness of conditional (also called closed-loop) feedback in animal models as well as limited human studies...
December 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906951/changes-in-neuroglial-activity-in-multiple-spinal-segments-after-caudal-epidural-pulsed-radiofrequency-in-a-rat-model-of-lumbar-disc-herniation
#2
Hee Kyung Cho, Jae Hoon Kang, So-Yeon Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Se Jin Hwang, Yun-Woo Cho, Sang-Ho Ahn
BACKGROUND: Herniated lumbar discs can induce sciatica by mechanical compression and/or chemical irritation. It was recently reported that neuroglial cellular activity after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to a single dorsal root ganglion (DRG) attenuated neuroglial activity at the corresponding spinal dorsal horn. Recently, caudal epidural PRF has been used to manage neuropathic pain, but evidence of molecular changes after the administration of caudal epidural PRF to attenuate neuropathic pain is lacking, and it has not been determined whether caudal epidural PRF affects neuroglial activity at different spinal levels...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866657/distribution-and-chemical-coding-of-sensory-neurons-innervating-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#3
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730701/neurotransmitter-mechanisms-underlying-sacral-neuromodulation-of-bladder-overactivity-in-cats
#4
Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, Vladimir Lamm, Victor Chang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of opioid, β-adrenergic, and metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors in sacral neuromodulation of bladder overactivity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) irritated the bladder and induced bladder overactivity. Electric stimulation (5 Hz, 0.2 ms, 0.16-0.7V) of S1 or S2 sacral dorsal roots inhibited the bladder overactivity. Naloxone, propranolol, or MTEP were given intravenously (i...
October 12, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729478/contribution-of-gabaa-glycine-and-opioid-receptors-to-sacral-neuromodulation-of-bladder-overactivity-in-cats
#5
Xuewen Jiang, Thomas W Fuller, Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
In α-chloralose anesthetized cats, we examined the role GABAA, glycine, and opioid receptors in sacral neuromodulation-induced inhibition of bladder overactivity elicited by intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA). AA irritation significantly (p<0.01) reduced bladder capacity to 59.5±4.8% of saline control. S1 or S2 dorsal root stimulation at threshold intensity for inducing reflex twitching of the anal sphincter or toe significantly (p<0.01) increased bladder capacity to 105.3±9.0% and 134...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677040/the-tarlov-cyst-a-cause-of-sciatica
#6
Samia Frioui Mahmoudi, Mohamed Layeb, Saoussen Layouni, Sonia Jemni, Mariem Gaddour, Khalil Ben Jeddou, Faycel Khachnaoui
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to study through this observation and review of the literature the role of Tarlov cyst in the occurrence of lombosciatalgias and therapeutic possibilities. OBSERVATIONS: Mrs. H.M 48 years old, with no notable medical history, is hospitalized in Physical Medicine and Functional Rehabilitation department CHU Sahloul for a right S1 radiculopathy associated with a subjective feeling of lower extremity weakness evolving for one year. Clinical examination found a spinal syndrome, absence of discoradicular conflict signs and a plantar flexion deficit of the right ankle...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616276/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-trpm2-channels-in-visceral-nociception-and-hypersensitivity
#7
Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kanako Takagi, Atsumi Kato, Takuya Ishibashi, Yasuo Mori, Kimihito Tashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto, Shinichi Kato, Syunji Horie
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that TRPM2 is important for visceral nociception and the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of TRPM2 channels and their involvement in visceral nociception in normal physiology and under pathological conditions that cause visceral hypersensitivity in rats...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607169/18f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-secondary-to-leptomeningeal-metastatic-breast-cancer
#8
Lilja B Solnes, Mehrbod S Javadi, Steven P Rowe
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is an uncommon entity that may be caused by a variety of conditions. It refers to dysfunction of the ventral, dorsal, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots in the region of the filum terminale. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman with a history of BRCA1-positive metastatic breast cancer who complained of lower extremity muscle weakness increasing over a 2-week period and decreased sensation of the lower extremities accompanied by severe constipation and suspected urinary retention with overflow incontinence...
November 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571328/sacral-neuromodulation-of-nociceptive-bladder-overactivity-in-cats
#9
Zhaocun Zhang, Jathin Bandari, Utsav Bansal, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, Vladimir Lamm, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
AIMS: To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation of sacral dorsal/ventral roots on irritation-induced bladder overactivity, reveal possible different mechanisms under nociceptive bladder conditions, and establish a large animal model of sacral neuromodulation. METHODS: Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in cats under α-chloralose anesthesia. Electrical stimulation (5, 15, or 30 Hz) was applied to individual S1-S3 dorsal or ventral roots at or below motor threshold intensity...
August 29, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520434/hysteretic-behavior-of-bladder-afferent-neurons-in-response-to-changes-in-bladder-pressure
#10
Shani E Ross, Zachariah J Sperry, Colin M Mahar, Tim M Bruns
BACKGROUND: Mechanosensitive afferents innervating the bladder increase their firing rate as the bladder fills and pressure rises. However, the relationship between afferent firing rates and intravesical pressure is not a simple linear one. Firing rate responses to pressure can differ depending on prior activity, demonstrating hysteresis in the system. Though this hysteresis has been commented on in published literature, it has not been quantified. RESULTS: Sixty-six bladder afferents recorded from sacral dorsal root ganglia in five alpha-chloralose anesthetized felines were identified based on their characteristic responses to pressure (correlation coefficient ≥ 0...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423253/human-dorsal-root-ganglion-perfusion-measured-in-vivo-by-mri
#11
Tim Godel, Mirko Pham, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Bäumer
PURPOSE: To develop an in-vivo imaging method for the measurement of dorsal-root-ganglia-(DRG) perfusion, to establish its normal values in patients without known peripheral nerve disorders or radicular pain syndromes and to determine the physiological spatial perfusion pattern within the DRG. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. 46 (24 female, 22 male, mean age 46...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127846/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptor-expression-in-clinical-pain-disorders-and-functional-effects-in-cultured-neurons
#12
Praveen Anand, Yiangos Yiangou, Uma Anand, Gaurav Mukerji, Marco Sinisi, Michael Fox, Anthony McQuillan, Tom Quick, Yuri E Korchev, Peter Hein
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP), activated by its endogenous peptide ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), exerts several effects including modulation of pain signalling. We have examined, for the first time, the tissue distribution of the NOP receptor in clinical visceral and somatic pain disorders by immunohistochemistry and assessed functional effects of NOP and μ-opioid receptor activation in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Quantification of NOP-positive nerve fibres within the bladder suburothelium revealed a remarkable several-fold increase in detrusor overactivity (P < 0...
September 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27123351/s3-dorsal-root-ganglion-nerve-root-stimulation-for-refractory-postsurgical-perineal-pain-technical-aspects-of-anchorless-sacral-transforaminal-lead-placement
#13
X Zuidema, J Breel, F Wille
Chronic perineal pain limits patients in physical and sexual activities, leading to social and psychological distress. In most cases, this pain develops after surgery in the urogenital area or as a consequence of trauma. Neuromodulation is one of the options in chronic postsurgical perineal pain treatment. We present a case of refractory perineal pain after right sided surgical resection of a Bartholin's cyst which was treated with third sacral nerve root/dorsal root ganglion stimulation using the transforaminal approach...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038370/sensory-innervation-of-the-guinea-pig-colon-and-rectum-compared-using-retrograde-tracing-and-immunohistochemistry
#14
B N Chen, C Olsson, D F Sharrad, S J H Brookes
BACKGROUND: Neurons in lumbar and sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) comprise extrinsic sensory pathways to the distal colon and rectum, but their relative contributions are unclear. In this study, sensory innervation of the rectum and distal colon in the guinea pig was directly compared using retrograde labeling combined with immunohistochemistry. METHODS: The lipophilic tracer, DiI, was injected in either the rectum or distal colon of anesthetized guinea pigs, then DRG (T6 to S5) and nodose ganglia were harvested and labeled using antisera for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1)...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953816/electrical-stimulation-of-the-spinal-dorsal-root-inhibits-reflex-bladder-contraction-and-external-urethra-sphincter-activity-is-this-how-sacral-neuromodulation-works
#15
Jian Ren, Daniel J Chew, Nikesh Thiruchelvam
INTRODUCTION: Using a rat model, we aimed to confirm the inhibitory effect of dorsal spinal root (afferent) stimulation and test if bilateral stimulation is more effective than unilateral stimulation. External urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) is also assessed in conjunction with cystometrogram. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested following urethane anesthesia. Via urethral catheterization, the bladder was infused with normal saline to evoke rhythmic bladder reflex contractions (BRC)...
2016: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26698384/-clinical-presentation-of-a-dorsal-epidural-arachnoid-cyst-after-an-epidural-anesthesia
#16
Claudia Alejandra Obil-Chavarría, Carla Lisette García-Ramos, Sergio Alberto Castro-Quiñonez, Raúl Huato-Reyes, Concepción Guadalupe Santillán-Chapa, Alejandro Antonio Reyes-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Arachnoid cysts are dural diverticula with liquid content similar to cerebrospinal fluid, with 1% occurring in the spinal cord. They locate mainly in the dorsal region of the thoracic spine, and are unusual causes of spinal cord compression. CLINICAL CASE: The case is presented of a previously healthy 15-year-old boy, with a 20-month history of spastic paraparesis that started apparently after epidural block for ankle osteosynthesis. There was decreased sensitivity and strength of the pelvic limbs and gradually presented with anaesthesia from T12 to L4 dermatomes, L5 and S1 bilateral hypoaesthesia and 4+/5 bilateral strength, in the L2 root and 2+/5 in L3, L4, L5, S1, hyperreflexia, Babinski and clonus, but with no alteration in the sacral reflexes...
December 14, 2015: Cirugia y Cirujanos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676389/pulse-diode-laser-irradiation-830-nm-of-lumbosacral-spinal-roots-diminished-hyperreflexia-induced-by-acetic-acid-or-prostaglandin-e2-infusion-in-rat-urinary-bladder
#17
Tomoko Ito, Tomomi Ishikawa, Kazumasa Matsumoto-Miyai, Masahito Kawatani
OBJECTIVES: Low power diode Iaser (830 nm) irradiation is a useful analgesic tool in superficial pain. Pulse laser irradiation allows us to increase the laser power because the non-irradiation time reduces heating effects and/or direct tissue damage at the irradiation area. This new irradiation device using pulse laser was applied to the dorsal skin to investigate the effects on the micturition reflex in the rat by targeting underlying sacral spinal roots. METHODS: Vesical pressure measurement during the continuous infusion of the urinary bladder with saline, acetic acid (AA, 0...
September 2011: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675162/spinal-tuberculosis-resembling-neoplastic-lesions-on-mri
#18
Jaiganesh Sivalingam, Anil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous spondylitis is one of the commonest forms of skeletal tuberculosis in developing countries like India causing significant morbidity due to compression of spinal cord and adjacent nerve roots. Diagnosis and intervention at early stage can prevent permanent damage such as spinal deformity and neurological deficits. AIM: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate atypical MRI features in cases of tubercular spondylitis resembling neoplastic lesions and to stress that tuberculous spondylitis should be one of the differential diagnoses in any spinal pathology especially in developing countries...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563477/%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-in-the-cranial-and-spinal-nerves-in-lewy-body-disease
#19
Keiko Nakamura, Fumiaki Mori, Kunikazu Tanji, Yasuo Miki, Yasuko Toyoshima, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Masahito Yamada, Koichi Wakabayashi
Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in neurons and glial cells is a histological hallmark of Lewy body disease (LBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently, filamentous aggregations of phosphorylated α-synuclein have been reported in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells, but not in axons, in the peripheral nervous system in MSA, mainly in the cranial and spinal nerve roots. Here we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the cranial and spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia of patients with LBD...
June 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26442520/neoplastic-cauda-equina-syndrome-a-neuroimaging-based-review
#20
REVIEW
Shelby J Bennett, Gregory L Katzman, Raymond P Roos, Amar S Mehta, Saad Ali
Cauda equina syndrome refers to dysfunction of the cauda equina, the collection of ventral and dorsal lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerve roots that surround the filum terminale. This most commonly occurs as a result of compression by a herniated lumbosacral disc. However, the syndrome may also complicate metastatic cancer or a primary neoplasm within or infiltrating the spinal canal. An accurate and timely diagnosis is critical to avoid irreversible loss of neurological function. The clinician and radiologist must therefore be aware of the many possible causes to guide timely management...
February 2016: Practical Neurology
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