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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163307/on-nomological-validity-and-auxiliary-assumptions-the-importance-of-simultaneously-testing-effects-in-social-cognitive-theories-applied-to-health-behavior-and-some-guidelines
#1
Martin S Hagger, Daniel F Gucciardi, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127114/compared-with-what-estimating-the-effects-of-injury-prevention-policies-using-the-synthetic-control-method
#2
Carl Bonander
INTRODUCTION: This paper discusses the application of the synthetic control method to injury-related interventions using aggregate data from public information systems. The method selects and determines the optimal control unit in the data by minimising the difference between the pre-intervention outcomes in one treated unit (eg, a state) and a weighted combination of potential control units. METHOD: I demonstrate the synthetic control method by an application to Florida's post-2010 policy and law enforcement initiatives aimed at bringing down opioid overdose deaths...
November 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065361/revisiting-non-significant-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-using-equivalence-testing
#3
Daniel S Quintana
The effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition are mixed, with several non-significant reports casting some doubts on its efficacy. Nevertheless, drawing inferences from non-significant values is problematic as non-significant results can be indicative of either statistical equivalence or insensitive data. Equivalence tests can be used to assess evidence for statistical equivalence, which can consequently facilitate theory falsification. To improve the inference of non-significant NHST p-values, this paper reports a set of equivalence tests performed on data from a recent meta-analysis synthesizing 32 intranasal oxytocin studies...
October 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942205/the-unintended-consequences-of-community-verifications-for-performance-based-financing-in-burkina-faso
#4
Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Idriss Ali Gali-Gali, Manuela De Allegri, Valéry Ridde
Performance-based financing (PBF) is being widely implemented to improve healthcare services in Africa. An essential component of PBF involves conducting community verifications, wherein investigators from local associations attempt to trace samples of patients. Community surveys are administered to patients to verify whether healthcare workers reported fictitious services to increase their revenue. At the same time, client satisfaction surveys are administered to assess whether patients are satisfied with the services received...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886225/the-role-of-forensic-botany-in-solving-a-case-scientific-evidence-on-the-falsification-of-a-crime-scene
#5
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Pietrantonio Ricci
Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864443/conscious-sedation-versus-general-anesthesia-for-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-insights-from-the-ncdr%C3%A2-sts-acc-tvt-registry
#6
Matthew C Hyman, Sreekanth Vemulapalli, Wilson Y Szeto, Amanda Stebbins, Prakash A Patel, Roland A Matsouaka, Howard C Herrmann, Saif Anwaruddin, Taisei Kobayashi, Nimesh D Desai, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Fenton H McCarthy, Robert Li, Joseph E Bavaria, Jay Giri
Background -Conscious sedation is used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with limited evidence as to the safety and efficacy of this practice. Methods -The NCDR STS/ACC TVT Registry was used to characterize the anesthesia choice and clinical outcomes of all U.S. patients undergoing elective percutaneous transfemoral TAVR between April 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015. Raw and inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) analyses were performed to compare general anesthesia patients with conscious sedation patients on an intention-to-treat basis for the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes including 30-day mortality, in-hospital and 30-day death/stroke, procedural success, ICU and hospital length-of-stay, and rates of discharge to home...
September 1, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855264/economic-insecurity-during-the-great-recession-and-metabolic-inflammatory-and-liver-function-biomarkers-analysis-of-the-uk-household-longitudinal-study
#7
Claire L Niedzwiedz, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Aaron Reeves, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Economic insecurity correlates with adverse health outcomes, but the biological pathways involved are not well understood. We examine how changes in economic insecurity relate to metabolic, inflammatory and liver function biomarkers. METHODS: Blood analyte data were taken from 6520 individuals (aged 25-59 years) participating in Understanding Society. Economic insecurity was measured using an indicator of subjective financial strain and by asking participants whether they had missed any bill, council tax, rent or mortgage payments in the past year...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820890/history-based-forward-and-feedback-mechanism-in-cooperative-spectrum-sensing-including-malicious-users-in-cognitive-radio-network
#8
Noor Gul, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Adnan Omar, Atif Elahi, Sajjad Khan
In cognitive radio communication, spectrum sensing plays a vital role in sensing the existence of the primary user (PU). The sensing performance is badly affected by fading and shadowing in case of single secondary user(SU). To overcome this issue, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is proposed. Although the reliability of the system is improved with cooperation but existence of malicious user (MU) in the CSS deteriorates the performance. In this work, we consider the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence method for minimizing spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661102/-authorship-a-great-honor-or-an-onerous-responsibility
#9
Asaf Shemer, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Over the years ethical issues have been raised regarding authorship of scientific literature. Research is mainly accomplished through teamwork, and publishing articles has a significant impact upon academic promotion and career path. Thus, concepts such as honorary authors, ghost authors, and equally contributing authors have been established. In order to maintain better regulation, authorship recommendation and policies have been developed such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines...
June 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653153/application-of-benford-s-law-a-valuable-tool-for-detecting-scientific-papers-with-fabricated-data-a%C3%A2-case-study-using-proven-falsified-articles-against-a%C3%A2-comparison-group
#10
REVIEW
S Hüllemann, G Schüpfer, J Mauch
BACKGROUND: In naturally occurring numbers the frequencies of digits 1-9 in the leading position are counterintuitively distributed because the frequencies of occurrence are unequal. Benford-Newcomb's law describes the expected distribution of these frequencies. It was previously shown that known fraudulent articles consistently violated this law. OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of 12 known fraudulent articles from a single Japanese author to the features of 13 articles in the same research field from other Japanese authors, published during the same time period and identified with a Medline database search...
October 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614582/effectiveness-and-safety-of-standard-dose-nonvitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-and-warfarin-among-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-with-a-single-stroke-risk-factor-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Gregory Y H Lip, Flemming Skjøth, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Jette Nordstrøm Kjældgaard, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Importance: The randomized clinical trials comparing nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs warfarin largely focused on recruiting high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation with more than 2 stroke risk factors, with only the trials testing dabigatran or apixaban including few patients with 1 stroke risk factor. Despite this, regulatory approvals of all NOACs have been based on stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation with 1 or more stroke risk factors...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534806/feature-selection-for-nonstationary-data-application-to-human-recognition-using-medical-biometrics
#12
Majid Komeili, Wael Louis, Narges Armanfard, Dimitrios Hatzinakos
Electrocardiogram (ECG) and transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) are among the physiological signals that have attracted significant interest in biometric community due to their inherent robustness to replay and falsification attacks. However, they are time-dependent signals and this makes them hard to deal with in across-session human recognition scenario where only one session is available for enrollment. This paper presents a novel feature selection method to address this issue. It is based on an auxiliary dataset with multiple sessions where it selects a subset of features that are more persistent across different sessions...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476348/the-importance-of-falsification-in-computational-cognitive-modeling
#13
REVIEW
Stefano Palminteri, Valentin Wyart, Etienne Koechlin
In the past decade the field of cognitive sciences has seen an exponential growth in the number of computational modeling studies. Previous work has indicated why and how candidate models of cognition should be compared by trading off their ability to predict the observed data as a function of their complexity. However, the importance of falsifying candidate models in light of the observed data has been largely underestimated, leading to important drawbacks and unjustified conclusions. We argue here that the simulation of candidate models is necessary to falsify models and therefore support the specific claims about cognitive function made by the vast majority of model-based studies...
May 2, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333497/not-all-nonnormal-distributions-are-created-equal-improved-theoretical-and-measurement-precision
#14
Harry Joo, Herman Aguinis, Kyle J Bradley
We offer a four-category taxonomy of individual output distributions (i.e., distributions of cumulative results): (1) pure power law; (2) lognormal; (3) exponential tail (including exponential and power law with an exponential cutoff); and (4) symmetric or potentially symmetric (including normal, Poisson, and Weibull). The four categories are uniquely associated with mutually exclusive generative mechanisms: self-organized criticality, proportionate differentiation, incremental differentiation, and homogenization...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261876/retraction
#15
(no author information available yet)
Retraction: "Chronic NMDA administration to rats up-regulates frontal cortex cytosolic phospholipase A2 and its transcription factor, activator protein-2" by Rao JS, Ertley RN, Rapoport SI, Bazinet RP, Lee HJ. The above article from Journal of Neurochemistry, published online on 13 April 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in volume 102, issue 6, pp. 1918-1927, has been retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Stanley Rapoport, co-author Richard Bazinet, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261875/retraction
#16
(no author information available yet)
Retraction: "Aging is associated with altered inflammatory, arachidonic acid cascade, and synaptic markers, influenced by epigenetic modifications, in the human frontal cortex" by Keleshian VL, Modi HR, Rapoport SI, Rao JS. The above article from Journal of Neurochemistry, published online on 17 February 2013 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in volume 121, issue 1, pp. 63-73, has been retracted by agreement between the corresponding author Stanley Rapoport, the Journal's Editor-in-Chief, Jörg Schulz, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151827/ethics-of-research-for-patients-in-pain
#17
REVIEW
David B Waisel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes advances in rising and continuing ethical issues in research in patients in pain. Although some of the issues focus directly on pain research, such as research in neonatal pain management, others focus on widespread ethical issues that are relevant to pain research, such as scientific misconduct, deception, placebo use and genomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Scientific misconduct is more widespread than realized and requires greater awareness of the markers of misconduct like irreproducibility...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114726/medicaid-expansion-under-the-affordable-care-act-and-insurance-coverage-in-rural-and-urban-areas
#18
Aparna Soni, Michael Hendryx, Kosali Simon
PURPOSE: To analyze the differential rural-urban impacts of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on low-income childless adults' health insurance coverage. METHODS: Using data from the American Community Survey years 2011-2015, we conducted a difference-in-differences regression analysis to test for changes in the probability of low-income childless adults having insurance in states that expanded Medicaid versus states that did not expand, in rural versus urban areas...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035122/retraction-to-memory-enhancing-effects-of-silk-fibroin-derived-peptides-in-scopolamine-treated-mice
#19
Yong Koo Kang, Woojoo Lee, Byunghoon Kang, Hannah Kang
This article has been retracted from JMB for misconduct of the authors (data fabrication and falsification). JMB as the publisher regrets for any inconvenience caused by the retraction.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988950/what-anaesthesia-is-doing-to-combat-scientific-misconduct-and-investigate-data-fabrication-and-falsification
#20
EDITORIAL
A A Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Anaesthesia
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