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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770534/evaluating-the-impact-of-physicians-provision-on-primary-healthcare-evidence-from-brazil-s-more-doctors-program
#1
Luiz Felipe Campos Fontes, Otavio Canozzi Conceição, Paulo de Andrade Jacinto
This study aims to evaluate the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos) in terms of the provision of physicians, presenting estimates of its impact on hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. The differences-in-differences method was used with propensity score matching (double difference matching), using 3 specifications, a falsification test, and also a dynamic endogeneity test to confirm the robustness of the results. For the application of this methodology, a panel of municipal data was constructed covering several variables related to socioeconomic, demographic, and public health infrastructure characteristics in the cities for the period from 2010 to 2016...
May 16, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755975/policy-led-comparative-environmental-risk-assessment-of-genetically-modified-crops-testing-for-increased-risk-rather-than-profiling-phenotypes-leads-to-predictable-and-transparent-decision-making
#2
Alan Raybould, Phil Macdonald
We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755305/a-cross-sectional-survey-study-to-assess-prevalence-and-attitudes-regarding-research-misconduct-among-investigators-in-the-middle-east
#3
Marwan Felaefel, Mohamed Salem, Rola Jaafar, Ghufran Jassim, Hillary Edwards, Fiza Rashid-Doubell, Reham Yousri, Nahed M Ali, Henry Silverman
Background: Recent studies from Western countries indicate significant levels of questionable research practices, but similar data from low and middle-income countries are limited. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of and attitudes regarding research misconduct among researchers in several universities in the Middle East and to identify factors that might account for our findings. Methods: We distributed an anonymous questionnaire to a convenience sample of investigators at several universities in Egypt, Lebanon, and Bahrain...
March 2018: Journal of Academic Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721845/integrity-in-biomedical-research-a-systematic-review-of-studies-in-china
#4
REVIEW
Nannan Yi, Benoit Nemery, Kris Dierickx
Recent empirical evidence has demonstrated that research misconduct occurs to a substantial degree in biomedical research. It has been suggested that scientific integrity is also of concern in China, but this seems to be based largely on anecdotal evidence. We, therefore, sought to explore the Chinese situation, by making a systematic review of published empirical studies on biomedical research integrity in China. One of our purposes was also to summarize the existing body of research published in Chinese. We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, PubMed and Web of Science for potentially relevant studies, and included studies meeting our inclusion criteria, i...
May 2, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643062/a-survey-on-data-reproducibility-and-the-effect-of-publication-process-on-the-ethical-reporting-of-laboratory-research
#5
Delphine R Boulbes, Tracy J Costello, Keith A Baggerly, Fan Fan, Rui Wang, Rajat Bhattacharya, Xiangcang Ye, Lee M Ellis
PURPOSE:  The successful translation of laboratory research into effective therapies is dependent upon the validity of peer-reviewed publications. However, several publications in recent years suggested that published scientific findings could only be reproduced 11-45% of the time. Multiple surveys attempted to elucidate the fundamental causes of data irreproducibility and underscored potential solutions; more robust experimental designs, better statistics, and better mentorship. However, no prior survey has addressed the role of the review and publication process on honest reporting...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619924/research-integrity-among-phd-students-within-clinical-research-at-the-university-of-southern-denmark
#6
Lone Bredahl Jensen, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Rikke Leth-Larsen, Mette Brandt Eriksen
INTRODUCTION: Responsible conduct of research is the basis for the credibility of all research. Research misconduct is defined as the fabrication, falsification or plagiarism committed willfully or grossly negligently in the planning, performing or reporting of research. We undertook a survey of knowledge of the attitudes towards and experiences with research misconduct among PhD students in clinical research. METHODS: A questionnaire previously used in Swedish and Norwegian studies was distributed to PhD students (n = 330) affiliated with the Department of Clinical Research or Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519971/turkish-health-field-periodical-editors-views-on-publication-process-and-ethical-problems
#7
H Pars, R Akın, N E Sahin, S Cinar, F Aslan, S Duygulu
Objective: We aimed in this study to investigate views and suggestions of health field editors about the publication process and ethical problems. Materials and Methods: The study involved 42 journal editors who accepted to participate in the study. The data were collected through 70-item "Editor Views Questionnaire" which was developed by the researchers in line with the related literature. Results: The editors who participated in the study were asked about their views about the most common problems they encountered related to publication ethics; the top three problems indicated by the editors included unjustified authorship (40...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460082/testing-hypotheses-on-risk-factors-for-scientific-misconduct-via-matched-control-analysis-of-papers-containing-problematic-image-duplications
#8
Daniele Fanelli, Rodrigo Costas, Ferric C Fang, Arturo Casadevall, Elisabeth M Bik
It is commonly hypothesized that scientists are more likely to engage in data falsification and fabrication when they are subject to pressures to publish, when they are not restrained by forms of social control, when they work in countries lacking policies to tackle scientific misconduct, and when they are male. Evidence to test these hypotheses, however, is inconclusive due to the difficulties of obtaining unbiased data. Here we report a pre-registered test of these four hypotheses, conducted on papers that were identified in a previous study as containing problematic image duplications through a systematic screening of the journal PLoS ONE...
February 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441445/promoting-ethics-and-integrity-in-management-academic-research-retraction-initiative
#9
REVIEW
Freida Ozavize Ayodele, Liu Yao, Hasnah Haron
In the management academic research, academic advancement, job security, and the securing of research funds at one's university are judged mainly by one's output of publications in high impact journals. With bogus resumes filled with published journal articles, universities and other allied institutions are keen to recruit or sustain the appointment of such academics. This often places undue pressure on aspiring academics and on those already recruited to engage in research misconduct which often leads to research integrity...
February 13, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382061/securing-cooperative-spectrum-sensing-against-collusive-ssdf-attack-using-xor-distance-analysis-in-cognitive-radio-networks
#10
Jingyu Feng, Man Zhang, Yun Xiao, Hongzhou Yue
Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered as a powerful approach to improve the utilization of scarce spectrum resources. However, if CSS assumes that all secondary users (SU) are honest, it may offer opportunities for attackers to conduct a spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack. To suppress such a threat, recent efforts have been made to develop trust mechanisms. Currently, some attackers can collude with each other to form a collusive clique, and thus not only increase the power of SSDF attack but also avoid the detection of a trust mechanism...
January 27, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299859/geochemical-caper-fingerprints-as-a-tool-for-geographical-origin-identification
#11
Salvatore Pepi, Alessandro Sardella, Alessandra Bonazza, Carmela Vaccaro
The identification of geographical origin of food products is important for both consumers and producers to ensure quality and avoid label falsifications. The caper plant (Capparis spinosa L., Brassicales Capparidaceae), a xerophytic shrub common in the Mediterranean area, produces buds and fruits that are commercialized in brine at high price. Those grown in Italy in the Aeolian Islands are renowned for their high quality. This study is aimed to establish a correlation between the geological and geochemical features of soil and the chemical composition of caper buds grown in two Aeolian Islands, Lipari and Salina...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276999/the-impact-of-the-false-id-laws-on-alcohol-consumption-among-young-adults-new-results-from-the-nlsy97
#12
Barış K Yörük
In volume 36 of this journal, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97), Yörük (2014) finds that the false ID laws with scanner provision (FSP laws) significantly reduce underage drinking. In a recent paper, Zheng (2018) argues that analyses based on the NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises and uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) to estimate the effectiveness of the FSP laws. This paper replies to Zheng (2018) and provides new results from the NLSY97, which show that the FSP laws were effective reducing several indicators of alcohol consumption among minors...
January 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276333/soft-drink-prices-sales-body-mass-index-and-diabetes-evidence-from-a-panel-of-low-middle-and-high-income-countries
#13
Yevgeniy Goryakin, Pablo Monsivais, Marc Suhrcke
We take advantage of four different cross-country datasets containing data on 78 countries for the period 1999-2014, in order to assess the relationship of carbonated soft drinks' sales, as well as their prices, with body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity and diabetes. Using an ecological study design and multivariate regression longitudinal estimation approaches, we find that carbonated soft drink sales were significantly positively related to BMI, overweight and obesity - but only in the low and lower-middle income countries...
December 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226066/instrumental-variable-analyses-in-pharmacoepidemiology-what-target-trials-do-we-emulate
#14
REVIEW
Sonja A Swanson
Purpose of review: When leveraging observational data to estimate treatment effects, it is useful to explicitly specify the "target trial" the investigators aspire to emulate. One concern is whether a proposed analysis plan can address the realities of the differences between the available non-randomized observational study and the target trial. When large or unknown sources of unmeasured confounding are suspected, investigators might consider turning to instrumental variable (IV) methods...
2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223658/can-technology-really-help-to-reduce-underage-drinking-new-evidence-on-the-effects-of-false-id-laws-with-scanner-provisions
#15
Emily Yiying Zheng
In Volume 36 of this journal, Yoruk (2014) uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and finds that false ID laws with scanner provisions have large impacts on binge drinking participation, frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking frequency among minors. This paper reexamines how false ID laws with scanner provisions affect underage drinking. I first demonstrate that analyses based on NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises testing for significant pre-intervention effects, and that the estimated effects based on these data are highly sensitive to the inclusion of a lead term and to sample selection, which weakens confidence in the large estimated effects reported in Yoruk (2014)...
January 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163307/on-nomological-validity-and-auxiliary-assumptions-the-importance-of-simultaneously-testing-effects-in-social-cognitive-theories-applied-to-health-behavior-and-some-guidelines
#16
Martin S Hagger, Daniel F Gucciardi, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127114/compared-with-what-estimating-the-effects-of-injury-prevention-policies-using-the-synthetic-control-method
#17
Carl Bonander
INTRODUCTION: This paper discusses the application of the synthetic control method to injury-related interventions using aggregate data from public information systems. The method selects and determines the optimal control unit in the data by minimising the difference between the pre-intervention outcomes in one treated unit (eg, a state) and a weighted combination of potential control units. METHOD: I demonstrate the synthetic control method by an application to Florida's post-2010 policy and law enforcement initiatives aimed at bringing down opioid overdose deaths...
November 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065361/revisiting-non-significant-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-using-equivalence-testing
#18
Daniel S Quintana
The effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition are mixed, with several non-significant reports casting some doubts on its efficacy. Nevertheless, drawing inferences from non-significant values is problematic as non-significant results can be indicative of either statistical equivalence or insensitive data. Equivalence tests can be used to assess evidence for statistical equivalence, which can consequently facilitate theory falsification. To improve the inference of non-significant NHST p-values, this paper reports a set of equivalence tests performed on data from a recent meta-analysis synthesizing 32 intranasal oxytocin studies...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942205/the-unintended-consequences-of-community-verifications-for-performance-based-financing-in-burkina-faso
#19
Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Idriss Ali Gali-Gali, Manuela De Allegri, Valéry Ridde
Performance-based financing (PBF) is being widely implemented to improve healthcare services in Africa. An essential component of PBF involves conducting community verifications, wherein investigators from local associations attempt to trace samples of patients. Community surveys are administered to patients to verify whether healthcare workers reported fictitious services to increase their revenue. At the same time, client satisfaction surveys are administered to assess whether patients are satisfied with the services received...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886225/the-role-of-forensic-botany-in-solving-a-case-scientific-evidence-on-the-falsification-of-a-crime-scene
#20
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Pietrantonio Ricci
Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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