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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528793/comparison-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-bioimpedance-in-assessing-body-composition-and-nutrition-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#1
Velena Popovic, Bo Zerahn, James Goya Heaf
OBJECTIVE: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are characterized by protein malnutrition and muscle wasting. Reliable, easy, and cheap methods for evaluating nutrition are desirable. Three methods are commonly available: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance (BI), and subjective global assessment (SGA).The objective of the study was to compare the previously mentioned methods for assessment of body composition and nutritional status in PD patients. DESIGN: The study is cross-sectional and consisted of 72 PD patients from a single center PD ambulatorium...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509343/the-influence-of-vascular-risk-factors-on-cognitive-function-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Maxime Doiron, Mélanie Langlois, Nicolas Dupré, Martine Simard
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity are well-established risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults. In contrast, previous studies that have assessed the impact of vascular risk factors (VRFs) on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) have had methodological limitations and reported conflicting findings. We address this question in a large well-characterized cohort of de novo PD patients. METHODS: A total of 367 untreated and non-demented patients aged 50 years and older with early PD (H&Y = 1...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508609/oral-health-in-children-with-obesity-or-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Fima Lifshitz, Patricia Lucia Casavalle, Noemí Bordoni, Patricia Noemi Rodriguez, Silvia Maria Friedman
Oral health status must be considered in the care of children with obesity (OB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The health of these patients' mouths may have significant effects on their overall health and evolution of their disease. Here we address periodontal disease (PD) and dental caries (DC), since these are two of the most common chronic diseases affecting OB and DM patients. OB plays a plausible role in the development of PD. Both overall OB and central adiposity are associated with increased hazards of gingivitis and its progression to PD...
December 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508538/prognostic-value-of-predialysis-indices-for-technique-failure-and-mortality-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#4
Masaru Matsui, Yasuhiro Akai, Ken-Ichi Samejima, Hideo Tsushima, Kaori Tanabe, Katsuhiko Morimoto, Miho Tagawa, Yoshihiko Saito
Technique failure remains a frequent cause of peritoneal dialysis (PD) withdrawal. Many post-commencement predictors of PD technique failure have been identified, while predialysis predictors have remained unclear. The aim of this study was to identify predialysis indices for technique failure in PD patients. We recruited 206 consecutive PD patients who were treated at Nara Medical University Hospital between 1 April 1997 and 31 December 2012. Forty-eight patients were excluded because of transition from hemodialysis (HD) or withdrawal from PD within 3 months, leaving 158 patients for analysis...
May 15, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461146/impact-of-obesity-on-short-and-long-term-results-following-a-pancreatico-duodenectomy
#5
Awad Shamali, Vishal Shelat, Bashar Jaber, Aisha Wardak, Mohamed Ahmed, Martina Fontana, Thomas Armstrong, Mohammed Abu Hilal
BACKGROUND: The impact of obesity on short and long term outcomes following a pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) is still unclear and needs further clarification. METHODS: Demographic, operative and outcomes data in 524 patients undergoing PD were analysed. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients (18.5%) had BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m(2) (group A) and 427 patients (81.5%) had BMI less than 30 kg/m(2) (group B). Group A had a significantly greater operative duration, (375 vs 360 min, p = 0...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447069/long-term-calorie-restriction-in-humans-is-not-associated-with-indices-of-delayed-immunologic-aging-a-descriptive-study
#6
A Janet Tomiyama, Jeffrey M Milush, Jue Lin, James M Flynn, Pankaj Kapahi, Eric Verdin, Elizabeth Sinclair, Simon Melov, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Delayed immunologic aging is purported to be a major mechanism through which calorie restriction (CR) exerts its anti-aging effects in non-human species. However, in non-obese humans, the effect of CR on the immune system has been understudied relative to its effects on the cardiometabolic system. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether CR is associated with delayed immunologic aging in non-obese humans. METHODS: We tested whether long-term CR practitioners (average 10.03 years of CR) evidenced decreased expression of T cell immunosenescence markers and longer immune cell telomeres compared to gender-, race/ethnicity-, age-, and education-matched "healthy" Body Mass Index (BMI) and "overweight"/"obese" BMI groups...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428879/a-systems-biology-approach-to-investigating-the-influence-of-exercise-and-fitness-on-the-composition-of-leukocytes-in-peripheral-blood
#7
Michael P Gustafson, Ara Celi DiCostanzo, Courtney M Wheatley, Chul-Ho Kim, Svetlana Bornschlegl, Dennis A Gastineau, Bruce D Johnson, Allan B Dietz
BACKGROUND: Exercise immunology has become a growing field in the past 20 years, with an emphasis on understanding how different forms of exercise affect immune function. Mechanistic studies are beginning to shed light on how exercise may impair the development of cancer or be used to augment cancer treatment. The beneficial effects of exercise on the immune system may be exploited to improve patient responses to cancer immunotherapy. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute exercise on the composition of peripheral blood leukocytes over time in a male population of varying fitness...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356069/broad-induction-of-immunoregulatory-mechanisms-after-a-short-course-of-anti-il-7r%C3%AE-antibodies-in-nod-mice
#8
Cristina Vazquez-Mateo, Justin Collins, Michelle Fleury, Hans Dooms
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Therefore, approaches that effectively halt the pathogenic T cell response are predicted to have preventive or therapeutic benefit for type 1 diabetes patients. We previously demonstrated that long-term blocking of IL-7 signaling, which is critical for the survival and function of T cells, prevented and reversed type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice...
March 29, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343398/an-anti-programmed-death-1-antibody-%C3%AE-pd-1-fusion-protein-that-self-assembles-into-a-multivalent-and-functional-%C3%AE-pd-1-nanoparticle
#9
Peng Zhao, Djordje Atanackovic, Shuyun Dong, Hideo Yagita, Xiao He, Mingnan Chen
Cancer immune checkpoint therapy has achieved remarkable clinical successes in various cancers. However, current immune checkpoint inhibitors block the checkpoint of not only the immune cells that are important to cancer therapy but also the immune cells that are irrelevant to the therapy. Such an indiscriminate blockade limits the efficacy and causes the autoimmune toxicity of the therapy. It might be beneficial to use a carrier to target immune checkpoint inhibitors to cancer-reactive immune cells. Here, we explore a method to load the inhibitors into carriers...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289180/beneficial-effects-of-apelin-on-vascular-function-in-patients-with-central-obesity
#10
Francesca Schinzari, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Angela Barini, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Manfredi Tesauro
Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr(1))apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients...
May 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211040/anti-cd3-treatment-up-regulates-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-expression-on-activated-effector-t-cells-and-severely-impairs-their-inflammatory-capacity
#11
Maja Wallberg, Asha Recino, Jenny Phillips, Duncan Howie, Margaux Vienne, Christopher Paluch, Miyuki Azuma, F Susan Wong, Herman Waldmann, Anne Cooke
T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, and targeting the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor complex provides one therapeutic approach. Anti-CD3 treatment can reverse overt disease in spontaneously diabetic non-obese diabetic mice, an effect proposed to, at least in part, be caused by a selective depletion of pathogenic cells. We have used a transfer model to further investigate the effects of anti-CD3 treatment on green fluorescent protein (GFP)(+) islet-specific effector T cells in vivo...
June 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207885/the-association-between-body-mass-index-and-mortality-among-asian-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-meta-analysis
#12
Jing Liu, Xiaoxi Zeng, Hyokyoung G Hong, Yi Li, Ping Fu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with decreased mortality among hemodialysis patients. However, few studies have dealt with the association between BMI and mortality among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and even fewer studies have focused on the Asian PD patients. The reported studies were often non-conclusive and some even yielded contradictory results. This paper, to our best knowledge, registers the first attempt to systematically review the current literature and summarize new results on the association between BMI and mortality among the Asian PD population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126541/temporary-removal-pharmacokinetics-of-levonorgestrel-and-ulipristal-acetate-emergency-contraception-in-women-with-normal-and-obese-body-mass-index
#13
Piyapa Praditpan, Angie Hamouie, Cale N Basaraba, Renu Nandakumar, Serge Cremers, Anne R Davis, Carolyn L Westhoff
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
January 23, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121368/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-single-doses-of-rivaroxaban-in-obese-patients-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery
#14
Dino Kröll, Guido Stirnimann, Andreas Vogt, Desirée Lin Lee Lai, Yves Michael Borbély, Julia Altmeier, Sabine Schädelin, Daniel Candinas, Lorenzo Alberio, Philipp C Nett
AIMS: Venous thromboembolism is an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality in bariatric surgery. Studies of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are not available in this surgical field. The objective of this phase 1 clinical trial was to investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters of rivaroxaban in bariatric patients. METHODS: In this single-centre study, obese patients received single oral doses of rivaroxaban (10 mg) one day before and three days after bariatric surgery...
January 25, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104106/peritoneal-dialysis-in-class-2-3-obesity-a-single-center-experience
#15
Yougandhar V Akula, Tibor Fülöp, Mehul P Dixit
Extreme obesity may hamper successful peritoneal dialysis (PD) delivery. Among our PD patients, we have identified 15 markedly obese (class 2-3 obesity: body mass index [BMI] ≥35kg/m(2)) and 20 lean (BMI: 20-25kg/m(2)) dialysis patients and reviewed multiple clinical, laboratory and dialysis-related parameters. Extreme outliers of obesity (BMI > 40; 6 subjects) received detailed review. Although weight (P < 0.0001) and BMI (P < 0.0001) differed significantly, weekly Kt/V (obese versus lean: 2.05 ± 0...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077409/have-health-inequalities-changed-during-childhood-in-the-new-labour-generation-findings-from-the-uk-millennium-cohort-study
#16
Emeline Rougeaux, Steven Hope, Catherine Law, Anna Pearce
OBJECTIVES: To examine how population-level socioeconomic health inequalities developed during childhood, for children born at the turn of the 21st century and who grew up with major initiatives to tackle health inequalities (under the New Labour Government). SETTING: The UK. PARTICIPANTS: Singleton children in the Millennium Cohort Study at ages 3 (n=15 381), 5 (n=15 041), 7 (n=13 681) and 11 (n=13 112) years. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Relative (prevalence ratios (PR)) and absolute health inequalities (prevalence differences (PD)) were estimated in longitudinal models by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC; using highest maternal academic attainment, ranging from 'no academic qualifications' to 'degree' (baseline))...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989296/the-role-of-perceived-discrimination-in-obesity-among-african-americans
#17
Irena Stepanikova, Elizabeth H Baker, Zachary R Simoni, Aowen Zhu, Sarah B Rutland, Mario Sims, Larrell L Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: African Americans, especially those in the South, suffer a disproportionate burden of obesity and are at high risk for perceived discrimination (PD). This study investigates the association between PD and weight status among African Americans and clarifies the role of perceived stress and health behaviors in this relationship. METHODS: Data came from the Jackson Heart Study, Examination 1 (2000-2004; analyses conducted in 2016 using Stata, version 14)...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966604/endogenous-programmed-death-ligand-1-restrains-the-development-and-onset-of-sj%C3%B3-gren-s-syndrome-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#18
Jing Zhou, Jun-O Jin, Toshihisa Kawai, Qing Yu
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) down-modulates various immune responses by engaging the co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1. Expression of PD-L1 and programmed death-1 is elevated in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The objective of this study is to define the role of endogenous PD-L1 in SS pathogenesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of this disease. We inhibited endogenous PD-L1 function by intraperitoneal administration of a blocking antibody to 6 week-old female NOD/ShiLtJ mice repeatedly during a 9-day period...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933445/correlation-of-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-levels-of-retinol-binding-protein-4-and-leptin-in-chronic-periodontitis-and-obesity
#19
Dharmendra Kanoriya, A R Pradeep, A Mallika, Sandeep Singhal, Vibhuti Garg
OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and leptin are both adipokines and involved in the pathophysiology of different vascular and inflammatory diseases and selectively elevated in patients with obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine and correlate the levels of RBP4 and leptin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 patients with age group 25 to 45 years were divided into four groups based on gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), body mass index (BMI) and radiographic evidence of bone loss...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820698/obesity-accelerates-t-cell-senescence-in-murine-visceral-adipose-tissue
#20
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Xiaoxiang Yan, Ken Shinmura, Jin Endo, Masaharu Kataoka, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Atsushi Anzai, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Hiroshi Itoh, Ichiro Manabe, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Keiichi Fukuda, Nagahiro Minato, Motoaki Sano
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) precipitates the development of cardiometabolic disorders. Although changes in T cell function associated with visceral obesity are thought to affect chronic VAT inflammation, the specific features of these changes remain elusive. Here, we have determined that a high-fat diet (HFD) caused a preferential increase and accumulation of CD44hiCD62LloCD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 in a B cell-dependent manner in VAT. These cells possessed characteristics of cellular senescence and showed a strong activation of Spp1 (encoding osteopontin [OPN]) in VAT...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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