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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820698/obesity-accelerates-t-cell-senescence-in-murine-visceral-adipose-tissue
#1
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Xiaoxiang Yan, Ken Shinmura, Jin Endo, Masaharu Kataoka, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Atsushi Anzai, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Hiroshi Itoh, Ichiro Manabe, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Keiichi Fukuda, Nagahiro Minato, Motoaki Sano
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) precipitates the development of cardiometabolic disorders. Although changes in T cell function associated with visceral obesity are thought to affect chronic VAT inflammation, the specific features of these changes remain elusive. Here, we have determined that a high-fat diet (HFD) caused a preferential increase and accumulation of CD44hiCD62LloCD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 in a B cell-dependent manner in VAT. These cells possessed characteristics of cellular senescence and showed a strong activation of Spp1 (encoding osteopontin [OPN]) in VAT...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798703/risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-or-flutter-associated-with-periodontitis-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Der-Yuan Chen, Ching-Heng Lin, Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in patients with periodontitis (PD) in comparison with individuals without PD. METHODS: We used the 1999-2010 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify cases of PD in the year 2000 matching (1:1) with persons without PD during 1999-2000 according to sex and individual age as the control group. Using Cox proportional regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, and comorbidities at baseline, and average annual number of ambulatory visits and dental scaling frequency during the follow-up period, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to examine the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in PD patients in comparison with the control group...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753862/br-02-2-hypertension-management-in-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy
#3
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751503/the-role-of-dopamine-in-positive-and-negative-prediction-error-utilization-during-incidental-learning-insights-from-positron-emission-tomography-parkinson-s-disease-and-huntington-s-disease
#4
David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698566/calciphylaxis-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-single-center-cohort-study
#5
Yanchen Zhang, Kristin M Corapi, Maria Luongo, Ravi Thadhani, Sagar U Nigwekar
BACKGROUND: Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. METHODS: In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute's PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680757/association-of-alternative-approaches-to-normalizing-peritoneal-dialysis-clearance-with-mortality-and-technique-failure-a-retrospective-analysis-using-the-united-states-renal-data-system-dialysis-morbidity-and-mortality-study-wave-2
#6
Suzanne M Boyle, Yimei Li, F P Wilson, Joel D Glickman, Harold I Feldman
♦ Background: Total body water (V) is an imprecise metric for normalization of dialytic urea clearance (Kt). This poses a risk of early mortality/technique failure (TF). We examined differences in the distribution of peritoneal Kt/V when V was calculated with actual weight (AW), ideal weight (IW), and adjusted weight (ADW). We also examined the associations of these Kt/V measurements, Kt/body surface area (BSA), and non-normalized Kt with mortality and TF. ♦ Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 534 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 2 linked with United States Renal Data System through 2010...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643099/br-02-2-hypertension-management-in-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy
#7
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590717/serum-levels-of-the-adipomyokine-irisin-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Ana Rodríguez-Carmona, Miguel Pérez Fontán, Susana Sangiao Alvarellos, Teresa García Falcón, María Lara Pena Bello, Andrés López Muñiz, Fernando Cordido
BACKGROUND: Irisin is an adipomyokine with claimed anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. This hormone has been insufficiently studied in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVE: To perform an exploratory analysis of serum irisin levels in patients undergoing different CKD treatments. METHOD: Following a cross-sectional design, we estimated serum levels of irisin in 95 patients with CKD managed conservatively (advanced CKD), with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or with haemodialysis, and compared our findings with a control group of 40 healthy individuals...
September 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414259/the-induction-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-the-human-leucocyte-antigen-dr4-non-obese-diabetic-mice-autoimmune-hepatitis-mouse-model
#9
M Yuksel, X Xiao, N Tai, G M Vijay, E Gülden, K Beland, P Lapierre, F Alvarez, Z Hu, I Colle, Y Ma, L Wen
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease characterized by progressive inflammation, female preponderance and seropositivity for autoantibodies such as anti-smooth muscle actin and/or anti-nuclear, anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) in more than 80% of cases. AIH is linked strongly to several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3, -DR7 and -DR13. HLA-DR4 has the second strongest association with adult AIH, after HLA-DR3...
November 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347232/gender-differences-in-periodontal-status-and-oral-hygiene-of-non-diabetic-and-type-2-diabetic-patients
#10
Antina Schulze, Martin Busse
BACKGROUND: This study investigated gender dependent differences by the comparison of periodontal status and oral hygiene between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: 517 mostly obese subjects (171 non-diabetic, 205 type 2 diabetic with oral and 141 with insulin therapy; mean: 59 years) completed an oral hygiene questionnaire and had a clinical examination, including periodontal screening and recording (PSR), percentage of bleeding teeth (PBT), probing pocket depth (PD), gingivitis index (GI), and number of teeth (Tn)...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324570/vascular-disease-and-vascular-risk-factors-in-relation-to-motor-features-and-cognition-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Naveed Malek, Michael A Lawton, Diane M A Swallow, Katherine A Grosset, Sarah L Marrinan, Nin Bajaj, Roger A Barker, David J Burn, John Hardy, Huw R Morris, Nigel M Williams, Nicholas Wood, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Donald G Grosset
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vascular disease (and vascular risk factors), cognition and motor phenotype in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Recently diagnosed PD cases were enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational longitudinal cohort study. Montreal cognitive assessment (normal >23, mild cognitive impairment 22 to 23 or lower but without functional impairment, and dementia 21 or less with functional impairment) and Movement Disorder Society Unified PD Rating Scale part 3 (UPDRS 3) scores were analyzed in relation to a history of vascular events and risk factors...
June 21, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156799/timing-of-postoperative-infections-after-colectomy-evidence-from-nsqip
#12
Matthew Z Wilson, Peter W Dillon, David B Stewart, Christopher S Hollenbeak
BACKGROUND: We studied whether risk factors for infectious complications differed between inpatient (IP) and postdischarge (PD) periods in patients undergoing colon surgery. METHODS: Among partial colon resection patients in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005 to 2010), we identified risk factors for superficial and deep (D-SSI) surgical site infections and urinary tract infections in the IP and PD phases of care. RESULTS: Obesity was associated with higher risk of both IP superficial surgical site infections and D-SSI (odds ratio [OR] 1...
April 12, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149238/left-ventricular-remodelling-changes-without-concomitant-loss-of-myocardial-fat-after-long-term-dietary-intervention
#13
Jonas Andersson, Caroline Mellberg, Julia Otten, Mats Ryberg, Daniel Rinnström, Christel Larsson, Bernt Lindahl, Jon Hauksson, Bengt Johansson, Tommy Olsson
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of myocardial triglycerides (MTG) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) remodelling and function in obese and diabetic subjects. The role of MTG accumulation in development of heart failure in this group of patients is unknown. Short-term studies suggest that diets that lead to weight loss could mobilize MTG, with a favourable effect on cardiac remodelling. In a 24-month, randomized, investigator-blinded study, we assessed the effect of two different diets and subsequent weight loss on cardiac function and MTG in postmenopausal women...
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147287/risk-of-peritoneal-dialysis-related-peritonitis-in-a-multi-racial-asian-population
#14
Loke Meng Ong, Chin Chin Ch'ng, Hong Chin Wee, Premaa Supramaniam, Hadzlinda Zainal, Goh Bak Leong, Sunita Bavanandan, Lily Mushahar, Lai Seong Hooi, Ghazali Ahmad
♦ Background: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ Results: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52...
May 4, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130893/racial-differences-in-quantitative-measures-of-area-and-volumetric-breast-density
#15
Anne Marie McCarthy, Brad M Keller, Lauren M Pantalone, Meng-Kang Hsieh, Marie Synnestvedt, Emily F Conant, Katrina Armstrong, Despina Kontos
BACKGROUND: Increased breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and also decreases the sensitivity of mammographic screening. The purpose of our study was to compare breast density for black and white women using quantitative measures. METHODS: Breast density was assessed among 5282 black and 4216 white women screened using digital mammography. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density was obtained from radiologists' reports. Quantitative measures for dense area, area percent density (PD), dense volume, and volume percent density were estimated using validated, automated software...
October 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126297/preoperative-risk-stratification-for-major-complications-following-pancreaticoduodenectomy-identification-of-high-risk-patients
#16
Georg Wiltberger, Babett Muhl, Christian Benzing, Georgi Atanasov, Hans-Michael Hau, Matthias Horn, Felix Krenzien, Michael Bartels
INTRODUCTION: Morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains a major concern with high rates. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative risk factors and create a new risk score to predict major complications after PD. METHODS: Medical records of patients undergoing PD between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed according to survival and surgical and non-surgical complications. A split-sample cross validation was conducted in which the original cohort was randomly selected to a modelling and a validation group at a ratio of 2:1...
July 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125544/a-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-alters-metabolic-and-bioenergetic-function-in-the-brain-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#17
Kayla Raider, Delin Ma, Janna L Harris, Isabella Fuentes, Robert S Rogers, Joshua L Wheatley, Paige C Geiger, Hung-Wen Yeh, In-Young Choi, William M Brooks, John A Stanford
Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in the hippocampus and striatum of rats fed a high fat diet vs...
July 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069956/pd-1-pd-l1-and-pd-l2-expression-in-mouse-prostate-cancer
#18
Shijie Yang, Qiuyang Zhang, Sen Liu, Alun R Wang, Zongbing You
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 play critical roles in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to assess expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in mouse prostate tumors. A total of 33 mouse prostate tumors derived from Pten-null mice were examined using immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2. The animals were either with interleukin-17 receptor c (Il-17rc) wild-type or knockout genotype, or fed with regular diet or high-fat diet to 30 weeks of age...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963247/minimum-wage-and-overweight-and-obesity-in-adult-women-a-multilevel-analysis-of-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
Annalijn I Conklin, Ninez A Ponce, John Frank, Arijit Nandi, Jody Heymann
OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869191/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-effects-of-multiple-dose-administration-of-omarigliptin-a-once-weekly-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-in-obese-participants-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Carol Addy, Daniel Tatosian, Xiaoli S Glasgow, Isaias N Gendrano, Eunkyung Kauh, Ashley Martucci, Amy O Johnson-Levonas, Diana Selverian, Catherine Z Matthews, Marie Gutierrez, John A Wagner, S Aubrey Stoch
PURPOSE: Omarigliptin (MK-3102) is a potent, oral, long-acting dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor approved in Japan and in global development as a once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of omarigliptin in obese participants with and without T2DM. METHODS: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study of 50-mg omarigliptin administered once weekly for 4 weeks...
March 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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