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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642328/leukocyte-diversity-in-resolving-and-nonresolving-mechanisms-of-cardiac-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
Bochra Tourki, Ganesh Halade
In response to myocardial infarction (MI), time-dependent leukocyte infiltration is critical to program the acute inflammatory response. Post-MI leukocyte density, residence time in the infarcted area, and exit from the infarcted injury predict resolving or nonresolving inflammation. Overactive or unresolved inflammation is the primary determinant in heart failure pathology post-MI. Here, our review describes supporting evidence that the acute inflammatory response also guides the generation of healing and regenerative mediators after cardiac damage...
June 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630652/verification-of-b-lymphocyte-activating-factor-s-involvement-in-the-exacerbation-of-insulin-resistance-as-well-as-an-autoimmune-response-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-patients-with-hcv-related-chronic-liver-disease
#2
Takashi Himoto, Koji Fujita, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Asahiro Morishita, Hirohito Yoneyama, Reiji Haba, Tsutomu Masaki
BACKGROUND: Ten to forty percent of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD-C) patients have antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). However, the relationship between autoimmune response and insulin resistance remains uncertain among those patients. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not ANA status was associated with the development of insulin resistance and obesity in NASH and CLD-C patients. METHODS: Degrees of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis were evaluated by the classification proposed by Brunt et al...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619429/vitamin-d-and-multiple-sclerosis-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Jean-Claude Souberbielle
The most recent findings linking exposure to sun and vitamin D insufficiency to multiple sclerosis (MS) are reviewed. Due to insufficient sunshine and changing lifestyles, hypovitaminosis D is widespread in temperate countries. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that sunshine and vitamin D insufficiency contributes to MS risk in these countries. Moreover, several large genetic studies in MS patients have recently stated unequivocally that diverse abnormalities involving vitamin D metabolism are related to the risk of the disease...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618839/sphingosine-kinase-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-liver-pathobiology
#4
Timothy Rohrbach, Michael Maceyka, Sarah Spiegel
Over 20 years ago, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was discovered to be a bioactive signaling molecule. Subsequent studies later identified two related kinases, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which are responsible for the phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P. Many stimuli increase sphingosine kinase activity and S1P production and secretion. Outside the cell, S1P can bind to and activate five S1P-specific G protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate many important cellular and physiological processes in an autocrine or paracrine manner...
June 15, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615667/il-6-secretion-in-osteoarthritis-patients-is-mediated-by-chondrocyte-synovial-fibroblast-cross-talk-and-is-enhanced-by-obesity
#5
Mark J Pearson, Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter, Mohammad A Tariq, Thomas A Nicholson, Ashleigh M Philp, Hannah L Smith, Edward T Davis, Simon W Jones, Janet M Lord
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a central role in driving joint pathology in certain patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Since many patients with OA are obese and increased adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, we investigated whether obese patients with hip OA exhibited differential pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling and peripheral and local lymphocyte populations, compared to normal weight hip OA patients. No differences in either peripheral blood or local lymphocyte populations were found between obese and normal-weight hip OA patients...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611026/map4k4-impairs-energy-metabolism-in-endothelial-cells-and-promotes-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#6
Rachel J Roth Flach, Marina T DiStefano, Laura V Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P Czech
The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583511/blood-count-values-and-ratios-for-predicting-sleep-apnea-in-obese-children
#7
Ibrahim Erdim, Omer Erdur, Fatih Oghan, Fatih Mete, Mustafa Celik
OBJECTIVES: To detect whether the mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are contributing factors in the diagnosis and severity of sleep apnea in obese children. INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a public health problem, and its prevalence increases daily. Although PSG is the gold standard test in the investigation of sleep apnea, the application of this test requires equipment, personnel, time, and cost. There is no simple laboratory test for diagnosing and determining the severity of sleep apnea...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559653/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-less-than-forty-years-old-with-coronary-artery-disease-in-taiwan-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Wei-Che Tsai, Keng-Yi Wu, Gen-Min Lin, Sy-Jou Chen, Wei-Shiang Lin, Shih-Ping Yang, Shu-Meng Cheng, Chin-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) rarely occurs in young adults. Our objective was to investigate the baseline characteristics and outcomes of young patients with CAD. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients aged < 40 years of age who underwent coronary angiography in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan between 2002 and 2015. The baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and occlusive CAD (stenotic lesions > 50%) were compared with those of patients without ACS and non-occlusive CAD, respectively...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535403/the-predictive-effect-of-inflammatory-markers-and-lipid-accumulation-product-index-on-clinical-symptoms-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-nonobese-adolescents-and-younger-aged-women
#9
Esra Nur Tola, Serenat Eris Yalcin, Nadiye Dugan
OBJECTIVE(S): The aim of our study is to analyse the inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to determine whether the investigated parameters are potential markers for the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. We also aim to determine whether these inflammatory markers are predictive for developing some clinical implications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR), associated with PCOS...
July 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500380/association-of-t-lymphocyte-immune-imbalance-and-il-10-gene-polymorphism-with-the-risk-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children-with-obesity
#10
Miao-Shang Su, Li Xu, Kang Xu, Ji-Shan Zheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the role of T lymphocyte immune imbalance and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphism in the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese children. METHODS: One hundred obese children at high-risk and low-risk for OSA based upon a sleep questionnaire were selected. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry, and plasma IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected by ELISA. The relationships between OSA and the above variables were analyzed...
May 12, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491871/the-imbalance-of-b-lymphocyte-subsets-in-subjects-with-different-glucose-tolerance-relationship-with-metabolic-parameter-and-disease-status
#11
Chao Deng, Yufei Xiang, Tingting Tan, Zhihui Ren, Chuqing Cao, Bingwen Liu, Gan Huang, Xiangbing Wang, Zhiguang Zhou
B lymphocytes are involved in inflammation and are related to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated the phenotype and frequency of B-lymphocyte subsets in subjects recently diagnosed with T2D (n = 60), impaired glucose regulation (IGR, n = 73), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 169) by flow cytometry. T2D subjects had an increased percentage of CD19(+)CD23(+) (B-2) cells and a decreased percentage of CD19(+)CD23(-) (B-1) cells attributing to CD19(+)CD23(-)CD5(-) (B-1b) cells, but not CD19(+)CD23(-)CD5(+) (B-1a) cells, compared to NGT and IGR subjects...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466852/temporal-and-tissue-specific-requirements-for-t-lymphocyte-il-6-signalling-in-obesity-associated-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Elaine Xu, Mafalda M A Pereira, Ismene Karakasilioti, Sebastian Theurich, Mona Al-Maarri, Gunter Rappl, Ari Waisman, F Thomas Wunderlich, Jens C Brüning
Low-grade inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance through the activation of tissue-infiltrating immune cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a crucial regulator of T cells and is increased in obesity. Here we report that classical IL-6 signalling in T cells promotes inflammation and insulin resistance during the first 8 weeks on a high-fat diet (HFD), but becomes dispensable at later stages (after 16 weeks). Mice with T cell-specific deficiency of IL-6 receptor-α (IL-6Rα(T-KO)) exposed to a HFD display improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in liver and EWAT after 8 weeks...
May 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450222/probiotic-treatment-protects-against-the-pro-depressant-like-effect-of-high-fat-diet-in-flinders-sensitive-line-rats
#13
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Sten Lund, Gregers Wegener
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with dysmetabolic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and the gut microbiota may interact with both disease entities. We have previously shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) exacerbated depressive-like behaviour uniquely in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats that inherently present with an increased level of depressive-like behaviour compared with Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. We therefore investigated whether multispecies probiotics possessed anti-depressant-like effect in FSL rats or protected against the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD...
April 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423197/diabetic-kidney-transplant-recipients-impaired-infection-control-and-increased-alloreactivity
#14
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) has been associated with inferior patient and allograft outcomes. However, previous studies didn't identify differences in infection control and alloreactivity. METHODS: We studied 449 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) between 2005 and 2013. 50 (11.1%) KTRs were diagnosed with PTDM and 60 (13.4%) KTRs with pre-existing diabetes. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, +3 months posttransplantation...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422186/high-fat-diet-induces-systemic-b-cell-repertoire-changes-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#15
T D Pham, M H Y Chng, K M Roskin, K J L Jackson, K D Nguyen, J Glanville, J-Y Lee, E G Engleman, S D Boyd
The development of obesity-associated insulin resistance is associated with B-lymphocyte accumulation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and is prevented by B-cell ablation. To characterize potentially pathogenic B-cell repertoires in this disorder, we performed high-throughput immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing from multiple tissues of mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) and regular diet (RD). HFD significantly changed the biochemical properties of Ig heavy-chain complementarity-determining region-3 (CDRH3) sequences, selecting for IgA antibodies with shorter and more hydrophobic CDRH3 in multiple tissues...
April 19, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392139/metformin-improves-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-b-cell-function-in-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Thomas Vazquez, Suzanne Lechner, Bonnie B Blomberg, Daniela Frasca
Metformin (MET), the first-line medication for Type-2 Diabetes (T2D), has been shown to reduce chronic inflammation indirectly through reduction of hyperglycemia, or directly acting as anti-inflammatory drug. The effects of MET on B lymphocytes is uncharacterized. In the present study, we measured in vivo and in vitro influenza vaccine responses in 2 groups of T2D patients: recently diagnosed but not taking anti-diabetic drugs, and patients taking MET. Results show that B cell function and vaccine responses, hampered by obesity and T2D, are recovered by MET...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367174/does-obesity-cause-chronic-inflammation-the-association-between-complete-blood-parameters-with-body-mass-index-and-fasting-glucose
#17
Tuba Tulay Koca
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship of complete blood count (CBC) parameters and derivates with fasting blood sugar and the body mass index. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational clinical study. Hospitalized patients who received a physiotherapy program in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between March and June 2016 were included. The age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose, erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR), C-reactive protein, and CBC parameters (leukocytes, platelets, neutrophil, lymphocytes, and monocytes) and red cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio of the patients were recorded...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296035/sepsis-after-renal-transplantation-clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-risk-factors
#18
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: As immunosuppressive therapy and allograft survival have improved, the increased incidence of sepsis has become a major hurdle of disease-free survival after renal transplantation. METHODS: We identified 112 of 957 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with sepsis. In all, 31 KTRs developed severe sepsis or septic shock, and 30 KTRs died from sepsis. KTRs without sepsis were used for comparison. CMV-specific and alloreactive T cells were measured using an interferon-γ Elispot assay...
March 11, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280271/obesity-overweight-reduces-the-risk-of-active-tuberculosis-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#19
Y-F Yen, H-Y Hu, Y-L Lee, P-W Ku, I-F Lin, D Chu, Y-J Lai
BACKGROUND: Obesity affects immune function by increasing the number of T helper lymphocytes, which may reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the effect of obesity on TB development has not been extensively studied. This nationwide population-based cohort study investigated the effect of obesity on TB development in Taiwanese adults. METHODS: We included 46 028 adult participants (age ⩾18 years) from three rounds (2001, 2005 and 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey...
June 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205558/plant-based-vaccines-for-oral-delivery-of-type-1-diabetes-related-autoantigens-evaluating-oral-tolerance-mechanisms-and-disease-prevention-in-nod-mice
#20
Amanda L Posgai, Clive H Wasserfall, Kwang-Chul Kwon, Henry Daniell, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson
Autoantigen-specific immunological tolerance represents a central objective for prevention of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Previous studies demonstrated mucosal antigen administration results in expansion of Foxp3(+) and LAP(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), suggesting oral delivery of self-antigens might represent an effective means for modulating autoimmune disease. Early preclinical experiments using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model reported mucosal administration of T1D-related autoantigens [proinsulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD)] delayed T1D onset, but published data are conflicting regarding dose, treatment duration, requirement for combinatorial agents, and extent of efficacy...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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