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Fluid responsive

Moyu Ming, Zhixi Luo, Shengqiu Lv, Chaoqian Li
The present study aimed to investigate whether inhalation of inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei could prevent airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia. A total of 24 male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: Normal control group (group A), asthma model group (group B) and the intervention group (group C), (8 mice/group). Group A mice were sensitized and with challenged saline and group B with ovalbumin (OVA). Group C mice were administered with aerosol Mycobacterium phlei once daily prior to the allergen challenge...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mitsuaki Kojima, Joao Antonio Gimenes-Junior, Simone Langness, Koji Morishita, Ophelie Lavoie-Gagne, Brian Eliceiri, Todd W Costantini, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that mesenteric lymph (ML) has a crucial role in driving the systemic inflammatory response after trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). The specific mediators in the ML that contribute to its biological activity remain unclear despite decades of study. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are shed into body fluids such as serum and urine that can mediate intercellular communication. We hypothesized that exosomes are present in the ML after trauma/shock and are responsible for the biological activity of ML...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yiwen Ouyang, Jingyi Li, Doris M Haverstick, James P Landers
We recently defined a magnetic bead-based assay that exploited an agglutination-like response for DNA and applied it to DNA-containing cell enumeration using inexpensive benchtop hardware [ J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012 , 134 ( 12 ), 5689 - 96 ]. Although cost-efficient, the open-well format assay required numerous manual steps, and the magnetic field actuation scheme was not readily adaptable for integration. Here, we demonstrate a low-cost (<$2 in-lab), higher-throughput "pinwheel assay" platform that relies on a combination of a disposable rotation-driven microdisc (RDM), and a simple bidirectional rotating magnetic field (bi-RMF)...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
M A Zouache, I Eames, C A Klettner, P J Luthert
The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yong Cheng, Xuan Shi, Jin-Feng Qu, Ming-Wei Zhao, Xiao-Xin Li
BACKGROUND: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is characterized by the presence of polyps with or without a branching vascular network and more prevalent among Asians. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of conbercept therapy between two different angiographic subtypes of PCV. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients of PCV were classified into two phenotypes according to indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). In Type 1, both feeder and draining vessels are visible on ICGA and network vessels are numerous...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Anders Gunnarsson, Lisa Simonsson Nyström, Sabina Burazerovic, Jenny Gunnarsson, Arjan Snijder, Stefan Geschwindner, Fredrik Höök
Investigations of ligand-binding kinetics to membrane proteins are hampered by their poor stability and low expression levels, which often translates into sensitivity-related limitations impaired by low signal-to-noise ratios. Inspired by affinity capturing of water-soluble proteins, which utilizes water as the mobile phase, we demonstrate affinity capturing and local enrichment of membrane proteins by using a fluid lipid bilayer as the mobile phase. Specific membrane-protein capturing and enrichment in a microfluidic channel was accomplished by immobilizing a synthesized trivalent nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA)-biotin conjugate...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Guankui Wang, Fangfang Chen, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, LinPing Wu, S Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Kathryn M Kingsmore, Daniel K Logsdon, Desiree H Floyd, Shayn M Peirce, Benjamin W Purow, Jennifer M Munson
Glioblastoma (GBM) prognosis remains dismal due in part to the invasiveness of GBM cells. Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) has been shown to increase invasion of glioma cells in vitro through the CXCR4 receptor interacting with autologous, pericellular gradients of CXCL12 (autologous chemotaxis) or through the CD44 receptor interactions with the extracellular matrix (hyaluronan-mediated mechanotransduction). These mechanisms have not been examined together and thus we hypothesized that both mechanisms contribute to invasion in populations of cancer cells...
October 24, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are emerging as critical components of an intercellular information network between the tumor and the host. The tumor escapes from the host immune system by using a variety of mechanisms designed to impair or eliminate anti-tumor immunity. TEX carrying a cargo of immunoinhibitory molecules and factors represent one such mechanism. TEX, which are present in all body fluids of cancer patients, deliver negative molecular or genetic signals to immune cells re-programming their functions...
October 20, 2016: Vaccines
Matthew Urich, Alan R Denton
Microgels are soft colloidal particles that, when dispersed in a solvent, swell and deswell in response to changes in environmental conditions, such as temperature, concentration, and pH. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we model bulk suspensions of microgels that interact via Hertzian elastic interparticle forces and can expand or contract via trial moves that allow particles to change size in accordance with the Flory-Rehner free energy of cross-linked polymer gels. We monitor the influence of particle compressibility, size fluctuations, and concentration on bulk structural and thermal properties by computing particle swelling ratios, radial distribution functions, static structure factors, osmotic pressures, and freezing densities...
October 24, 2016: Soft Matter
Takaya Kitano, Makoto Kinoshita, Kohki Shimazu, Hiroaki Fushimi, Kenichi Omori, Takanori Hazama
A 87-year-old female presented with subacute progression of cognitive decline. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of brain MRI showed multifocal high-intensity lesions. Thoracic CT image revealed the presence of thymoma, and serum autoantibody screening showed positivity for anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody. Histopathological analysis confirmed type B3 thymoma after thymectomy. The patient received both plasmapheresis and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, and showed remarkable amelioration of clinical symptoms and MRI abnormal high intensity...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Peter A McCullough, Christopher T Chan, Eric D Weinhandl, John M Burkart, George L Bakris
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease, including cardiac arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease, is higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in the US resident population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in HD patients and the principal discharge diagnosis accompanying 1 in 4 hospital admissions. Furthermore, the rate of hospital admissions for either heart failure or fluid overload is persistently high despite widespread use of β-blockers and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and attempts to manage fluid overload with ultrafiltration...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Guilherme B Dos Santos, Karina M Monteiro, Edileuza Danieli da Silva, Maria Eduarda Battistella, Henrique B Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
G S Polymeris, V Giannoulatou, A Kyriakidou, I K Sfampa, G S Theodorou, E Şahiner, N Meriç, G Kitis, K M Paraskevopoulos
The current work exploits the effective application of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and the possibility of applying Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for the discrimination between different bioactive responses in the case of the 45S5 bioactive glass (SiO2 45, Na2O 24.5, CaO 24.5, P2O5 6 in wt%), which was synthesized through melting process. These techniques are suggested mainly due to their low spectroscopic detection thresholds. The original 45S5 in grain size range of 20-40μm was immersed in the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for various different immersion times ranging over one week...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Lei Li, Guohua Jiang, Weijiang Yu, Depeng Liu, Hua Chen, Yongkun Liu, Zaizai Tong, Xiangdong Kong, Juming Yao
To overcome multiple barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan-based multifunctional nanocarriers modified by L-valine (LV, used as a target ligand to facilitate the absorption of the small intestine) and phenylboronic acid (PBA, used as a glucose-responsive unit) have been designed and evaluated in this study. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited low cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Lauren E Marshall, Roy Koomullil, Andra R Frost, Joel L Berry
A preclinical testing model for cancer therapeutics that replicates in vivo physiology is needed to accurately describe drug delivery and efficacy prior to clinical trials. To develop an in vitro model of breast cancer that mimics in vivo drug/nutrient delivery as well as physiological size and bio-composition, it is essential to describe the mass transport quantitatively. The objective of the present study was to develop in vitro and computational models to measure mass transport from a perfusion system into a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Verena Clarissa Samara, Adam de Havenon
Acute myelopathy is a rare presentation of systemic T-cell lymphoma. We present the case of a man aged 68 years with a diffuse erythematous maculopapular rash, followed by lower extremity paresthesias and progressive lower extremity weakness. Spinal MRI showed longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity with diffuse contrast enhancement. An atypical clonal T-lymphocyte population was identified in cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate, indicating a malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Ingrid Broodman, Jan Lindemans, Jenny van Sten, Rainer Bischoff, Theo M Luider
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT screening may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. Alternatively, false-negative and indeterminate results may harm patients due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Klaus Kratochwill, Michael Boehm, Rebecca Herzog, Katharina Gruber, Anton Michael Lichtenauer, Lilian Kuster, Dagmar Csaicsich, Andreas Gleiss, Seth L Alper, Christoph Aufricht, Andreas Vychytil
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure remain serious complications of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Dysfunctional cellular stress responses aggravate peritoneal injury associated with PD fluid exposure, potentially due to peritoneal glutamine depletion. In this randomized cross-over phase I/II trial we investigated cytoprotective effects of alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln) addition to glucose-based PDF. METHODS: In a prospective randomized cross-over design, 20 stable PD outpatients underwent paired peritoneal equilibration tests 4 weeks apart, using conventional acidic, single chamber 3...
2016: PloS One
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