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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220873/effect-of-sleep-on-overnight-csf-amyloid-%C3%AE-kinetics
#1
Brendan P Lucey, Terry J Hicks, Jennifer S McLeland, Cristina D Toedebusch, Jill Boyd, Donald L Elbert, Bruce W Patterson, Jack Baty, John C Morris, Vitaliy Ovod, Kwasi G Mawuenyega, Randall J Bateman
Sleep disturbances are associated with future risk of Alzheimer's disease. Disrupted sleep increases soluble amyloid-β, suggesting a mechanism for sleep disturbances to increase Alzheimer's disease risk. We tested this response in humans using indwelling lumbar catheters to serially sample cerebrospinal fluid while participants were sleep-deprived, treated with sodium oxybate, or allowed to sleep normally. All participants were infused with 13 C6 -leucine to measure amyloid-β kinetics. We found that sleep deprivation increased overnight amyloid-β-38, amyloid-β-40, and amyloid-β-42 levels by 25-30% via increased overnight amyloid-β production relative to sleeping controls...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220744/sensitive-detection-of-pyoverdine-with-an-electrochemical-sensor-based-on-electrochemically-generated-graphene-functionalized-with-gold-nanoparticles
#2
Islem Gandouzi, Mihaela Tertis, Andreea Cernat, Amina Bakhrouf, Maria Coros, Stela Pruneanu, Cecilia Cristea
The design and development of an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and selective determination of pyoverdine, a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria involved in nosocomial infections is presented in this work. The presence of pyoverdine in water and body fluids samples can be directly linked to the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria, thus being a nontoxic and low cost marker for the detection of water pollution as well as for the biological contamination of other media. The sensor was elaborated using layer-by-layer technique for the deposition of a graphene‑gold nanoparticles composite film on the graphite-based screen printed electrode, from aqueous suspension...
December 5, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218397/can-we-better-predict-the-biologic-behavior-of-incidental-ipmn-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-molecular-diagnostics-and-biomarkers-in-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas
#3
Kiara A Tulla, Ajay V Maker
PURPOSE: Predicting the biologic behavior of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) remains challenging. Current guidelines utilize patient symptoms and imaging characteristics to determine appropriate surgical candidates. However, the majority of resected cysts remain low-risk lesions, many of which may be feasible to have under surveillance. We herein characterize the most promising and up-to-date molecular diagnostics in order to identify optimal components of a molecular signature to distinguish levels of IPMN dysplasia...
December 7, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217612/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-of-the-elbow-joint
#4
Quintin Liao, James George Shepherd, Sulman Hasnie
Mycobacterium tuberculosis(TB) affecting the elbow joint is rarely reported in the developed world. We present the case of an 85-year-old Caucasian female who complained of a chronically discharging and painful wound across her left elbow during her admission for an ischaemic stroke. This was initially deemed to be either a bursitis or local manifestation of amyloid by her general practitioner and dermatologist respectively prior to admission. She was commenced on flucloxacillin by the medical team for presumed cellulitis with minimal response...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217379/major-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#5
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib, Faruku Bande
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. OBJECTIVES: While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216523/use-of-synthetic-stimulants-and-hallucinogens-in-a-cohort-of-electronic-dance-music-festival-attendees
#6
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Jillian K Yeakel, Barry K Logan
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS), often characterized as unregulated psychoactive compounds designed to circumvent existing legislation, have become mainstream on the illicit drug market. Because of their physical and mind-altering properties, NPS may be deliberately or inadvertently ingested at electronic dance music (EDM) festivals to enhance the attendees' appreciation of the music and overall experience. Their widespread use at EDM festivals have been well documented and several adverse events and fatalities associated with NPS ingestion have been reported in the United States...
November 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216188/monitoring-wound-healing-in-a-3d-wound-model-by-hyperspectral-imaging-and-efficient-clustering
#7
Mirwaes Wahabzada, Manuela Besser, Milad Khosravani, Matheus Thomas Kuska, Kristian Kersting, Anne-Katrin Mahlein, Ewa Stürmer
Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process with different distinct and overlapping phases from homeostasis, inflammation and proliferation to remodelling. Monitoring the healing response of injured tissue is of high importance for basic research and clinical practice. In traditional application, biological markers characterize normal and abnormal wound healing. Understanding functional relationships of these biological processes is essential for developing new treatment strategies. However, most of the present techniques (in vitro or in vivo) include invasive microscopic or analytical tissue sampling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215277/review-of-the-scientific-understanding-of-radioactive-waste-at-the-u-s-doe-hanford-site
#8
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215081/experimental-zika-virus-inoculation-in-a-new-world-monkey-model-reproduces-key-features-of-the-human-infection
#9
Charles Y Chiu, Claudia Sánchez-San Martín, Jerome Bouquet, Tony Li, Shigeo Yagi, Manasi Tamhankar, Vida L Hodara, Laura M Parodi, Sneha Somasekar, Guixia Yu, Luis D Giavedoni, Suzette Tardif, Jean Patterson
A monkey model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is urgently needed to better understand transmission and pathogenesis, given its proven association with fetal brain defects in pregnant women and acute neurological illness. Here we experimentally infected 4 male marmosets with ZIKV (prototype 1947 African strain) and monitored them clinically with sampling of various body fluids and tissues for nearly 3 months. We show that the course of acute infection with ZIKV in these New World monkeys resembles the human illness in many respects, including (1) lack of apparent clinical symptoms in most cases, (2) persistence of the virus in body fluids such as semen and saliva for longer periods of time than in serum, and (3) generation of neutralizing antibodies as well as an antiviral immunological host response...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213286/survival-of-five-strains-of-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-a-sausage-fermentation-model-and-subsequent-sensitivity-to-stress-from-gastric-acid-and-intestinal-fluid
#10
Tone Mari Rode, Anette McLeod, Ingrid Måge, Even Heir, Lars Axelsson, Askild L Holck
The ability of foodborne pathogens to exhibit adaptive responses to stressful conditions in foods may enhance their survival when passing through the gastrointestinal system. We aimed to determine whether Escherichia coli surviving stresses encountered during a model dry-fermented sausage (DFS) production process exhibit enhanced tolerance and survival in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Salami sausage batters spiked with five E. coli isolates, including enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains isolated from different DFS outbreaks, were fermented in a model DFS process (20°C, 21 days)...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212728/coral-calcification-mechanisms-facilitate-adaptive-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#11
Verena Schoepf, Christopher P Jury, Robert J Toonen, Malcolm T McCulloch
Ocean acidification (OA) is a pressing threat to reef-building corals, but it remains poorly understood how coral calcification is inhibited by OA and whether corals could acclimatize and/or adapt to OA. Using a novel geochemical approach, we reconstructed the carbonate chemistry of the calcifying fluid in two coral species using both a pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) proxy (δ11B and B/Ca, respectively). To address the potential for adaptive responses, both species were collected from two sites spanning a natural gradient in seawater pH and temperature, and then subjected to three pHT levels (8...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212569/the-effect-of-strategic-memory-training-in-older-adults-who-benefits-most
#12
Alessia Rosi, Federica Del Signore, Elisa Canelli, Nicola Allegri, Sara Bottiroli, Tomaso Vecchi, Elena Cavallini
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that there is a degree of variability among older adults' response to memory training, such that some individuals benefit more than others. The aim of the present study was to identify the profile of older adults who were likely to benefit most from a strategic memory training program that has previously proved to be effective in improving memory in healthy older adults. METHOD: In total, 44 older adults (60-83 years) participated in a strategic memory training...
December 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212505/do-patients-with-schizophreniform-and-bipolar-disorders-show-an-intrathecal-polyspecific-antiviral-immune-response-a-pilot-study
#13
Dominique Endres, Daniela Huzly, Rick Dersch, Oliver Stich, Benjamin Berger, Florian Schuchardt, Evgeniy Perlov, Nils Venhoff, Sabine Hellwig, Bernd L Fiebich, Daniel Erny, Tilman Hottenrott, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: We previously described inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations in a subgroup of patients with schizophreniform disorders and the synthesis of polyspecific intrathecal antibodies against different neurotropic infectious pathogens in some patients with bipolar disorders. Consequently, we have measured the prevalence of a positive MRZ reaction (MRZR)-a marker for a polyspecific, antiviral, intrathecal, humoral immune response composed of three antibody indices for the neurotropic viruses of measles (M), rubella (R), and varicella zoster (Z)-in these patients...
December 7, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211963/dynamic-organization-of-ligand-grafted-nanoparticles-during-adsorption-and-surface-compression-at-fluid-fluid-interfaces
#14
Axel Huerre, Fernando Cacho-Nerin, Vincent Poulichet, Christiana E Udoh, Marco De Corato, Valeria Garbin
Monolayers of ligand-grafted nanoparticles at fluid interfaces exhibit a complex response to deformation due to an interplay of particle rearrangements within the monolayer, and molecular rearrangements of the ligand brush on the surface of the particles. We use grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) combined with pendant drop tensiometry to probe in situ the dynamic organization of ligand-grafted nanoparticles upon adsorption at a fluid-fluid interface, and during monolayer compression. Through the simultaneous measurements of interparticle distance, obtained from GISAXS, and of surface pressure, obtained from pendant drop tensiometry, we link the interfacial stress to the monolayer microstructure...
December 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211690/assessment-of-a-combined-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometer-sensor-system-for-detecting-biologically-relevant-volatile-compounds
#15
Oliver Gould, Tom Wieczorek, Ben de Lacy Costello, Raj Persad, Norman Ratcliffe
There have been a number of studies in which metal oxide sensors (MOS) have replaced conventional analytical detectors in gas chromatography systems. However, despite the use of these instruments in a range of applications including breath research the sensor responses (i.e. resistance changes w.r.t. concentration of VCs) remain largely unreported. This paper addresses that issue by comparing the response of a metal oxide sensor directly with a mass spectrometer (MS), whereby both detectors are interfaced to the same GC column using an s-swafer...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211472/tuning-the-viscoelastic-gel-transition-of-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-embedded-in-ph-responsive-polyelectrolyte-solutions
#16
Atiđa Selmani, Antonio Tavera-Vazquez, Cristina Garza, Rolando C Castillo
We present the detailed rheological changes that occur when small quantities of single-wall carbon nanotubes are dispersed in a polyacrylic acid water solution, around the overlap polymer concentration, up to the gel point. Here, pH is used to tune the gel formation. Suspensions of nanotubes at pH ≤ 5 are exfoliated and dispersed by the polymer. Contacts between the nanotubes are mainly through polymer entangling, and the suspension is viscoelastic. At pH > 5, the polymer is charged, and the solution is not so good solvent for the nanotubes anymore...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211068/spontaneous-protein-desorption-from-self-assembled-monolayer-sam-coated-gold-nanoparticles
#17
Ranran Tian, Mengbo Luo, Jingyuan Li
When nanoparticles enter blood or other biological fluids, they tend to contact with a variety of proteins which may hamper their application and even bring adverse impacts. Such nonspecific protein binding is usually weak and proteins reach dynamic equilibrium between adsorption and desorption. Studies on the spontaneous desorption of weakly bound proteins should not only be helpful to enrich our understanding about such nonspecific interactions but also shed light on the strategy to avoid nonspecific binding of proteins...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210929/optic-disc-edema-in-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-autoantibody-positive-meningoencephalitis
#18
John J Chen, Allen J Aksamit, Andrew McKeon, Sean J Pittock, Brian G Weinshenker, Jacqueline A Leavitt, Padraig P Morris, Eoin P Flanagan
BACKGROUND: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis is a newly described entity characterized by a corticosteroid-responsive meningoencephalomyelitis. Some patients with GFAP autoantibody-positive meningoencephalitis have been found to have optic disc edema, which has previously not been well characterized. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational case series of Mayo Clinic patients found to have GFAP-IgG and optic disc edema from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210355/neuroangiostrongyliasis-the-subarachnoid-phase-and-its-implications-for-anthelminthic-therapy
#19
Paul Prociv, Megan Turner
Infection with the Rat Lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis worldwide. From its origins in southeastern Asia, the parasite was spread extensively throughout the twentieth century and is now established in many of the world's warmer regions. Its clinical effects range from mild and transient symptoms, usually headache with peripheral nerve dysfunction, to severe and permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage, occasionally fatal. The severity and prognosis of disease are determined by the larval dose, acquired by ingesting infected intermediate hosts (slugs and snails) or, less often, paratenic hosts, such as crabs, shrimps, frogs, and monitor lizards...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209914/a-mathematical-model-supports-a-key-role-for-ae4-slc4a9-in-salivary-gland-secretion
#20
Elías Vera-Sigüenza, Marcelo A Catalán, Gaspar Peña-Münzenmayer, James E Melvin, James Sneyd
We develop a mathematical model of a salivary gland acinar cell with the objective of investigating the role of two [Formula: see text] exchangers from the solute carrier family 4 (Slc4), Ae2 (Slc4a2) and Ae4 (Slc4a9), in fluid secretion. Water transport in this type of cell is predominantly driven by [Formula: see text] movement. Here, a basolateral [Formula: see text] adenosine triphosphatase pump (NaK-ATPase) and a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporter (Nkcc1) are primarily responsible for concentrating the intracellular space with [Formula: see text] well above its equilibrium potential...
December 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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