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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456933/pediatricians-lack-knowledge-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-functional-constipation-in-children-over-6-mo-of-age
#1
Ariani Widodo, Badriul Hegar, Yvan Vandenplas
AIM: To assess the knowledge of general pediatricians througout Indonesia about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood constipation. METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was distributed to general pediatricians from several teaching hospitals and government hospitals all over Indonesia. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 100 pediatricians, with a mean of 78.34 ± 18.00 mo clinical practice, from 20 cities throughout Indonesia. Suspicion of constipation in a child over 6 mo of age arises when the child presents with a decreased frequency of bowel movements (according to 87% of participants) with a mean of one bowel movement per 3...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456858/enhanced-biostability-and-cellular-uptake-of-zinc-oxide-nanocrystals-shielded-with-a-phospholipid-bilayer
#2
B Dumontel, M Canta, H Engelke, A Chiodoni, L Racca, A Ancona, T Limongi, G Canavese, V Cauda
The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456774/gastric-aspiration-and-its-role-in-airway-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454707/crystal-structure-of-the-capsid-protein-from-zika-virus
#4
Zifang Shang, Hao Song, Yi Shi, Jianxun Qi, George F Gao
Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global public health concern, and is distinct from other flaviviruses in many aspects, e.g., causing transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector-independent transmission through body fluids in humans. The capsid (C) protein is a multifunctional protein, since it binds to viral RNA in the process of nucleocapsid assembly and plays important roles in virus infection processes by interacting with cellular proteins, modulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis and immune response...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454354/cerebrospinal-fluid-level-of-nogo-receptor-1-antagonist-lateral-olfactory-tract-usher-substance-lotus-correlates-inversely-with-the-extent-of-neuroinflammation
#5
Keita Takahashi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuji Kurihara, Hiroshi Doi, Misako Kunii, Kenichi Tanaka, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Atsuko Tomita-Katsumoto, Mikiko Tada, Yuichi Higashiyama, Hideto Joki, Shigeru Koyano, Kohtaro Takei, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although inflammation in the central nervous system is responsible for multiple neurological diseases, the lack of appropriate biomarkers makes it difficult to evaluate inflammatory activities in these diseases. Therefore, a new biomarker reflecting neuroinflammation is required for accurate diagnosis, appropriate therapy, and comprehension of pathogenesis of these neurological disorders. We previously reported that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), which promotes axonal growth as a Nogo receptor 1 antagonist, negatively correlates with disease activity in multiple sclerosis, suggesting that variation in LOTUS reflects the inflammatory activities and is a useful biomarker to evaluate the disease activity...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453259/common-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-additives-alter-the-structure-and-function-of-anaerobic-microbial-communities
#6
Adam C Mumford, Denise M Akob, J Grace Klinges, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, DBNPA and Bronopol...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452771/radiation-therapy-as-an-effective-salvage-strategy-for-secondary-cns-lymphoma
#7
Sarah A Milgrom, Chelsea C Pinnix, T Linda Chi, Thinh H Vu, Jillian R Gunther, Tommy Sheu, Nathan Fowler, Jason R Westin, Loretta J Nastoupil, Yasuhiro Oki, Luis E Fayad, Sattva Neelapu, Maria Alma Rodriguez, Frederick B Hagemeister, Michelle A Fanale, Hun J Lee, Chitra Hosing, Sairah Ahmed, Yago Nieto, Elizabeth J Shpall, Bouthaina S Dabaja
PURPOSE: We assessed the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in the management of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The cohort comprised 44 patients with systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) secondarily involving the brain and/or leptomeninges at initial diagnosis or relapse that was treated with RT. RESULTS: Of these patients, 29 (66%) were in systemic remission when CNS disease was diagnosed...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452568/primary-cilia-regulated-transcriptome-in-the-renal-collecting-duct
#8
Sami G Mohammed, Francisco J Arjona, Eric H J Verschuren, Zeineb Bakey, Wynand Alkema, Sacha van Hijum, Miriam Schmidts, René J M Bindels, Joost G J Hoenderop
Renal tubular cells respond to mechanical stimuli generated by urinary flow to regulate the activity and transcript abundance of important genes for ion handling, cellular homeostasis, and proper renal development. The primary cilium, a mechanosensory organelle, is postulated to regulate this mRNA response. The aim of this study is to reveal the transcriptome changes of tubular epithelia in response to fluid flow and determine the role of primary cilia in this process. Inner-medullary collecting duct (CD) cells were subjected to either static or physiologically relevant fluid flow (∼0...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452205/impaired-cerebral-microcirculation-induced-by-ammonium-chloride-in-rats-is-due-to-cortical-adenosine-release
#9
Peter Nissen Bjerring, Esben Jannik Bjerrum, Fin Stolze Larsen
BACKGROUND: Liver failure results in hyperammonaemia, impaired regulation of cerebral microcirculation, encephalopathy and death. However, the key mediator that alters cerebral microcirculation remains unidentified. In this study we show that topical ammonium significantly increases periarteriolar adenosine tone on the brain surface of healthy rats and is associated with a disturbed microcirculation. METHODS: Cranial windows were prepared in anaesthetized Wistar rats...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449964/consequences-of-inadvertent-intravitreal-mitomycin-c-injection
#10
Ahmad Mirshahi, Alireza Lashay, Mohammad Reza Mehrabi Bahar, Mojtaba Abrishami
Background: Mitomycin C (MMC) as an alkylating agent is miscellaneous an antineoplastic, antibiotic and ophthalmic agent. Here we aim to report a case of inadvertent intravitreal MMC injection instead of Avastin in case of diabetic macular edema. Case presentation: A 53 years old woman was planned to receive intravitreal Avastin injection, but accidentally, 0.05 ml of MMC 0.2% was injected. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/160 before injection. After 2 days, patient was referred to a tertiary referral eye center...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449654/analysis-combining-correlated-glaucoma-traits-identifies-five-new-risk-loci-for-open-angle-glaucoma
#11
Puya Gharahkhani, Kathryn P Burdon, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Alex W Hewitt, Matthew H Law, Louis R Pasquale, Jae H Kang, Jonathan L Haines, Emmanuelle Souzeau, Tiger Zhou, Owen M Siggs, John Landers, Mona Awadalla, Shiwani Sharma, Richard A Mills, Bronwyn Ridge, David Lynn, Robert Casson, Stuart L Graham, Ivan Goldberg, Andrew White, Paul R Healey, John Grigg, Mitchell Lawlor, Paul Mitchell, Jonathan Ruddle, Michael Coote, Mark Walland, Stephen Best, Andrea Vincent, Jesse Gale, Graham RadfordSmith, David C Whiteman, Grant W Montgomery, Nicholas G Martin, David A Mackey, Janey L Wiggs, Stuart MacGregor, Jamie E Craig
Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. To identify new risk loci for OAG, we performed a genome-wide association study in 3,071 OAG cases and 6,750 unscreened controls, and meta-analysed the results with GWAS data for intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic disc parameters (the overall meta-analysis sample size varying between 32,000 to 48,000 participants), which are glaucoma-related traits. We identified and independently validated four novel genome-wide significant associations within or near MYOF and CYP26A1, LINC02052 and CRYGS, LMX1B, and LMO7 using single variant tests, one additional locus (C9) using gene-based tests, and two genetic pathways - "response to fluid shear stress" and "abnormal retina morphology" - in pathway-based tests...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449421/increased-t-helper-17-1-cells-in-sarcoidosis-mediastinal-lymph-nodes
#12
Caroline E Broos, Laura L Koth, Menno van Nimwegen, Johannes C C M In't Veen, Sandra M J Paulissen, Jan Piet van Hamburg, Jouke T Annema, Roxane Heller-Baan, Alex Kleinjan, Henk C Hoogsteden, Marlies S Wijsenbeek, Rudi W Hendriks, Bernt van den Blink, Mirjam Kool
Objective: The lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) are currently widely used to diagnose sarcoidosis. We previously reported that T helper 17.1 (Th17.1) cells are responsible for the exaggerated IFN-γ production in sarcoidosis lungs. In this study, we aimed to investigate (i) whether Th17.1 cells are also increased in the MLN of sarcoidosis patients, and (ii) whether frequencies of the Th17.1 cells at diagnosis may correlate with disease progression. Methods: MLN cells from treatment-naive pulmonary sarcoidosis patients (n=17) and healthy controls (n=22) and peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells (n=34) and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n=36) from sarcoidosis patients were examined for CD4 + T cell subset proportions, using flow cytometry...
February 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448767/crystal-nucleation-in-sedimenting-colloidal-suspensions
#13
Stefania Ketzetzi, John Russo, Daniel Bonn
Homogeneous crystal nucleation from a metastable hard-sphere colloidal liquid has been extensively studied in simulations and experiments. A 12 order of magnitude difference between simulated and experimental nucleation rates is observed, the origin of which remains a puzzle. Here, we experimentally study crystal nucleation at the single particle level in suspensions of hard-sphere-like colloids under the influence of sedimentation. We find that sedimentation significantly enhances the nucleation rate, but contrary to what was previously thought, this is not due to simple density fluctuations, as the nucleation barriers become independent of the local density in a sedimentating fluid...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448510/preparation-and-in-vivo-biodistribution-of-ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-with-high-magnetic-targeting-response
#14
Xiaoyu Han, Pingping Yao, Chao Cheng, Hongmin Yuan, Yuxiang Yang, Chaoying Ni
The ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles with high saturation magnetization and good superparamagnetism were prepared by reverse micro-emulsions using novel C16E15 as surfactant, which can reduce magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, hence decreasing the critical blocking temperature (TB). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectrum (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the magnetic particles...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448387/pressure-evolution-and-deformation-of-confined-granular-media-during-pneumatic-fracturing
#15
Fredrik K Eriksen, Renaud Toussaint, Antoine Léo Turquet, Knut J Måløy, Eirik G Flekkøy
By means of digital image correlation, we experimentally characterize the deformation of a dry granular medium confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell due to air injection at a constant overpressure high enough to deform it (from 50 to 250 kPa). Air injection at these overpressures leads to the formation of so-called pneumatic fractures, i.e., channels empty of beads, and we discuss the typical deformations of the medium surrounding these structures. In addition we simulate the diffusion of the fluid overpressure into the medium, comparing it with the Laplacian solution over time and relating pressure gradients with corresponding granular displacements...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448368/disentangling-the-role-of-athermal-walls-on-the-knudsen-paradox-in-molecular-and-granular-gases
#16
Ronak Gupta, Meheboob Alam
The nature of particle-wall interactions is shown to have a profound impact on the well-known "Knudsen paradox" [or the "Knudsen minimum" effect, which refers to the decrease of the mass-flow rate of a gas with increasing Knudsen number Kn, reaching a minimum at Kn∼O(1) and increasing logarithmically with Kn as Kn→∞] in the acceleration-driven Poiseuille flow of rarefied gases. The nonmonotonic variation of the flow rate with Kn occurs even in a granular or dissipative gas in contact with thermal walls...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448227/alignment-of-nematic-liquid-crystals-decorated-with-gemini-surfactants-and-interaction-of-proteins-with-gemini-surfactants-at-fluid-interfaces
#17
Tongtong Tian, Qi Kang, Tao Wang, Jianhong Xiao, Li Yu
A series of cationic gemini surfactants with diverse chemical structures, that is, imidazolium-based gemini surface active ionic liquids (gemini IM-SAILs) with different alkyl chain length or spacer length, viz. 1,s-bis(3-alkylimidazolium-1-yl) ethane bromide ([C n -s-C n im]Br 2 ; s = 2, n = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16; n = 12, s = 2, 4, 6, 10), and quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants (gemini QASaa) with different symmetries, viz. 1,2-bisalkylquaternary ammonium bromide (m-2-n; m = 12, 14, 16, n = 8, 10, 12, m + n = 24), were synthesized and utilized to decorate aqueous/liquid crystal interfaces (ALI)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448144/nanocements-produced-from-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-nanoparticles
#18
Min Sil Kang, Na-Hyun Lee, Rajendra K Singh, Nandin Mandakhbayar, Roman A Perez, Jung-Hwan Lee, Hae-Won Kim
Biomedical cements are considered promising injectable materials for bone repair and regeneration. Calcium phosphate composition sized with tens of micrometers is currently one of the major powder forms. Here we report a unique cement form made from mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn). The nanopowder could harden in reaction with aqueous solution at powder-to-liquid ratios as low as 0.4-0.5 (vs. 2.0-3.0 for conventional calcium phosphate cement CPC). The cementation mechanism investigated from TEM, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, and NMR analyses was demonstrated to be the ionic (Si and Ca) dissolution and then reprecipitation to form Si-Ca-(P) based amorphous nano-islands that could network the particles...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447934/mismatch-between-gluts-and-glucose-levels-causes-neuronal-damage-during-glucose-fluctuations
#19
Zhichao Xie, Jun Guo, Yan Kang, Xiaofeng Ou
Abnormal glucose levels damage the central nervous system, especially in case of rapid fluctuations. Even a single episode of glucose reperfusion can result in overt impairment of neurons. Oxidative stress plays an important role in this process, sharing properties with the pathophysiologic changes of glucose neurotoxicity. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) located in the brain are involved in direct glucose uptake by neurons. Instead of being insulin-sensitive, these transporters are regulated by glucose levels in the extracellular fluid, increasing their expression while glucose levels fall, to absorb more glucose...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447484/cationic-dda-tdb-liposome-as-a-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvant-for-uptake-by-dendritic-cells-in-vitro-induces-potent-humoural-immunity
#20
Wenjing Qu, Na Li, Rui Yu, Wenbao Zuo, Tingting Fu, Wenling Fei, Yanhui Hou, Yanhua Liu, Jianhong Yang
The cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6,9-dibehenate (DDA/TDB) liposome is as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines, with remarkable immunostimulatory activity. The mucosal administration of vaccines is a potential strategy for inducing earlier and stronger mucosal immune responses to infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed whether the intranasal administration of cationic DDA/TDB liposomes combined with influenza antigen A (H3N2) can be used as a highly efficacious vaccine to induce mucosal and systemic antibody responses...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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