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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661102/-authorship-a-great-honor-or-an-onerous-responsibility
#1
Asaf Shemer, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Over the years ethical issues have been raised regarding authorship of scientific literature. Research is mainly accomplished through teamwork, and publishing articles has a significant impact upon academic promotion and career path. Thus, concepts such as honorary authors, ghost authors, and equally contributing authors have been established. In order to maintain better regulation, authorship recommendation and policies have been developed such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines...
June 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653153/application-of-benford-s-law-a-valuable-tool-for-detecting-scientific-papers-with-fabricated-data-a%C3%A2-case-study-using-proven-falsified-articles-against-a%C3%A2-comparison-group
#2
REVIEW
S Hüllemann, G Schüpfer, J Mauch
BACKGROUND: In naturally occurring numbers the frequencies of digits 1-9 in the leading position are counterintuitively distributed because the frequencies of occurrence are unequal. Benford-Newcomb's law describes the expected distribution of these frequencies. It was previously shown that known fraudulent articles consistently violated this law. OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of 12 known fraudulent articles from a single Japanese author to the features of 13 articles in the same research field from other Japanese authors, published during the same time period and identified with a Medline database search...
June 26, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614582/effectiveness-and-safety-of-standard-dose-nonvitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-and-warfarin-among-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-with-a-single-stroke-risk-factor-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#3
Gregory Y H Lip, Flemming Skjøth, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Jette Nordstrøm Kjældgaard, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Importance: The randomized clinical trials comparing nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs warfarin largely focused on recruiting high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation with more than 2 stroke risk factors, with only the trials testing dabigatran or apixaban including few patients with 1 stroke risk factor. Despite this, regulatory approvals of all NOACs have been based on stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation with 1 or more stroke risk factors...
June 14, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534806/feature-selection-for-nonstationary-data-application-to-human-recognition-using-medical-biometrics
#4
Majid Komeili, Wael Louis, Narges Armanfard, Dimitrios Hatzinakos
Electrocardiogram (ECG) and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) are among the physiological signals that have attracted significant interest in biometric community due to their inherent robustness to replay and falsification attacks. However, they are time-dependent signals and this makes them hard to deal with in across-session human recognition scenario where only one session is available for enrollment. This paper presents a novel feature selection method to address this issue. It is based on an auxiliary dataset with multiple sessions where it selects a subset of features that are more persistent across different sessions...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476348/the-importance-of-falsification-in-computational-cognitive-modeling
#5
REVIEW
Stefano Palminteri, Valentin Wyart, Etienne Koechlin
In the past decade the field of cognitive sciences has seen an exponential growth in the number of computational modeling studies. Previous work has indicated why and how candidate models of cognition should be compared by trading off their ability to predict the observed data as a function of their complexity. However, the importance of falsifying candidate models in light of the observed data has been largely underestimated, leading to important drawbacks and unjustified conclusions. We argue here that the simulation of candidate models is necessary to falsify models and therefore support the specific claims about cognitive function made by the vast majority of model-based studies...
May 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333497/not-all-nonnormal-distributions-are-created-equal-improved-theoretical-and-measurement-precision
#6
Harry Joo, Herman Aguinis, Kyle J Bradley
We offer a four-category taxonomy of individual output distributions (i.e., distributions of cumulative results): (1) pure power law; (2) lognormal; (3) exponential tail (including exponential and power law with an exponential cutoff); and (4) symmetric or potentially symmetric (including normal, Poisson, and Weibull). The four categories are uniquely associated with mutually exclusive generative mechanisms: self-organized criticality, proportionate differentiation, incremental differentiation, and homogenization...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261876/retraction
#7
(no author information available yet)
Retraction: "Chronic NMDA administration to rats up-regulates frontal cortex cytosolic phospholipase A2 and its transcription factor, activator protein-2" by Rao JS, Ertley RN, Rapoport SI, Bazinet RP, Lee HJ. The above article from Journal of Neurochemistry, published online on 13 April 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in volume 102, issue 6, pp. 1918-1927, has been retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Stanley Rapoport, co-author Richard Bazinet, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261875/retraction
#8
(no author information available yet)
Retraction: "Aging is associated with altered inflammatory, arachidonic acid cascade, and synaptic markers, influenced by epigenetic modifications, in the human frontal cortex" by Keleshian VL, Modi HR, Rapoport SI, Rao JS. The above article from Journal of Neurochemistry, published online on 17 February 2013 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in volume 121, issue 1, pp. 63-73, has been retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Stanley Rapoport, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief, Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151827/ethics-of-research-for-patients-in-pain
#9
REVIEW
David B Waisel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes advances in rising and continuing ethical issues in research in patients in pain. Although some of the issues focus directly on pain research, such as research in neonatal pain management, others focus on widespread ethical issues that are relevant to pain research, such as scientific misconduct, deception, placebo use and genomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Scientific misconduct is more widespread than realized and requires greater awareness of the markers of misconduct like irreproducibility...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114726/medicaid-expansion-under-the-affordable-care-act-and-insurance-coverage-in-rural-and-urban-areas
#10
Aparna Soni, Michael Hendryx, Kosali Simon
PURPOSE: To analyze the differential rural-urban impacts of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on low-income childless adults' health insurance coverage. METHODS: Using data from the American Community Survey years 2011-2015, we conducted a difference-in-differences regression analysis to test for changes in the probability of low-income childless adults having insurance in states that expanded Medicaid versus states that did not expand, in rural versus urban areas...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035122/retraction-to-memory-enhancing-effects-of-silk-fibroin-derived-peptides-in-scopolamine-treated-mice
#11
Yong Koo Kang, Woojoo Lee, Byunghoon Kang, Hannah Kang
This article has been retracted from JMB for misconduct of the authors (data fabrication and falsification). JMB as the publisher regrets for any inconvenience caused by the retraction.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988950/what-anaesthesia-is-doing-to-combat-scientific-misconduct-and-investigate-data-fabrication-and-falsification
#12
EDITORIAL
A A Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881524/why-articles-are-retracted-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study-of-retraction-notices-at-biomed-central
#13
Elizabeth C Moylan, Maria K Kowalczuk
OBJECTIVES: To assess why articles are retracted from BioMed Central journals, whether retraction notices adhered to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and are becoming more frequent as a proportion of published articles. DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 134 retractions from January 2000 to December 2015. RESULTS: 134 retraction notices were published during this timeframe. Although they account for 0...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830241/the-rising-frequency-of-it-blackouts-indicates-the-increasing-relevance-of-it-emergency-concepts-to-ensure-patient-safety
#14
Ulrich Sax, M Lipprandt, R Röhrig
INTRODUCTION: As many medical workflows depend vastly on IT support, great demands are placed on the availability and accuracy of the applications involved. The cases of IT failure through ransomware at the beginning of 2016 are impressive examples of the dependence of clinical processes on IT. Although IT risk management attempts to reduce the risk of IT blackouts, the probability of partial/total data loss, or even worse, data falsification, is not zero. The objective of this paper is to present the state of the art with respect to strategies, processes, and governance to deal with the failure of IT systems...
November 10, 2016: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821158/household-sanitation-facilities-and-women-s-risk-of-non-partner-sexual-violence-in-india
#15
Apoorva Jadhav, Abigail Weitzman, Emily Smith-Greenaway
BACKGROUND: Globally, one in ten individuals practice open defecation. Despite media speculation that it increases women's risk of sexual violence, little empirical evidence supports the claims. We investigate the relationship between household sanitation facilities and women's risk of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) in India, where nearly half of the population lives without a pit or toilet. METHODS: We use the most recent NPSV data, from the National Family Health Survey-III, to estimate logistic regression models of the effects of household sanitation facilities (toilet, pit, or none) on NPSV in the last year among women who have resided in their current home for one year or more...
November 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703712/stretching-the-truth-length-data-highlight-falsification-of-japanese-sperm-whale-catch-statistics-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#16
Phillip J Clapham, Yulia V Ivashchenko
Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960-1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703583/a-worksite-health-education-workshop-as-empowerment-intervention-for-health-promotion-in-the-national-research-centre-of-egypt
#17
Nagat Mohamed Amer, Zeinab M Monir, Mai Sabry Saleh, Heba Mahdy-Abdallah, Salwa Farouk Hafez
AIM: The study aimed to assess worksite health education workshops as a successful tool for health promotion of employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A one day workshop was held for individuals engaged in research activities in the National research Centre of Egypt at the worksite. Its main objective was to highlight the nature, causes, symptoms and management of job stress. Participants were asked to fill a personality assessment sheet, a self-reported questionnaire for job satisfaction...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652208/ethical-publishing-in-intensive-care-medicine-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Christian J Wiedermann
Ethical standards in the context of scientific publications are increasingly gaining attention. A narrative review of the literature concerning publication ethics was conducted as found in PubMed, Google Scholar, relevant news articles, position papers, websites and other sources. The Committee on Publication Ethics has produced guidelines and schedules for the handling of problem situations that have been adopted by professional journals and publishers worldwide as guidelines to authors. The defined requirements go beyond the disclosure of conflicts of interest or the prior registration of clinical trials...
August 4, 2016: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578843/are-mendel-s-data-reliable-the-perspective-of-a-pea-geneticist
#19
Norman F Weeden
Mendel's data exhibit remarkable agreement to the ratios he predicted. In this article, alternative explanations for this close agreement (that inheritance in pea does not conform to the standard statistical model, that data were omitted, that ambiguous data were categorized to better match predicted ratios, and that some data were deliberately falsified) are tested using approaches that are designed to distinguish between these alternatives. The possibility that garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) naturally produces segregation ratios more closely matching Mendelian expectations than predicted by statistical models is rejected...
2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563359/from-spin-to-swindle-identifying-falsification-in-financial-text
#20
Saliha Minhas, Amir Hussain
Despite legislative attempts to curtail financial statement fraud, it continues unabated. This study makes a renewed attempt to aid in detecting this misconduct using linguistic analysis with data mining on narrative sections of annual reports/10-K form. Different from the features used in similar research, this paper extracts three distinct sets of features from a newly constructed corpus of narratives (408 annual reports/10-K, 6.5 million words) from fraud and non-fraud firms. Separately each of these three sets of features is put through a suite of classification algorithms, to determine classifier performance in this binary fraud/non-fraud discrimination task...
2016: Cognitive Computation
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