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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#1
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913358/central-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-by-neuropeptides-and-energy-sensing-hormones-during-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Alberto Camacho
Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892062/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-112-new-loci-for-body-mass-index-in-the-japanese-population
#3
Masato Akiyama, Yukinori Okada, Masahiro Kanai, Atsushi Takahashi, Yukihide Momozawa, Masashi Ikeda, Nakao Iwata, Shiro Ikegawa, Makoto Hirata, Koichi Matsuda, Motoki Iwasaki, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Kozo Tanno, Atsushi Shimizu, Atsushi Hozawa, Naoko Minegishi, Shoichiro Tsugane, Masayuki Yamamoto, Michiaki Kubo, Yoichiro Kamatani
Obesity is a risk factor for a wide variety of health problems. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI) in Japanese people (n = 173,430), we found 85 loci significantly associated with obesity (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), of which 51 were previously unknown. We conducted trans-ancestral meta-analyses by integrating these results with the results from a GWAS of Europeans and identified 61 additional new loci. In total, this study identifies 112 novel loci, doubling the number of previously known BMI-associated loci...
September 11, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865761/predicting-severe-hematologic-toxicity-from-extended-field-chemoradiation-of-para-aortic-nodal-metastases-from-cervical-cancer
#4
Kevin Yan, Ezequiel Ramirez, Xian-Jin Xie, Xuejun Gu, Yin Xi, Kevin Albuquerque
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine factors predictive for severe hematologic toxicity (HT) in cervical cancer patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis treated with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiation to an extended field (EFCRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-eight patients with cervical cancer and para-aortic lymph node metastasis who underwent EFCRT were analyzed. Active bone marrow was defined as the region within irradiated total bone marrow (BMTOT) with a standard uptake value on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography greater than the mean standard uptake value for BMTOT...
July 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843438/inflammation-substance-use-psychopathology-and-cognition-in-phase-1-of-the-clinical-antipsychotic-trials-of-intervention-effectiveness-study
#5
Brian J Miller, Peter F Buckley, Joseph P McEvoy
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia has been associated with aberrant blood levels of inflammatory markers. However, patients with comorbid illicit drug use have been inadequately studied with respect to immune function. Furthermore, associations between inflammatory markers, psychopathology, and cognition have been inconsistently considered. We investigated relationships between inflammatory markers, comorbid marijuana and cocaine use, and psychopathology and cognition in patients with schizophrenia...
August 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839227/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-hdac-nfat-axis-for-delphinidin-effects-on-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-t-lymphocytes-from-patients-with-cardiovascular-risks
#6
Ousama Dayoub, Soazig Le Lay, Raffaella Soleti, Nicolas Clere, Gregory Hilairet, Séverine Dubois, Frédéric Gagnadoux, Jérôme Boursier, Maria Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Delphinidin, an anthocyanin present in red wine, has been reported to preserve the integrity of endothelium via an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent mechanism. However, the effect of delphinidin on the immune response in obesity-related inflammation remains unknown. Given the important role of T lymphocytes in obesity-related inflammation, we investigated the effect of delphinidin on proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes from healthy subjects and metabolic syndrome patients. Delphinidin decreased the proliferation stimulated by different agents acting through different mechanisms...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819990/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-sedentary-lifestyle-on-susceptibility-of-adult-offspring-to-ozone-exposure-in-rats
#7
C J Gordon, P M Phillips, A F M Johnstone, J Schmid, M C Schladweiler, A Ledbetter, S J Snow, U P Kodavanti
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW...
August 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796857/association-of-systemic-inflammation-and-sarcopenia-with-survival-in-nonmetastatic-colorectal-cancer-results-from-the-c-scans-study
#8
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Carla M Prado, Patrick T Bradshaw, Marilyn L Kwan, Jingjie Xiao, Stacey Alexeeff, Douglas Corley, Erin Weltzien, Adrienne L Castillo, Bette J Caan
Importance: Systemic inflammation and sarcopenia are easily evaluated, predict mortality in many cancers, and are potentially modifiable. The combination of inflammation and sarcopenia may be able to identify patients with early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) with poor prognosis. Objective: To examine associations of prediagnostic systemic inflammation with at-diagnosis sarcopenia, and determine whether these factors interact to predict CRC survival, adjusting for age, ethnicity, sex, body mass index, stage, and cancer site...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765956/anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibody-combined-with-adenovirus-vector-mediated-il-10-regulates-spleen-cd4-cd8-t%C3%A2-cells-and-t-bet-gata-3-expression-in-nod-mice
#9
Aiping Tang, Cheng Li, Zhihong Chen, Tang Li
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a selective destruction of insulin-secreting β-cells. Both T cells and B cells serve a crucial role in pathogenesis and development of T1D. CD20 is a specific membrane antigen of B lymphocytes, while interleukin (IL)‑10 is an important cytokine secreted by T helper 2 cells and has a short half‑life in vivo. The combined effect of anti‑CD20 and IL‑10 on immune function of mice with T1D remains unknown. In the present study, 30 non‑obese diabetic (NOD) mice were treated with anti‑CD20 and adenoviral vector‑mediated interleukin‑10 (Ad‑mIL‑10) therapy...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761018/dynamic-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-as-a-novel-indicator-of-oxidative-stress-in-obese-children-and-its-relationship-with-inflammatory-cardiovascular-markers
#10
Bahri Elmas, Mehmet Karacan, Pınar Dervişoğlu, Mustafa Kösecik, Şükriye Pınar İşgüven, Ceylan Bal
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity is an important cause of cardiovascular risk with chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular pathologies. We aimed to evaluate thiol/disulphide homeostasis as a novel and sensitive marker of oxidative stress and to evaluate its relationship with some inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in obese children. METHODS: In this case-controlled study, 65 children with exogenous obesity and 64 healthy children, as a control group, were included...
July 25, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759942/11-keto-%C3%AE-boswellic-acid-inhibits-lymphocyte-cd3-infiltration-into-pancreatic-islets-of-young-none-obese-diabetic-nod-mice
#11
Ahmed M Shehata, Leticia Quintanilla-Fend, Sabrina Bettio, Zahra Kamyabi-Moghaddam, Ursula A Kohlhofer, Werner A Scherbaum, Hermann P T Ammon
11-Keto-β-Boswellic acid (KBA) has been shown to prevent infiltration of lymphocytes into pancreatic islets and appearance of peri-insular apoptotic cells in an animal model of autoimmune diabetes caused by injection of Multiple Low Doses of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ), which is a chemical compound belonging to the class of nitrososureas. The aim of this work was to study whether or not KBA can also prevent/attenuate infiltration of lymphocytes into pancreatic islets and appearance of peri-insular apoptotic cells in an animal model of autoimmune diabetes caused by genetic dysfunction resembling human type 1 diabetes in several important features...
July 31, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747576/a-prospective-appraisal-of-preoperative-body-mass-index-in-d2-resected-patients-with-non-metastatic-gastric-carcinoma-and-siewert-type-ii-iii-adenocarcinoma-of-esophagogastric-junction-results-from-a-large-scale-cohort
#12
Lei Huang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Tuan-Jie Li, Yu-Ming Jiang, A-Man Xu
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate associations of presurgical body mass index (BMI) with clinicopathological factors and its prognostic significance in radically D2-resected patients with non-metastasized gastric cancer (GC) and Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG). METHODS: A large prospective cohort consisting of radically-resected GC and AEG patients was analyzed. Follow-up was successful in 671 out of 700 patients, who were categorized into underweight (BMI<18...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736524/immune-and-metabolic-regulation-mechanism-of-dangguiliuhuang-decoction-against-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis
#13
Hui Cao, Lingling Tuo, Yali Tuo, Ziyun Xia, Rong Fu, Yang Liu, Yihong Quan, Jue Liu, Zhihong Yu, Ming Xiang
Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, which mainly consists of angelica, radix rehmanniae, radix rehmanniae praeparata, scutellaria baicalensis, coptis chinensis, astragalus membranaceus, and golden cypress, and used for the treatment of diabetes and some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we explored the potential mechanism of DGLHD against insulin resistance and fatty liver in vivo and in vitro. Our data revealed that DGLHD normalized glucose and insulin level, increased the expression of adiponectin, diminished fat accumulation and lipogenesis, and promoted glucose uptake...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734574/early-reduction-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-serum-levels-is-associated-with-leptin-drop-and-predicts-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#14
Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Federico Carbone, Maria Bertolotto, Paola Contini, Nicola Scopinaro, Giovanni Bruno Camerini, Francesco Saverio Papadia, Renzo Cordera, Giovanni Guido Camici, Franco Dallegri, Gian Franco Adami, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: We aimed at investigating whether the acute abrogation of leptin after bariatric surgery is able to reduce neutrophil activation and potentially affect type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission. METHODS: Metabolic and inflammatory parameters (i.e. leptin, IL-6 and neutrophil products) were compared at baseline (before bariatric surgery), one month, one and three years after surgery in morbid obese (MOB) T2DM patients (n=12) and non-MOB controls (n=32)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726805/prepl-deficiency-delineation-of-the-phenotype-and-development-of-a-functional-blood-assay
#15
Luc Régal, Emma Mårtensson, Isabelle Maystadt, Nicol Voermans, Damien Lederer, Alberto Burlina, María Jesús Juan Fita, A Jeannette M Hoogeboom, Mia Olsson Engman, Tess Hollemans, Meyke Schouten, Sandra Meulemans, Tord Jonson, Inge François, David Gil Ortega, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, John W M Creemers
PurposePREPL deficiency causes neonatal hypotonia, ptosis, neonatal feeding difficulties, childhood obesity, xerostomia, and growth hormone deficiency. Different recessive contiguous gene deletion syndromes involving PREPL and a variable combination of SLC3A1 (hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), CAMKMT (atypical hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome), and PPM1B (2p21 deletion syndrome) have been described. In isolated PREPL deficiency, previously described only once, the absence of cystinuria complicates the diagnosis...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714549/increased-level-of-dna-damage-in-some-organs-of-obese-zucker-rats-by-%C3%AE-h2ax-analysis
#16
Alessia Azzarà, Anna Chiaramonte, Erika Filomeni, Barbara Pinto, Stefano Mazzoni, Simona Piaggi, Maria Angela Guzzardi, Fabrizio Bruschi, Patricia Iozzo, Roberto Scarpato
In a recent study, we showed that lymphocytes of obese Italian children/adolescents displayed levels of double strand breaks (DSB), assayed as serine 139-phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), about eightfold higher than normal weight controls, and that 30% of this damage-generated micronuclei. These findings suggested that obese children could be at increased risk of obesity-mediated cancer later in life. We therefore aimed to assess the level of γ-H2AX in a genetic animal model of obesity (Zucker rat) to identify a genotoxic/carcinogenic risk in some organs...
August 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711285/anti-il-21-monoclonal-antibody-combined-with-liraglutide-effectively-reverses-established-hyperglycemia-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-diabetes
#17
Anna K Rydén, Nikole R Perdue, Philippe P Pagni, Claire B Gibson, Sowbarnika S Ratliff, Rikke K Kirk, Travis J Friesen, Claus Haase, Ken Coppieters, Matthias G von Herrath, Tamar E Boursalian
Immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) has previously focused on suppressing the autoimmune response against pancreatic beta cells to preserve endogenous insulin production and regulate glucose levels. With increased attention toward combination therapy strategies, studies indicate the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) may be a suitable target as an immuno-modulatory arm, while glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists may be appropriate as a beta cell protective arm in combination therapy for T1D...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707376/immunosenescence-induced-by-plasma-from-individuals-with-obesity-caused-cell-signaling-dysfunction-and-inflammation
#18
Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Lucas Kich Grun, Patrícia Lavandoski, Letícia Biscaino Alves, Ivi Juliana Bristot, Rita Mattiello, Cláudio Corá Mottin, Fábio Klamt, Marcus Herbert Jones, Alexandre Vontobel Padoin, Fátima Costa Rodrigues Guma, Florencia María Barbé-Tuana
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consequences of plasma from individuals with obesity on parameters associated with immunosenescence in unrelated healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: Freshly isolated PBMC were incubated in media supplemented with 10% of plasma from individuals with obesity or control subjects for the first 4 hours of 24 to 120 hours of culture. RESULTS: Plasma from individuals with obesity modulated the phenotype of healthy PBMC, leading to a higher rate of apoptosis, lower amounts of phospho-γH2AX and -p53, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
July 14, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699612/relationship-between-immune-parameters-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children
#19
Jun-Qi Shi, Wen-Xia Shen, Xiang-Zhi Wang, Ke Huang, Chao-Chun Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between immune parameters and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Zhejiang Province, China on July to September 2015. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 obese children and 209 healthy non-obese children were studied as the obese and control groups. Depending on the severity of NAFLD, the obese group was divided into subgroups 1 (without NAFLD), 2 (with simple fatty liver) and 3 (with steatohepatitis)...
July 11, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696349/the-cell-surface-markers-expression-in-postmenopausal-women-and-relation-to-obesity-and-bone-status
#20
Mira Horváthová, Silvia Ilavská, Kornélia Štefíková, Michaela Szabová, Zora Krivošíková, Eva Jahnová, Jana Tulinská, Viera Spustová, Martin Gajdoš
The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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