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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843176/prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-cvd-risk-factors
#1
R Nangia, Harpreet Singh, Kanwaljit Kaur
BACKGROUND: Various studies conducted across the country have shown a high prevalence of known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (like mean body mass index (BMI), systolic BP and raised cholesterol levels) but no exhaustive data is available pertaining to armed forces personnel. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of raised BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar among serving armed forces personnel ≥35 yrs of age. METHODS: The study was carried out between Jan 2013-Jun 2013...
October 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725802/preclinical-in-vivo-imaging-for-fat-tissue-identification-quantification-and-functional-characterization
#2
Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi, Francesco Moneta, Andrea Sbarbati, Carlo Zancanaro
Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637250/selection-age-and-exercise-dependence-of-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-patterns-in-a-rat-model-of-metabolic-fitness
#3
Yu-Yu Ren, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Nathan R Qi, Mary K Treutelaar, Charles F Burant, Jun Z Li
Intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity can influence many complex traits including obesity and aging. To study this connection we established two rat lines by divergent selection of untrained aerobic capacity. After 32 generations the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed in endurance running distance and body fat, blood glucose, other health indicators, and natural life span. To understand the interplay among genetic differences, chronological age, and acute exercise we performed microarray-based gene expression analyses in skeletal muscle with a 2×2×2 design to simultaneously compare HCR and LCR, old and young animals, and rest and exhaustion...
November 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529450/profiling-movement-quality-and-gait-characteristics-according-to-body-mass-index-in-children-9-11%C3%A2-y
#4
Cain C T Clark, Claire M Barnes, Mark Holton, Huw D Summers, Gareth Stratton
Obese children move less and with greater difficulty than their normal-weight counterparts. Whilst the effect of high BMI on cardiovascular fitness is well known, the effect on movement quality characteristics during a standardised fitness test has not been investigated. The aims of this study were, to characterise the movement quality of children performing the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT), and, report how movement quality characteristics cluster according to weight status. One hundred and three children (10...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433894/natural-history-of-adjustable-gastric-banding-lifespan-and-revisional-rate-a-nationwide-study-on-administrative-data-on-53-000-patients
#5
Andrea Lazzati, Marie De Antonio, Luca Paolino, Francesco Martini, Daniel Azoulay, Antonio Iannelli, Sandrine Katsahian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the adjustable gastric banding (AGB) natural history on a national basis. BACKGROUND: Adjustable gastric banding represented the most common bariatric procedure in France until 2010. Since then, the number of AGBs has decreased and the rate of band removal and revisional surgeries has progressively increased. METHODS: For analysis, we included all adult patients operated on with AGB in France between 2007 and 2013...
July 18, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340937/long-term-activation-of-pka-in-%C3%AE-cells-provides-sustained-improvement-to-glucose-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-body-weight
#6
Joshua A Levine, Kelly A Kaihara, Brian T Layden, Barton Wicksteed
Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Therapeutic aims are to reduce adiposity, improve insulin sensitivity and enhance β-cell function. However, it has been proposed that chronically increasing insulin release leads to β-cell exhaustion and failure. We previously developed mice to have increased activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), specifically in β-cells (β-caPKA mice). β-caPKA mice have enhanced acute phase insulin release, which is the primary determinant of the efficacy of glucose clearance...
September 2, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256142/-potential-sources-of-phthalates-and-bisphenol-a-and-their-significance-in-the-development-of-metabolic-diseases
#7
Miloš Mráz, Štěpán Svačina, Eva Kotrlíková, Roman Piecha, Karel Vrbík, Jana Pavloušková, Zdeňka Lacinová, Adam Vavrouš, Dana Müllerová, Dagmar Matějková, Jarmila Křížová
Nowadays, there is increasing evidence showing that the development of the metabolic syndrome combining obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia involves except of traditional risk factors (overnutrition, lack of physical activity, genetic predisposition) also the effect of environmental organic substances called organic pollutants or endocrine disruptors. These chemicals can be found in plastic covers, paints, flame retardants, exhaust gases, fertilizers as well as diverse daily utensils...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152555/frailty-in-self-neglecting-older-adults-a-secondary-analysis
#8
Jessica L Lee, Jason Burnett, Carmel B Dyer
Self-neglect (SN) and frailty in older adults is associated with increased disability and mortality. Despite these commonalities, there have been no studies objectively assessing frailty in older adults who SN. This secondary analysis classified frailty in N = 37 older adults with Adult Protective Services validated SN using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) of weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, activity level, and walking speed. Overall, 3% were classified as robust, 62% as prefrail, and 35% as frail. Most (72%) were overweight/obese, with clinically significant decreases in activity level (60%) and walking speed (97%)...
June 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132418/feasibility-of-prophylactic-laparoscopic-appendectomy-in-obese-patients
#9
H Wang, C Lu, J Zhao, L Gao, X Li, J Hou, A Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of prophylactic laparoscopic appendectomy in obese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in obese patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) along (66 patients, TLH group) or in combination (55 patients, THL+LA group) with laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) between 2007 and 2012. Operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative exhaust time, analgesic use, and the incidence of major complications, hospital stay and cost of hospitalization were compared...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126549/the-complex-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-in-humans-endogenous-and-exogenous-sources
#10
REVIEW
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
April 29, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071282/association-between-ambient-air-pollution-meteorological-conditions-and-exacerbations-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-adult-citizens-of-the-town-of-smederevo
#11
Ivan Stevanović, Milena Jovasević-Stojanović, Jasmina Jović Stosić
INTRODUCTION: Smederevo is the only town in Serbia with a steel factory, whose exhausts contribute to air pollution. Therefore, the city conducts continuous monitoring of air quality. In recent years, high levels of particulate matter (PM) including coarse (PM₁₀) and fine (PM₂.₅) particles in the air have frequently been recorded. The aim of this study was to assess association between exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults and air pollution or meteorological conditions...
February 2016: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058737/tocotrienols-and-whey-protein-isolates-substantially-increase-exercise-endurance-capacity-in-diet-induced-obese-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Andrew C Betik, Jay Aguila, Glenn K McConell, Andrew J McAinch, Michael L Mathai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000883/revision-with-totally-hand-sewn-gastrojejunostomy-and-vagotomy-for-refractory-marginal-ulcer-after-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#13
Po-Chih Chang, Chih-Kun Huang, Mahendra Rajan, Ming-Che Hsin
BACKGROUND: Marginal ulcer is not infrequent after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and could result in undesirable complications, such as intractability, bleeding, or perforation. Those patients who failed medical therapy, regarded as refractory marginal ulcers, may be considered as candidates for revisional surgery. Herein, we make a video presentation of a laparoscopic revisional procedure for refractory marginal ulcer. METHODS: A 29-year-old morbidly obese woman (initial body mass index 37...
May 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934687/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-overweight-obese-women
#14
Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Hailee L Wingfield, Malia N M Blue
The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week...
November 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859763/graded-maximal-exercise-testing-to-assess-mouse-cardio-metabolic-phenotypes
#15
Jennifer M Petrosino, Valerie J Heiss, Santosh K Maurya, Anuradha Kalyanasundaram, Muthu Periasamy, Richard A LaFountain, Jacob M Wilson, Orlando P Simonetti, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT) is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857091/obesity-decreases-b-cell-responses-in-young-and-elderly-individuals
#16
Daniela Frasca, Franco Ferracci, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Suzanne Lechner, Bonnie B Blomberg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of obesity-associated inflammation on influenza vaccine responses. METHODS: In young and elderly individuals, both lean and with obesity, antibody responses to influenza vaccination were measured. RESULTS: A decrease in in vivo vaccine responses, circulating switched memory, and transitional B cells and an increase in pro-inflammatory late/exhausted memory B cells were found. In vitro B cell function was measured by activation-induced cytidine deaminase and E47, markers of optimal antibody responses...
March 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26658014/effects-of-air-pollutants-on-upper-airway-disease
#17
REVIEW
An-Soo Jang, Young Joon Jun, Moo Kyun Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the effects of air pollutants on upper airway disease; the topic has hitherto received little attention. RECENT FINDINGS: Several epidemiological studies have shown that air pollutants aggravate airway diseases including asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Pollutants also have negative effects on other upper airway diseases such as allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. Traffic-related air pollutants (diesel exhaust particles and nitrogen dioxide and tobacco smoke) have been widely studied in this context...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556635/association-of-frailty-and-cardiometabolic-risk-among-community-dwelling-middle-aged-and-older-people-results-from-the-i-lan-longitudinal-aging-study
#18
An-Chun Hwang, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Liang-Yu Chen, Li-Ning Peng, Ming-Hsien Lin, Liang-Kung Chen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of cardiometabolic risk and frailty through a community-based aging cohort in Taiwan In total, 1839 participants (men, 47.5%; mean age 63.9 ± 9.3 years) from the first wave of the I-Lan longitudinal cohort study, recruited between August of 2011 and August of 2013, were retrieved for the analysis of this cross-sectional study. Frailty was defined by Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) criteria, encompassing un-intentional weight loss, slow walk speed, poor grip strength, exhaustion, and low activity...
December 2015: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472604/a-fitness-index-model-for-italian-adolescents-living-in-southern-italy-the-asso-project
#19
A Bianco, C Mammina, M Jemni, A R Filippi, A Patti, E Thomas, A Paoli, A Palma, G Tabacchi
AIM: Strong relations between physical fitness and health in adolescents have been established in the last decades. The main objectives of the present investigation were to assess major physical fitness components in a sample of Italian school adolescents, comparing them with international data, and providing a fitness index model derived from percentile cut-off values of five considered physical fitness components. METHODS: A total of 644 school pupils (15.9±1...
October 16, 2015: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26461865/factors-associated-with-truck-crashes-in-a-large-cross-section-of-commercial-motor-vehicle-drivers
#20
Matthew S Thiese, Ulrike Ott, Riann Robbins, Atim Effiong, Maureen Murtaugh, Melissa R Lemke, Gwen Deckow-Schaefer, Jay Kapellusch, Eric Wood, Deborah Passey, Natalie Hartenbaum, Arun Garg, Kurt T Hegmann
OBJECTIVE: This large, cross-sectional study calculated prevalence of disorders and assessed factors associated with self-reported lifetime crashes. METHODS: Truck drivers (n = 797) completed computerized questionnaires reporting crashes, demographics, psychosocial factors, and other elements, as well as had taken measurements (eg, height, weight, serum, and blood pressure). RESULTS: Most drivers were male (n = 685, 85.9%), and the mean body mass index was 32...
October 2015: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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