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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214619/transition-from-non-fickian-to-fickian-longitudinal-transport-through-3-d-rough-fractures-scale-in-sensitivity-and-roughness-dependence
#1
Lichun Wang, M Bayani Cardenas
Understanding transport in rough fractures from non-Fickian to Fickian regimes and the prediction of non-Fickian transport is critical for the development of new transport theories and many practical applications. Through computational experiments that fall within the macrodispersion regime, we first simulated and analyzed solute transport through synthetic rough fractures with stationary geometrical properties (i.e., fracture roughness σb/〈b〉 and correlation length λ, where b refers to aperture with its standard deviation σb and arithmetic mean 〈b〉) across increasing fracture longitudinal transport domain length L, with L/λ ranging from 2...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213305/risk-of-suicide-according-to-the-level-of-psychiatric-contact-in-the-older-people-analysis-of-national-health-insurance-databases-in-taiwan
#2
Shin-Ting Yeh, Yee-Yung Ng, Shiao-Chi Wu
PURPOSE: Suicide in the older people is a serious problem worldwide; however the effect of psychiatric contact on the risk of suicide has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychiatric contact and suicide in the older people in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based database was used in this national case-control study. Propensity score matching was used to match older people who did and did not commit suicide from 2010 to 2012 by calendar year, gender, age, and area of residence...
February 1, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211249/improving-the-interpretability-of-climate-landscape-metrics-an-ecological-risk-analysis-of-japan-s-marine-protected-areas
#3
Jorge García Molinos, Shintaro Takao, Naoki H Kumagai, Elvira S Poloczanska, Michael T Burrows, Masahiko Fujii, Hiroya Yamano
Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210809/growth-dynamics-of-juvenile-loggerhead-sea-turtles-undergoing-an-ontogenetic-habitat-shift
#4
Matthew D Ramirez, Larisa Avens, Jeffrey A Seminoff, Lisa R Goshe, Selina S Heppell
Ontogenetic niche theory predicts that individuals may undergo one or more changes in habitat or diet throughout their lifetime to maintain optimal growth rates, or to optimize trade-offs between mortality risk and growth. We combine skeletochronological and stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) analyses of sea turtle humeri (n = 61) to characterize the growth dynamics of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) during an oceanic-to-neritic ontogenetic shift. The primary objective of this study was to determine how ontogenetic niche theory extends to sea turtles, and to individuals with different patterns of resource use (discrete shifters, n = 23; facultative shifters n = 14; non-shifters, n = 24)...
February 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208610/non-emergency-medical-transportation-needs-of-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-rural-urban-comparison-in-delaware-usa
#5
Matthew Lee Smith, Thomas R Prohaska, Kara E MacLeod, Marcia G Ory, Amy R Eisenstein, David R Ragland, Cheryl Irmiter, Samuel D Towne, William A Satariano
Background: Older adults in rural areas have unique transportation barriers to accessing medical care, which include a lack of mass transit options and considerable distances to health-related services. This study contrasts non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service utilization patterns and associated costs for Medicaid middle-aged and older adults in rural versus urban areas. Methods: Data were analyzed from 39,194 NEMT users of LogistiCare-brokered services in Delaware residing in rural (68.3%) and urban (30...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208477/bifurcation-induced-by-the-aspect-ratio-in-a-turbulent-von-k%C3%A3-rm%C3%A3-n-swirling-flow
#6
Olivier Liot, Javier Burguete
We evaluate the effect of the aspect ratio, i.e., the distance between the propellers H divided by the diameter D, on the slow dynamics of a von Kármán swirling flow driven by two propellers in a closed cylinder. We use a cell with a fixed diameter D but where the distance between the propellers can be turned continuously and where the inertia from the propellers can also be changed using different gears. No change on the dynamics is observed when the momentum of inertia is modified. Some dramatic changes of the shear layer position are observed modifying the aspect ratio Γ=H/D...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206874/a-quality-improvement-initiative-on-the-use-of-psychotropic-drugs-in-nursing-homes-in-flanders
#7
Majda Azermai, Maarten Wauters, Dirk De Meester, Lisa Renson, Danny Pauwels, Laurine Peeters, Hans Warie, Mirko Petrovic
INTRODUCTION: Government-funded quality improvement projects aimed to reduce the high psychotropic medication use in Belgian long-term care settings. DESIGN: A pilot project (2013-2014) with a pre-post and follow-up intervention design. METHODS: Two nursing homes received three educational courses. In the intervention nursing home (INH) additionally, a transition towards person-centred care through professional support was applied. Drug use was recorded at baseline, after 10 months (post) and after 22 months (follow-up), and coded into the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification...
February 16, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202525/oncogenic-effects-of-high-mapk-activity-in-colorectal-cancer-mark-progenitor-cells-and-persist-irrespective-of-ras-mutations
#8
Cristina Blaj, Eva Marina Schmidt, Sebastian Lamprecht, Heiko Hermeking, Andreas Jung, Thomas Kirchner, David Horst
About 40% of colorectal cancers have mutations in KRAS accompanied by downstream activation of MAPK signaling which promotes tumor invasion and progression. Here we report that MAPK signaling shows strong intratumoral heterogeneity and unexpectedly remains regulated in colorectal cancer irrespective of KRAS mutation status. Using primary colorectal cancer tissues, xenograft models and MAPK reporter constructs, we showed that tumor cells with high MAPK activity resided specifically at the leading tumor edge, ceased to proliferate, underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and expressed markers related to colon cancer stem cells...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199127/development-of-rad-score-a-tool-to-assess-the-procedural-competence-of-diagnostic-radiology-residents
#9
Inga Isupov, Matthew D F McInnes, Stan J Hamstra, Geoffrey Doherty, Ashish Gupta, Susan Peddle, Zaid Jibri, Kawan Rakhra, Rebecca M Hibbert
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assess the procedural competence of radiology trainees, with sources of evidence gathered from five categories to support the construct validity of tool: content, response process, internal structure, relations to other variables, and consequences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pilot form for assessing procedural competence among radiology residents, known as the RAD-Score tool, was developed by evaluating published literature and using a modified Delphi procedure involving a group of local content experts...
February 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197967/year-end-clinic-handoffs-a-national-survey-of-academic-internal-medicine-programs
#10
Erica Phillips, Christina Harris, Wei Wei Lee, Amber T Pincavage, Karin Ouchida, Rachel K Miller, Saima Chaudhry, Vineet M Arora
BACKGROUND: While there has been increasing emphasis and innovation nationwide in training residents in inpatient handoffs, very little is known about the practice and preparation for year-end clinic handoffs of residency outpatient continuity practices. Thus, the latter remains an identified, yet nationally unaddressed, patient safety concern. OBJECTIVES: The 2014 annual Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) survey included seven items for assessing the current year-end clinic handoff practices of internal medicine residency programs throughout the country...
February 14, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193670/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-ciprofloxacin-enhance-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-of-enterococcus-faecium
#11
Clara Sinel, Margherita Cacaci, Pierrick Meignen, François Guérin, Bryan W Davies, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Jean-Christophe Giard, Vincent Cattoir
Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for two decades, with the spread of hospital-adapted multidrug-resistant clones. Members of the intestinal microbiota, they are subjected to numerous bacterial stresses, including antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations (SICs). Since fluoroquinolones are extensively prescribed, SICs are very likely to occur in vivo with potential effects on bacterial metabolism with subsequent modulation of opportunistic traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate globally the impact of subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of ciprofloxacin on antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of E...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170431/bedside-or-not-bedside-evaluation-of-patient-satisfaction-in-intensive-medical-rehabilitation-wards
#12
Christophe Luthy, Patricia Francis Gerstel, Angela Pugliesi, Valérie Piguet, Anne-Françoise Allaz, Christine Cedraschi
BACKGROUND: Concerns that bedside presentation (BsP) rounds could make patients uncomfortable led many residency programs to move daily rounds outside the patients' room (OsPR). We performed a prospective quasi-experimental controlled study measuring the effect of these two approaches on patient satisfaction. METHODS: Patient satisfaction was measured using the Picker questionnaire (PiQ). Results are expressed in problematic percentage scores scaled from 0 = best-100 = worst...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165450/functional-roles-of-aves-class-specific-cis-regulatory-elements-on-macroevolution-of-bird-specific-features
#13
Ryohei Seki, Cai Li, Qi Fang, Shinichi Hayashi, Shiro Egawa, Jiang Hu, Luohao Xu, Hailin Pan, Mao Kondo, Tomohiko Sato, Haruka Matsubara, Namiko Kamiyama, Keiichi Kitajima, Daisuke Saito, Yang Liu, M Thomas P Gilbert, Qi Zhou, Xing Xu, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Naoki Irie, Koji Tamura, Guojie Zhang
Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers. By analysing 48 bird genomes, we identified millions of avian-specific highly conserved elements (ASHCEs) that predominantly (>99%) reside in non-coding regions. Many ASHCEs show differential histone modifications that may participate in regulation of limb development...
February 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164441/practice-transition-in-graduate-medical-education
#14
Robyn Shaffer, Nancy Piro, Laurence Katznelson, Melanie Hayden Gephart
BACKGROUND: Debt repayment, professional negotiation and practice management skills are vital to a successful medical practice, yet are undervalued and seldom taught in graduate medical education. Medical residents need additional training to confidently transition to independent practice, requiring the development of novel curricula. Medical residents need additional training to confidently transition to independent practice METHODS: We developed a trial practice management curriculum to educate senior residents and fellows through voluntary workshops...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162863/the-radiologist-is-in-but-was-it-worth-the-wait-radiology-resident-note-quality-in-an-outpatient-interventional-radiology-clinic
#15
Salim E Abboud, Stephanie Soriano, Rayan Abboud, Indravadan Patel, Jon Davidson, Nami R Azar, Dean A Nakamoto
Preprocedural evaluation of patients in an interventional radiology (IR) clinic is a complex synthesis of physical examination and imaging findings, and as IR transitions to an independent clinical specialty, such evaluations will become an increasingly critical component of a successful IR practice and quality patient care. Prior research suggests that preprocedural evaluations increased patient's perceived quality of care and may improve procedural technical success rates. Appropriate documentation of a preprocedural evaluation in the medical record is also paramount for an interventional radiologist to add value and function as an effective member of a larger IR service and multidisciplinary health care team...
November 10, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159436/quality-initiative-program-in-its-sixth-year-has-it-become-part-of-our-radiology-culture
#16
Heather Ritchie, Ania Z Kielar, Fraser Hill, Joseph P O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: The study sought to determine if the Quality Initiative Program (QUIP) has become part of the radiology culture at our institution. METHODS: After Research Ethics approval, QUIPs from January 2009 to December 2014 were assessed. We evaluated the response rates of radiologists receiving QUIPs to ensure they reviewed them. We performed a survey of radiologists and trainees to gain feedback regarding their perception of QUIPs in February 2014 and in June 2015...
January 31, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153470/from-hiv-infection-to-therapeutic-response-a-population-based-longitudinal-hiv-cascade-of-care-study-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#17
Noah Haber, Frank Tanser, Jacob Bor, Kevindra Naidu, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Kobus Herbst, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: Standard approaches to estimation of losses in the HIV cascade of care are typically cross-sectional and do not include the population stages before linkage to clinical care. We used indiviual-level longitudinal cascade data, transition by transition, including population stages, both to identify the health-system losses in the cascade and to show the differences in inference between standard methods and the longitudinal approach. METHODS: We used non-parametric survival analysis to estimate a longitudinal HIV care cascade for a large population of people with HIV residing in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
January 30, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152936/improving-transitions-of-care-through-implementation-of-a-standardized-handoff-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-center
#18
Mohamed Ait Aiss, Helene P Phu, Lakeisha R Day, Varkey Abraham, Karen Chen, Mejia Rodrigo, Shehla Razvi, Carmen E Gonzalez, Norman Brito-Dellan, Srinivas Banala, David Rubio, Nicole Vaughan-Adams, Debra S Ruiz, Tan Jens, Charles F Levenback, Michael M Frumovitz, Behrouz Zand, Carmelita P Escalante
: 242 Background: Communication failures cause two-thirds of sentinel events in hospitals. These adverse occurrences are often both fatal and preventable. Consequently, improving the quality of handoffs has been identified by multiple accreditation constituents as a top priority patient safety goal. This project was part of an institutional initiative to standardize handoffs among physicians, trainees, and midlevel providers. METHODS: Four subgroups were identified as pilot areas: Gynecologic Oncology (Gyn Onc) fellows to nocturnalists, Surgical Oncology fellows, Pediatric Oncology residents and fellows, and Emergency Center attending staff to inpatient hospitalists...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152888/the-benefits-of-clinical-pathways-cp-for-radiation-oncology-in-a-large-cancer-care-network
#19
Sushil Beriwal, Hans Benson, Zach Lorinc, Amanda Barry, Kathleen Lokay
: 148 Background: UPMC CancerCenter and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPMC) created a radiation oncology CP program (now incorporated separately as Via Pathways) in 2003 to standardize care at 19 radiation sites. The program exists to ensure consistency and rapid adoption of best evidence-based care in a large, integrated NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center. METHODS: The web-based CP portal integrates with electronic medical records to provide point-of-care patient-specific decision support...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151657/evaluating-the-contribution-of-transition-state-destabilization-to-changes-in-the-residence-time-of-triazole-based-inha-inhibitors
#20
Lauren A Spagnuolo, Sandra Eltschkner, Weixuan Yu, Fereidoon Daryaee, Shabnam Davoodi, Susan E Knudson, Eleanor K H Allen, Jonathan Merino, Annica Pschibul, Ben Moree, Neil Thivalapill, James J Truglio, Joshua Salafsky, Richard A Slayden, Caroline Kisker, Peter J Tonge
A critical goal of lead compound selection and optimization is to maximize target engagement whilst minimizing off-target binding. Since target engagement is a function of both the thermodynamics and kinetics of drug-target interactions, it follows that the structures of both the ground states and transition states on the binding reaction coordinate are needed to rationally modulate the lifetime of the drug-target complex. Previously, we predicted the structure of the rate-limiting transition state that controlled the time-dependent inhibition of the enoyl-ACP reductase InhA...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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