Read by QxMD icon Read

data falsification

H Pars, R Akın, N E Sahin, S Cinar, F Aslan, S Duygulu
Objective: We aimed in this study to investigate views and suggestions of health field editors about the publication process and ethical problems. Materials and Methods: The study involved 42 journal editors who accepted to participate in the study. The data were collected through 70-item "Editor Views Questionnaire" which was developed by the researchers in line with the related literature. Results: The editors who participated in the study were asked about their views about the most common problems they encountered related to publication ethics; the top three problems indicated by the editors included unjustified authorship (40...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Daniele Fanelli, Rodrigo Costas, Ferric C Fang, Arturo Casadevall, Elisabeth M Bik
It is commonly hypothesized that scientists are more likely to engage in data falsification and fabrication when they are subject to pressures to publish, when they are not restrained by forms of social control, when they work in countries lacking policies to tackle scientific misconduct, and when they are male. Evidence to test these hypotheses, however, is inconclusive due to the difficulties of obtaining unbiased data. Here we report a pre-registered test of these four hypotheses, conducted on papers that were identified in a previous study as containing problematic image duplications through a systematic screening of the journal PLoS ONE...
February 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Freida Ozavize Ayodele, Liu Yao, Hasnah Haron
In the management academic research, academic advancement, job security, and the securing of research funds at one's university are judged mainly by one's output of publications in high impact journals. With bogus resumes filled with published journal articles, universities and other allied institutions are keen to recruit or sustain the appointment of such academics. This often places undue pressure on aspiring academics and on those already recruited to engage in research misconduct which often leads to research integrity...
February 13, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Jingyu Feng, Man Zhang, Yun Xiao, Hongzhou Yue
Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered as a powerful approach to improve the utilization of scarce spectrum resources. However, if CSS assumes that all secondary users (SU) are honest, it may offer opportunities for attackers to conduct a spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack. To suppress such a threat, recent efforts have been made to develop trust mechanisms. Currently, some attackers can collude with each other to form a collusive clique, and thus not only increase the power of SSDF attack but also avoid the detection of a trust mechanism...
January 27, 2018: Sensors
Salvatore Pepi, Alessandro Sardella, Alessandra Bonazza, Carmela Vaccaro
The identification of geographical origin of food products is important for both consumers and producers to ensure quality and avoid label falsifications. The caper plant (Capparis spinosa L., Brassicales Capparidaceae), a xerophytic shrub common in the Mediterranean area, produces buds and fruits that are commercialized in brine at high price. Those grown in Italy in the Aeolian Islands are renowned for their high quality. This study is aimed to establish a correlation between the geological and geochemical features of soil and the chemical composition of caper buds grown in two Aeolian Islands, Lipari and Salina...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Barış K Yörük
In volume 36 of this journal, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97), Yörük (2014) finds that the false ID laws with scanner provision (FSP laws) significantly reduce underage drinking. In a recent paper, Zheng (2018) argues that analyses based on the NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises and uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) to estimate the effectiveness of the FSP laws. This paper replies to Zheng (2018) and provides new results from the NLSY97, which show that the FSP laws were effective reducing several indicators of alcohol consumption among minors...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
Yevgeniy Goryakin, Pablo Monsivais, Marc Suhrcke
We take advantage of four different cross-country datasets containing data on 78 countries for the period 1999-2014, in order to assess the relationship of carbonated soft drinks' sales, as well as their prices, with body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity and diabetes. Using an ecological study design and multivariate regression longitudinal estimation approaches, we find that carbonated soft drink sales were significantly positively related to BMI, overweight and obesity - but only in the low and lower-middle income countries...
December 2017: Food Policy
Sonja A Swanson
Purpose of review: When leveraging observational data to estimate treatment effects, it is useful to explicitly specify the "target trial" the investigators aspire to emulate. One concern is whether a proposed analysis plan can address the realities of the differences between the available non-randomized observational study and the target trial. When large or unknown sources of unmeasured confounding are suspected, investigators might consider turning to instrumental variable (IV) methods...
2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
Emily Yiying Zheng
In Volume 36 of this journal, Yoruk (2014) uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and finds that false ID laws with scanner provisions have large impacts on binge drinking participation, frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking frequency among minors. This paper reexamines how false ID laws with scanner provisions affect underage drinking. I first demonstrate that analyses based on NLSY97 data fail falsification exercises testing for significant pre-intervention effects, and that the estimated effects based on these data are highly sensitive to the inclusion of a lead term and to sample selection, which weakens confidence in the large estimated effects reported in Yoruk (2014)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
Martin S Hagger, Daniel F Gucciardi, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Carl Bonander
INTRODUCTION: This paper discusses the application of the synthetic control method to injury-related interventions using aggregate data from public information systems. The method selects and determines the optimal control unit in the data by minimising the difference between the pre-intervention outcomes in one treated unit (eg, a state) and a weighted combination of potential control units. METHOD: I demonstrate the synthetic control method by an application to Florida's post-2010 policy and law enforcement initiatives aimed at bringing down opioid overdose deaths...
November 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Daniel S Quintana
The effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition are mixed, with several non-significant reports casting some doubts on its efficacy. Nevertheless, drawing inferences from non-significant values is problematic as non-significant results can be indicative of either statistical equivalence or insensitive data. Equivalence tests can be used to assess evidence for statistical equivalence, which can consequently facilitate theory falsification. To improve the inference of non-significant NHST p-values, this paper reports a set of equivalence tests performed on data from a recent meta-analysis synthesizing 32 intranasal oxytocin studies...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Idriss Ali Gali-Gali, Manuela De Allegri, Valéry Ridde
Performance-based financing (PBF) is being widely implemented to improve healthcare services in Africa. An essential component of PBF involves conducting community verifications, wherein investigators from local associations attempt to trace samples of patients. Community surveys are administered to patients to verify whether healthcare workers reported fictitious services to increase their revenue. At the same time, client satisfaction surveys are administered to assess whether patients are satisfied with the services received...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Pietrantonio Ricci
Forensic botany can provide useful information for pathologists, particularly on crime scene investigation. We report the case of a man who arrived at the hospital and died shortly afterward. The body showed widespread electrical lesions. The statements of his brother and wife about the incident aroused a large amount of suspicion in the investigators. A crime scene investigation was carried out, along with a botanical morphological survey on small vegetations found on the corpse. An autopsy was also performed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Matthew C Hyman, Sreekanth Vemulapalli, Wilson Y Szeto, Amanda Stebbins, Prakash A Patel, Roland A Matsouaka, Howard C Herrmann, Saif Anwaruddin, Taisei Kobayashi, Nimesh D Desai, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Fenton H McCarthy, Robert Li, Joseph E Bavaria, Jay Giri
BACKGROUND: Conscious sedation is used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with limited evidence as to the safety and efficacy of this practice. METHODS: The National Cardiovascular Data Registry Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry was used to characterize the anesthesia choice and clinical outcomes of all US patients undergoing elective percutaneous transfemoral TAVR between April 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015...
November 28, 2017: Circulation
Claire L Niedzwiedz, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Aaron Reeves, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Economic insecurity correlates with adverse health outcomes, but the biological pathways involved are not well understood. We examine how changes in economic insecurity relate to metabolic, inflammatory and liver function biomarkers. METHODS: Blood analyte data were taken from 6520 individuals (aged 25-59 years) participating in Understanding Society. Economic insecurity was measured using an indicator of subjective financial strain and by asking participants whether they had missed any bill, council tax, rent or mortgage payments in the past year...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Noor Gul, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Adnan Omar, Atif Elahi, Sajjad Khan
In cognitive radio communication, spectrum sensing plays a vital role in sensing the existence of the primary user (PU). The sensing performance is badly affected by fading and shadowing in case of single secondary user(SU). To overcome this issue, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is proposed. Although the reliability of the system is improved with cooperation but existence of malicious user (MU) in the CSS deteriorates the performance. In this work, we consider the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence method for minimizing spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack...
2017: PloS One
Asaf Shemer, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Over the years ethical issues have been raised regarding authorship of scientific literature. Research is mainly accomplished through teamwork, and publishing articles has a significant impact upon academic promotion and career path. Thus, concepts such as honorary authors, ghost authors, and equally contributing authors have been established. In order to maintain better regulation, authorship recommendation and policies have been developed such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines...
June 2017: Harefuah
S Hüllemann, G Schüpfer, J Mauch
BACKGROUND: In naturally occurring numbers the frequencies of digits 1-9 in the leading position are counterintuitively distributed because the frequencies of occurrence are unequal. Benford-Newcomb's law describes the expected distribution of these frequencies. It was previously shown that known fraudulent articles consistently violated this law. OBJECTIVE: To compare the features of 12 known fraudulent articles from a single Japanese author to the features of 13 articles in the same research field from other Japanese authors, published during the same time period and identified with a Medline database search...
October 2017: Der Anaesthesist
Gregory Y H Lip, Flemming Skjøth, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Jette Nordstrøm Kjældgaard, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Importance: The randomized clinical trials comparing nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs warfarin largely focused on recruiting high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation with more than 2 stroke risk factors, with only the trials testing dabigatran or apixaban including few patients with 1 stroke risk factor. Despite this, regulatory approvals of all NOACs have been based on stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation with 1 or more stroke risk factors...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"