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data falsification

Phillip J Clapham, Yulia V Ivashchenko
Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960-1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Nagat Mohamed Amer, Zeinab M Monir, Mai Sabry Saleh, Heba Mahdy-Abdallah, Salwa Farouk Hafez
AIM: The study aimed to assess worksite health education workshops as a successful tool for health promotion of employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A one day workshop was held for individuals engaged in research activities in the National research Centre of Egypt at the worksite. Its main objective was to highlight the nature, causes, symptoms and management of job stress. Participants were asked to fill a personality assessment sheet, a self-reported questionnaire for job satisfaction...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Christian J Wiedermann
Ethical standards in the context of scientific publications are increasingly gaining attention. A narrative review of the literature concerning publication ethics was conducted as found in PubMed, Google Scholar, relevant news articles, position papers, websites and other sources. The Committee on Publication Ethics has produced guidelines and schedules for the handling of problem situations that have been adopted by professional journals and publishers worldwide as guidelines to authors. The defined requirements go beyond the disclosure of conflicts of interest or the prior registration of clinical trials...
August 4, 2016: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Norman F Weeden
Mendel's data exhibit remarkable agreement to the ratios he predicted. In this article, alternative explanations for this close agreement (that inheritance in pea does not conform to the standard statistical model, that data were omitted, that ambiguous data were categorized to better match predicted ratios, and that some data were deliberately falsified) are tested using approaches that are designed to distinguish between these alternatives. The possibility that garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) naturally produces segregation ratios more closely matching Mendelian expectations than predicted by statistical models is rejected...
2016: Journal of Heredity
Saliha Minhas, Amir Hussain
Despite legislative attempts to curtail financial statement fraud, it continues unabated. This study makes a renewed attempt to aid in detecting this misconduct using linguistic analysis with data mining on narrative sections of annual reports/10-K form. Different from the features used in similar research, this paper extracts three distinct sets of features from a newly constructed corpus of narratives (408 annual reports/10-K, 6.5 million words) from fraud and non-fraud firms. Separately each of these three sets of features is put through a suite of classification algorithms, to determine classifier performance in this binary fraud/non-fraud discrimination task...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Maryam Hadji, Fariba Asghari, Masoud Yunesian, Payam Kabiri, Akbar Fotouhi
BACKGROUND: This study was done to determine the prevalence of publication misconduct among Iranian authors. METHODS: Data were collected through an email survey of corresponding authors of papers published in Iranian journals indexed in Scopus during 2009-2011. Using the double list experiment, these individuals were indirectly questioned about committing one of the five misconducts including duplicate publication, falsification, guest authorship, plagiarism, and fabrication over the past year...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
O V Arnautov, O V Bagryantseva, V V Bessonov
Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
Jerome J Federspiel, Kevin J Anstrom, Ying Xian, Lisa A McCoy, Mark B Effron, Douglas E Faries, Marjorie Zettler, Laura Mauri, Robert W Yeh, Eric D Peterson, Tracy Y Wang
IMPORTANCE: There is increasing interest in performing comparative effectiveness analyses in large observational databases, yet these analyses must adjust for treatment selection issues. OBJECTIVES: To conduct comparative safety and efficacy analyses of prasugrel vs clopidogrel bisulfate after percutaneous coronary intervention and to evaluate inverse probability of treatment weighting (a propensity score method) and instrumental variable methods. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study used data from the Treatment With Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Inhibitors-Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRANSLATE-ACS) study...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Elisabeth M Bik, Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C Fang
Inaccurate data in scientific papers can result from honest error or intentional falsification. This study attempted to determine the percentage of published papers that contain inappropriate image duplication, a specific type of inaccurate data. The images from a total of 20,621 papers published in 40 scientific journals from 1995 to 2014 were visually screened. Overall, 3.8% of published papers contained problematic figures, with at least half exhibiting features suggestive of deliberate manipulation. The prevalence of papers with problematic images has risen markedly during the past decade...
2016: MBio
Yulia B Monakhova, Bernd W K Diehl
In recent years the number of spectroscopic studies utilizing multivariate techniques and involving different laboratories has been dramatically increased. In this paper the protocol for calibration transfer of partial least square regression model between high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers of different frequencies and equipped with different probes was established. As the test system previously published quantitative model to predict the concentration of blended soy species in sunflower lecithin was used...
March 22, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Vanja Pupovac, Snježana Prijić-Samaržija, Mladen Petrovečki
The prevalence and characteristics of research misconduct have mainly been studied in highly developed countries. In moderately or poorly developed countries such as Croatia, data on research misconduct are scarce. The primary aim of this study was to determine the rates at which scientists report committing or observing the most serious forms of research misconduct, such as falsification , fabrication, plagiarism, and violation of authorship rules in the Croatian scientific community. Additionally, we sought to determine the degree of development and the extent of implementation of the system for defining and regulating research misconduct in a typical scientific community in Croatia...
March 3, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Shichao Mi, Hui Han, Cailian Chen, Jian Yan, Xinping Guan
Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs) have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs) with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS) to mitigate the effect of the malicious node...
2016: Sensors
Samir Al-Adawi, Badreldin H Ali, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani
There is a spurt of interest in research productivity in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) to lay the foundation for national development. From a global perspective, increased research productivity could conceivably be accompanied by an exponential increase in research misconduct (RM). Inevitably, erroneous or falsified data will be expected to adversely affect public health by misleading policy makers and clinicians alike into embarking on health policy and allocation of resources that are byproducts of RM...
January 2016: Oman Medical Journal
Mitul B Kadakia, Sunil V Rao, Lisa McCoy, Paramita S Choudhuri, Matthew W Sherwood, Scott Lilly, Taisei Kobayashi, Daniel M Kolansky, Robert L Wilensky, Robert W Yeh, Jay Giri
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess usage patterns of transradial access in rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and associations between vascular access site choice and outcomes. BACKGROUND: Transradial access reduces bleeding and mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Little is known about access site choice and outcomes in patients undergoing rescue PCI after receiving full-dose fibrinolytic therapy for STEMI...
December 21, 2015: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Lai-Meng Looi, Li Xuan Wong, Cing Chai Koh
In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability...
December 2015: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Bernard E Rollin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Yulia V Ivashchenko, Phillip J Clapham
The failure of international efforts to manage commercial whaling was exemplified by revelations of large-scale illegal whale catches by the USSR over a 30 year period following World War II. Falsifications of catch data have also been reported for Japanese coastal whaling, but to date there has been no investigation of the reliability of catch statistics for Japanese pelagic (factory fleet) whaling operations. Here, we use data of known reliability from Soviet whaling industry reports to show that body lengths reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japanese factory fleets for female sperm whales caught in the North Pacific are not credible...
July 2015: Royal Society Open Science
Alexander C Tsai, Atheendar S Venkataramani
RATIONALE: Sociological analyses of the psychological distress experienced by persons indirectly exposed to traumatic stressors have been conceptualized as a form of communal bereavement, defined by Catalano and Hartig (2001) as the experience of distress among persons not attached to the deceased. Their theory predicts communal bereavement responses particularly in the setting of loss of essential state, religious, or economic institutions. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U...
December 2015: Social Science & Medicine
John M Byrne, Lawrence K Loo, Dan W Giang
BACKGROUND: Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. OBJECTIVE: We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. METHODS: We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient...
September 2015: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Jesper Tijmstra, Herbert Hoijtink, Klaas Sijtsma
The assumption of latent monotonicity in item response theory models for dichotomous data cannot be evaluated directly, but observable consequences such as manifest monotonicity facilitate the assessment of latent monotonicity in real data. Standard methods for evaluating manifest monotonicity typically produce a test statistic that is geared toward falsification, which can only provide indirect support in favor of manifest monotonicity. We propose the use of Bayes factors to quantify the degree of support available in the data in favor of manifest monotonicity or against manifest monotonicity...
December 2015: Psychometrika
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