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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#1
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329052/acute-coronary-syndrome-in-women-rising-hospitalizations-in-middle-aged-french-women-2004-14
#2
Amélie Gabet, Nicolas Danchin, Yves Juillière, Valérie Olié
Aims: We aimed to analyse trends in annual incidence of hospitalized acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in France from 2004 to 2014. Methods and results: Primary diagnosis of ACS and subtypes on admissions were selected in national and exhaustive French Hospitalization Database from 2004 to 2014. Age-standardized rates were computed using standardization on the census of the 2010 European population and mean annual percent changes were estimated by using Poisson regression model...
March 11, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243456/is-frailty-a-relevant-concept-in-sle
#3
Patricia P Katz, James Andrews, Jinoos Yazdany, Gabriela Schmajuk, Laura Trupin, Edward Yelin
OBJECTIVE: In geriatric populations, frailty is associated with poor health outcomes, including mortality. Frailty has not been examined in lupus, although components of the phenotype seem relevant. METHODS: Women with lupus (n=152) participated in research visits in 2008-2009. Frailty was assessed by Fried's frailty phenotype criteria: low weight/unintentional weight loss, slow gait (4-m walk using sex and height criteria), weakness (grip strength using gender and body mass index criteria), exhaustion (2 specific questions) and inactivity (from physical activity questionnaire)...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206728/laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-vs-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-for-morbid-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-lipid-effects-at-one-year-post-surgery
#4
Elisenda Climent, David Benaiges, Juan Pedro-Botet, Albert Goday, Ivan Solà, José M Ramón, Juana A Flores-LE Roux, Miguel Á Checa
INTRODUCTION: Results of the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are controversial. Moreover, previous meta-analyses focused on global dyslipidaemia remission, but did not include the separate remission rates of the different lipid fractions. Hence, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes (concentration change and remission rates) of GB and SG on diverse lipid disorders one year post-bariatric surgery (BS)...
February 15, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153947/corp-measurement-of-the-maximum-oxygen-uptake-vo2max-vo2peak-is-no-longer-acceptable
#5
David C Poole, Andrew M Jones
The maximum rate of VO2 uptake (i.e., VO2max), as measured during large muscle mass exercise such as cycling or running, is widely considered to be the gold standard measurement of integrated cardiopulmonary-muscle oxidative function. The development of rapid-response gas analyzers, enabling measurement of breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange, has led to replacement of the discontinuous progressive maximal exercise test (that produced an unambiguous VO2-work rate plateau definitive for VO2max) with the rapidly-incremented or ramp testing protocol...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110940/room-for-depressed-and-exhausted-mood-as-a-risk-predictor-for-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-beyond-the-contribution-of-the-classical-somatic-risk-factors-in-men
#6
Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Jens Baumert, Birgitt Marten-Mittag, Karoline Lukaschek, Hamimatunnisa Johar, Xioayan Fang, Joram Ronel, Christa Meisinger, Annette Peters
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Depressed mood and exhaustion (DEEX) have gained attention as a risk predictor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies to estimate its ranking in prediction models are sparse. METHODS: The study included 3428 men aged 45-74 years who participated in one of three population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg surveys conducted between 1984 and 1995. Within a follow-up time of 10 years (31,791 person-years), 557 cases of all-cause mortality and 269 fatal CVD events were observed...
February 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100227/prenatal-and-postnatal-mothering-by-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-exposed-dams-differentially-program-mouse-energy-metabolism
#7
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Xiaobo Qin, Ziying Hu, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the leading threats to global public health. It is consequent to abnormal energy metabolism. Currently, it has been well established that maternal exposure to environmental stressors that cause inappropriate fetal development may have long-term adverse effects on offspring energy metabolism in an exposure timing-dependent manner, known as developmental programming of health and diseases paradigm. Rapidly increasing evidence has indicated that maternal exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2...
January 18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003768/symptom-profiles-of-subsyndromal-depression-in-disease-clusters-of-diabetes-excess-weight-and-progressive-cerebrovascular-conditions-a-promising-new-type-of-finding-from-a-reliable-innovation-to-estimate-exhaustively-specified-multiple-indicators-multiple-causes
#8
Richard B Francoeur
Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974598/calculating-the-metabolizable-energy-of-macronutrients-a-critical-review-of-atwater-s-results
#9
M Judith Sánchez-Peña, Fabiola Márquez-Sandoval, Ana C Ramírez-Anguiano, Sandra F Velasco-Ramírez, Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda, Luis J González-Ortiz
The current values for metabolizable energy of macronutrients were proposed in 1910. Since then, however, efforts to revise these values have been practically absent, creating a crucial need to carry out a critical analysis of the experimental methodology and results that form the basis of these values. Presented here is an exhaustive analysis of Atwater's work on this topic, showing evidence of considerable weaknesses that compromise the validity of his results. These weaknesses include the following: (1) the doubtful representativeness of Atwater's subjects, their activity patterns, and their diets; (2) the extremely short duration of the experiments; (3) the uncertainty about which fecal and urinary excretions contain the residues of each ingested food; (4) the uncertainty about whether or not the required nitrogen balance in individuals was reached during experiments; (5) the numerous experiments carried out without valid preliminary experiments; (6) the imprecision affecting Atwater's experimental measurements; and (7) the numerous assumptions and approximations, along with the lack of information, characterizing Atwater's studies...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843176/prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-cvd-risk-factors
#10
R Nangia, Harpreet Singh, Kanwaljit Kaur
BACKGROUND: Various studies conducted across the country have shown a high prevalence of known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (like mean body mass index (BMI), systolic BP and raised cholesterol levels) but no exhaustive data is available pertaining to armed forces personnel. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of raised BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar among serving armed forces personnel ≥35 yrs of age. METHODS: The study was carried out between Jan 2013-Jun 2013...
October 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725802/preclinical-in-vivo-imaging-for-fat-tissue-identification-quantification-and-functional-characterization
#11
Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi, Francesco Moneta, Andrea Sbarbati, Carlo Zancanaro
Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637250/selection-age-and-exercise-dependence-of-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-patterns-in-a-rat-model-of-metabolic-fitness
#12
Yu-Yu Ren, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Nathan R Qi, Mary K Treutelaar, Charles F Burant, Jun Z Li
Intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity can influence many complex traits including obesity and aging. To study this connection we established two rat lines by divergent selection of untrained aerobic capacity. After 32 generations the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed in endurance running distance and body fat, blood glucose, other health indicators, and natural life span. To understand the interplay among genetic differences, chronological age, and acute exercise we performed microarray-based gene expression analyses in skeletal muscle with a 2×2×2 design to simultaneously compare HCR and LCR, old and young animals, and rest and exhaustion...
November 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529450/profiling-movement-quality-and-gait-characteristics-according-to-body-mass-index-in-children-9-11%C3%A2-y
#13
Cain C T Clark, Claire M Barnes, Mark Holton, Huw D Summers, Gareth Stratton
Obese children move less and with greater difficulty than their normal-weight counterparts. Whilst the effect of high BMI on cardiovascular fitness is well known, the effect on movement quality characteristics during a standardised fitness test has not been investigated. The aims of this study were, to characterise the movement quality of children performing the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT), and, report how movement quality characteristics cluster according to weight status. One hundred and three children (10...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433894/natural-history-of-adjustable-gastric-banding-lifespan-and-revisional-rate-a-nationwide-study-on-administrative-data-on-53-000-patients
#14
Andrea Lazzati, Marie De Antonio, Luca Paolino, Francesco Martini, Daniel Azoulay, Antonio Iannelli, Sandrine Katsahian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the adjustable gastric banding (AGB) natural history on a national basis. BACKGROUND: Adjustable gastric banding represented the most common bariatric procedure in France until 2010. Since then, the number of AGBs has decreased and the rate of band removal and revisional surgeries has progressively increased. METHODS: For analysis, we included all adult patients operated on with AGB in France between 2007 and 2013...
July 18, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340937/long-term-activation-of-pka-in-%C3%AE-cells-provides-sustained-improvement-to-glucose-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-body-weight
#15
Joshua A Levine, Kelly A Kaihara, Brian T Layden, Barton Wicksteed
Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Therapeutic aims are to reduce adiposity, improve insulin sensitivity and enhance β-cell function. However, it has been proposed that chronically increasing insulin release leads to β-cell exhaustion and failure. We previously developed mice to have increased activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), specifically in β-cells (β-caPKA mice). β-caPKA mice have enhanced acute phase insulin release, which is the primary determinant of the efficacy of glucose clearance...
September 2, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256142/-potential-sources-of-phthalates-and-bisphenol-a-and-their-significance-in-the-development-of-metabolic-diseases
#16
Miloš Mráz, Štěpán Svačina, Eva Kotrlíková, Roman Piecha, Karel Vrbík, Jana Pavloušková, Zdeňka Lacinová, Adam Vavrouš, Dana Müllerová, Dagmar Matějková, Jarmila Křížová
Nowadays, there is increasing evidence showing that the development of the metabolic syndrome combining obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia involves except of traditional risk factors (overnutrition, lack of physical activity, genetic predisposition) also the effect of environmental organic substances called organic pollutants or endocrine disruptors. These chemicals can be found in plastic covers, paints, flame retardants, exhaust gases, fertilizers as well as diverse daily utensils...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152555/frailty-in-self-neglecting-older-adults-a-secondary-analysis
#17
Jessica L Lee, Jason Burnett, Carmel B Dyer
Self-neglect (SN) and frailty in older adults is associated with increased disability and mortality. Despite these commonalities, there have been no studies objectively assessing frailty in older adults who SN. This secondary analysis classified frailty in N = 37 older adults with Adult Protective Services validated SN using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) of weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, activity level, and walking speed. Overall, 3% were classified as robust, 62% as prefrail, and 35% as frail. Most (72%) were overweight/obese, with clinically significant decreases in activity level (60%) and walking speed (97%)...
June 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132418/feasibility-of-prophylactic-laparoscopic-appendectomy-in-obese-patients
#18
H Wang, C Lu, J Zhao, L Gao, X Li, J Hou, A Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of prophylactic laparoscopic appendectomy in obese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in obese patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) along (66 patients, TLH group) or in combination (55 patients, THL+LA group) with laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) between 2007 and 2012. Operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative exhaust time, analgesic use, and the incidence of major complications, hospital stay and cost of hospitalization were compared...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126549/the-complex-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-in-humans-endogenous-and-exogenous-sources
#19
REVIEW
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
April 29, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071282/association-between-ambient-air-pollution-meteorological-conditions-and-exacerbations-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-adult-citizens-of-the-town-of-smederevo
#20
Ivan Stevanović, Milena Jovasević-Stojanović, Jasmina Jović Stosić
INTRODUCTION: Smederevo is the only town in Serbia with a steel factory, whose exhausts contribute to air pollution. Therefore, the city conducts continuous monitoring of air quality. In recent years, high levels of particulate matter (PM) including coarse (PM₁₀) and fine (PM₂.₅) particles in the air have frequently been recorded. The aim of this study was to assess association between exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults and air pollution or meteorological conditions...
February 2016: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
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