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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913246/measuring-content-overlap-during-handoff-communication-using-distributional-semantics-an-exploratory-study
#1
Joanna Abraham, Thomas Kannampallil, Vignesh Srinivasan, William Galanter, Gail Tagney, Trevor Cohen
OBJECTIVE: We develop and evaluate a methodological approach to measure the degree and nature of overlap in handoff communication content within and across clinical professions. This extensible, exploratory approach relies on combining techniques from conversational analysis and distributional semantics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We audio-recorded handoff communication of residents and nurses on the General Medicine floor of a large academic hospital (n=120 resident and n=120 nurse handoffs)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905952/mental-health-and-urban-living-in-sub-saharan-africa-major-depressive-episodes-among-the-urban-poor-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#3
Géraldine Duthé, Clémentine Rossier, Doris Bonnet, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Jamaica Corker
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting...
May 5, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904881/sfr1-a-tetrahymena-thermophila-sfi1-repeat-protein-modulates-the-production-of-cortical-row-basal-bodies
#4
Westley Heydeck, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Janin Knop, Christina C Poh, Mark Winey
Basal bodies are essential microtubule-based structures that template, anchor, and orient cilia at the cell surface. Cilia act primarily in the generation of directional fluid flow and sensory reception, both of which are utilized for a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Although basal bodies contribute to vital cell functions, the molecular contributors of their assembly and maintenance are poorly understood. Previous studies of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila revealed important roles for two centrin family members in basal body assembly, separation of new basal bodies, and stability...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899532/long-term-management-for-ventilator-assisted-children-in-hong-kong-2-decades-experience
#5
Shuk-Kuen Chau, Ada Wing-Yan Yung, So-Lun Lee
BACKGROUND: The population of children receiving long-term mechanical ventilation is growing worldwide, but only limited data exist in Asian regions. The objective of the study was to review the management of these children in Hong Kong over the past 2 decades. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital records from subjects receiving mechanical ventilation for >3 months were retrieved. Demographic characteristics and medical information of subjects (≤21 y old) under the care of the ventilator program at the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital between 1997 and 2015 were reviewed...
November 29, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899395/functional-definition-of-progenitors-versus-mature-endothelial-cells-reveals-key-soxf-dependent-differentiation-process
#6
Jatin Patel, Elke J Seppanen, Mathieu P Rodero, Ho Yi Wong, Prudence Donovan, Zoltan Neufeld, Nicholas M Fisk, Mathias François, Kiarash Khosrotehrani
BACKGROUND: -During adult life, blood vessel formation is thought to occur via angiogenic processes involving branching from existing vessels. An alternate proposal suggests that neo-vessels form from endothelial progenitors able to assemble the intimal layers. We here aimed to define vessel-resident endothelial progenitors in vivo in a variety of tissues in physiological and pathological situations such as normal aorta, lungs, as well as wound healing, tumors and placenta. METHODS: -Based on protein expression levels of common endothelial markers using flow cytometry, three sub-populations of endothelial cells could be identified among VE-Cadherin+ and CD45- cells...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893233/trajectories-of-victimization-in-ethnic-diaspora-immigrant-and-native-adolescents-separating-acculturation-from-development
#8
Philipp Jugert, Peter F Titzmann
This longitudinal study aimed to differentiate between acculturative and developmental processes by (a) comparing levels and change rates in victimization among ethnic German immigrants and native German adolescents in Germany and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel, and (b) testing whether interindividual differences in victimization among immigrant youth can be explained by the same general factors as in native groups or by migration-specific factors. In addition, we tested whether or not acculturative and developmental processes interact...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886430/the-muddle-of-ages-turnover-transit-and-residence-times-in-the-carbon-cycle
#9
Carlos A Sierra, Markus Müller, Holger Metzler, Stefano Manzoni, Susan E Trumbore
Comparisons among ecosystem models or ecosystem dynamics along environmental gradients commonly rely on metrics that integrate different processes into a useful diagnostic. Terms such as age, turnover, residence, and transit times are often used for this purpose; however, these terms are variably defined in the literature and in many cases, calculations ignore assumptions implicit in their formulas. The aim of this opinion piece was i) to make evident these discrepancies and the incorrect use of formulas, ii) highlight recent results that simplify calculations and may help to avoid confusion, and iii) propose the adoption of simple and less ambiguous terms...
November 7, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886219/elderly-suicide-trends-in-the-context-of-transforming-china-1987-2014
#10
Bao-Liang Zhong, Helen F K Chiu, Yeates Conwell
In the context of rapid ageing, understanding the time-trend of elderly suicide (ES) could inform China's efforts on suicide prevention. We examined time-trends in Chinese ES rates (ESRs) from 1987 to 2014, a period of profound social changes. Suicide rates by residence (rural/urban), gender, and 5-year age-group (65+) in 1987-2014 were provided by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Time-trends were analyzed with joinpoint analysis. The time-trend of national ESRs was downward (average annual percent change [AAPC] = -3...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885832/defining-pediatric-inpatient-cardiology-care-delivery-models-a-survey-of-pediatric-cardiology-programs-in-the-usa-and-canada
#11
Antonio R Mott, Steven R Neish, Melissa Challman, Timothy F Feltes
BACKGROUND: The treatment of children with cardiac disease is one of the most prevalent and costly pediatric inpatient conditions. The design of inpatient medical services for children admitted to and discharged from noncritical cardiology care units, however, is undefined. North American Pediatric Cardiology Programs were surveyed to define noncritical cardiac care unit models in current practice. METHOD: An online survey that explored institutional and functional domains for noncritical cardiac care unit was crafted...
November 25, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884806/exploring-qualitative-perspectives-on-surgical-resident-training-well-being-and-patient-care
#12
Lindsey Kreutzer, Allison R Dahlke, Remi Love, Kristen A Ban, Anthony D Yang, Karl Y Bilimoria, Julie K Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Flexibility In duty hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial found not difference in patient outcomes or resident wellbeing between more restrictive and flexible duty hour policies. Qualitative methods are appropriate for better understanding the experience and perceptions of those affected by duty hour regulations. We conducted a pilot qualitative study on how resident duty hour regulations are perceived by general surgery Program Directors (PDs), surgical residents and attending surgeons who participated in the FIRST Trial...
November 8, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884805/utilization-and-underlying-reasons-of-duty-hour-flexibility-in-the-flexibility-in-duty-hour-requirement-for-surgical-trainees-first-trial
#13
Karl Y Bilimoria, Christopher Quinn, Allison R Dahlke, Rachel R Kelz, Judy A Shea, Ravi Rajaram, Remi Love, Lindsey Kreutzer, Thomas Biester, Anthony D Yang, David B Hoyt, Frank R Lewis
BACKGROUND: The Flexibility in Duty-Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial randomized surgical residency programs to either standard duty-hour policies or flexible policies that eliminated caps on shift lengths and time off between shifts. Our objectives were to assess adherence to duty-hour requirements in the Standard Policy arm and examine how often and why duty-hour flexibility was used in the Flexible Policy arm. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 3,795 residents in the FIRST Trial completed a survey in January 2016 (response rate >95%) that asked how often and why they exceeded current standard duty hour limits in both study arms...
November 10, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883972/rheumatic-heart-disease-in-a-developing-country-incidence-and-trend-monastir-tunisia-2000-2013
#14
Asma Sriha Belguith, Afifa Koubaa Abdelkafi, Sana El Mhamdi, Manel Ben Fredj, Hela Abroug, Arwa Ben Salah, Inès Bouanene, Fahima Hassine, Amal Amara, Sana Bhiri, Abdelkarim Derbel, Habib Gamra, Faouzi Maatouk, Mohamed Soussi Soltani
BACKGROUND: The penicillin therapy of β hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis has aided in the decrease of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. Tunisia is an endemic area, however, and incidence of RHD is weakly documented. We aimed at establishing the standardized incidence rate (SIR) of RHD in Monastir governorate and at determining RHD prevalence among hospitalized patients in two cardiology departments. METHODS: From the regional register of Monastir Hospital morbidity, we have selected newly diagnosed patients with RHD, residents of Monastir, and hospitalized to the 2 cardiology departments between 2000 and 2013 (2001 not included)...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#15
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879003/risk-and-protective-processes-predicting-rural-african-american-young-men-s-substance-abuse
#16
Junhan Cho, Steven M Kogan
Informed by a life course perspective, this study tested a cascade model linking harsh, unresponsive parenting during childhood to young African American men's substance abuse via precocious transitions, economic instability, and future orientation. The moderating influence of community disadvantage and romantic partner support on the hypothesized pathways was also examined. At the baseline, the sample included 505 African American men between ages 19 and 22 years from high-poverty rural communities. Follow-up data were collected 18 months after baseline...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878956/improving-the-medical-school-residency-transition
#17
Helen Morgan, Bethany Skinner, David Marzano, James Fitzgerald, Diana Curran, Maya Hammoud
BACKGROUND: In response to calls to improve the continuum between undergraduate and graduate medical education, many medical schools are creating electives designed to prepare students for residency training. There is a need for data that link improvements from these residency preparation courses to residency itself. Data is needed that links improvements from these residency preparation courses to residency OBJECTIVE: To examine senior medical student performance on the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics (APGO) Preparation for Residency Knowledge Assessment before and after an obstetrics and gynaecology residency preparation elective, and to determine whether the knowledge improvements persisted to the start of the residency...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865597/expert-consensus-of-general-surgery-residents-proficiency-with-common-endocrine-operations
#18
Roy Phitayakorn, Rachel R Kelz, Emil Petrusa, Rebecca S Sippel, Cord Sturgeon, Kepal N Patel, Nancy D Perrier
BACKGROUND: Proficiency with common endocrine operations is expected of graduating, general surgery residents. However, no expert consensus guidelines exist about these expectations. METHODS: Members of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons were surveyed about their opinions on resident proficiency with common endocrine operations. RESULTS: Overall response rate was 38%. A total of 92% of the respondents operate with residents. On average, they believed that the steps of a total thyroidectomy for benign disease and a well-localized parathyroidectomy could be performed by a postgraduate year 4 surgery resident...
November 16, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862540/buchnera-has-changed-flatmate-but-the-repeated-replacement-of-co-obligate-symbionts-is-not-associated-with-the-ecological-expansions-of-their-aphid-hosts
#19
A S Meseguer, A Manzano-Marín, A Coeur d'Acier, A-L Clamens, M Godefroid, E Jousselin
Symbiotic associations with bacteria have facilitated important evolutionary transitions in insects and resulted in long-term obligate interactions. Recent evidence suggests that these associations are not always evolutionarily stable and that symbiont replacement and/or supplementation of an obligate symbiosis by an additional bacterium has occurred during the history of many insect groups. Yet, the factors favoring one symbiont over another in this evolutionary dynamic are not well understood; progress has been hindered by our incomplete understanding of the distribution of symbionts across phylogenetic and ecological contexts...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860022/shared-decision-making-with-vulnerable-populations-in-the-emergency-department
#20
Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Jeffrey Glassberg, Corita R Grudzen, Ka Ming Ngai, Margaret E Samuels-Kalow, Erica Shelton, Stephen P Wall, Lynne D Richardson
The emergency department occupies a unique position within the health care system, serving as a safety net for vulnerable patients, regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, country of origin, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status or medical diagnosis. Shared decision making (SDM) presents special challenges when used with vulnerable population groups. The differing circumstances, needs and perspectives of vulnerable groups invoke issues of provider bias, disrespect, judgmental attitudes and lack of cultural competence; as well as patient mistrust, and the consequences of their social and economic disenfranchisement...
November 17, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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