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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432291/birth-weight-changes-in-a-major-city-under-rapid-socioeconomic-transition-in-china
#1
Jian-Rong He, Wei-Dong Li, Min-Shan Lu, Yong Guo, Fan-Fan Chan, Jin-Hua Lu, Li-Fang Zhang, Song-Ying Shen, Xiao-Yan Xia, Ping Wang, Wei-Jian Mo, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Jane E Hirst, Hui-Min Xia, Xiu Qiu
Estimates of trends in birth weight may be useful in evaluating population health. We aimed to determine whether temporal changes in birth weight have occurred amongst 2.3 million neonates born in Guangzhou, China, during 2001-2015 and investigate the socioeconomic determinants of any changes. Trends in mean birth weight and annualized changes with the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA), defined as birth weight <10(th) or >90(th) centile respectively for gestational age and sex, were examined using linear and Poisson regression models...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#2
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413068/epithelial-mesenchymal-micro-niches-govern-stem-cell-lineage-choices
#3
Hanseul Yang, Rene C Adam, Yejing Ge, Zhong L Hua, Elaine Fuchs
Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which, through intercellular contacts and signaling, influence SC behavior. Once activated, SCs typically give rise to short-lived transit-amplifying cells (TACs), which then progress to differentiate into their lineages. Here, using single-cell RNA-seq, we unearth unexpected heterogeneity among SCs and TACs of hair follicles. We trace the roots of this heterogeneity to micro-niches along epithelial-mesenchymal interfaces, where progenitors display molecular signatures reflective of spatially distinct local signals and intercellular interactions...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409072/reconceptualizing-benchmarks-for-residency-training
#4
EDITORIAL
Chandrew Rajakumar
Postgraduate medical education (PGME) is currently transitioning to a competency-based framework. This model clarifies the desired outcome of residency training - competence. However, since the popularization of Ericsson's work on the effect of time and deliberate practice on performance level, his findings have been applied in some areas of residency training. Though this may be grounded in a noble effort to maximize patient well-being, it imposes unrealistic expectations on trainees. This work aims to demonstrate the fundamental flaws of this application and therefore the lack of validity in using Ericsson's work to develop training benchmarks at the postgraduate level as well as expose potential harms in doing so...
March 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407741/the-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-promotes-development-of-brain-resident-memory-t-cells-following-acute-viral-encephalitis
#5
Sujata Prasad, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Priyanka Chauhan, Amar Singh, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that during acute viral brain infection, glial cells modulate antiviral T cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation. Here, we evaluated the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway in development of brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM) following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. METHODS: Flow cytometric analysis of immune cells was performed at 7, 14, and 30 days post-infection (dpi) to assess the shift of brain-infiltrating CD8(+) T cell populations from short-lived effector cells (SLEC) to memory precursor effector cells (MPEC), as well as generation of bTRMs...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404494/association-between-preterm-birth-and-its-subtypes-and-maternal-sociodemographic-characteristics-during-the-post-transitional-phase-in-a-developing-country-with-a-very-high-human-development-index
#6
B M Araya, M Díaz, D Paredes, J Ortiz
OBJECTIVES: Chile is a post-transitional country evolving towards a stationary population pyramid, which may be associated with increasing preterm birth (PTB) rates. This study aimed to compare maternal sociodemographic characteristics between the start of the post-transition phase (1994) and an established stage (2013) and to evaluate associations between these characteristics and PTB. STUDY DESIGN: An observational analytic design was conducted using national birth records (n = 4,956,311)...
March 7, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402982/delayed-dispersal-and-immigration-in-equatorial-sakis-pithecia-aequatorialis-factors-in-the-transition-from-pair-to-group-living
#7
Amy M Porter, Mark N Grote, Lynne A Isbell, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Anthony Di Fiore
Saki monkeys (Pithecia spp.) live in pairs and small groups, sometimes with more than 1 same-sex adult. Previous studies have not been able to distinguish additional, unrelated adults from adult-sized offspring, but both can influence social relationships and mating strategies, albeit in different ways. In this study, we documented the immigration of an adult male equatorial saki (P. aequatorialis) into a group following the departure of the previous resident male. At immigration, the group contained an adult female, her 5-year-old (adult age) and 1...
April 13, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398961/accreditation-council-for-graduate-medical-education-acgme-surgery-resident-operative-logs-the-last-quarter-century
#8
Frederick Thurston Drake, Shahram Aarabi, Brandon T Garland, Ciara R Huntington, Jarod P McAteer, Morgan K Richards, Nicole Kansier Zern, Kenneth W Gow
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe secular trends in operative experience for surgical trainees across an extended period using the most comprehensive data available, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs. BACKGROUND: Some experts have expressed concern that current trainees are inadequately prepared for independent practice. One frequently mentioned factor is whether duty hours' restrictions (DHR) implemented in 2003 and 2004 contributed by reducing time spent in the operating room...
May 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391215/fast-variable-structure-stochastic-automaton-for-discovering-and-tracking-spatiotemporal-event-patterns
#9
Junqi Zhang, Yuheng Wang, Cheng Wang, MengChu Zhou
Discovering and tracking spatiotemporal event patterns have many applications. For example, in a smart-home project, a set of spatiotemporal pattern learning automata are used to monitor a user's repetitive activities, by which the home's automaticity can be promoted while some of his/her burdens can be reduced. Existing algorithms for spatiotemporal event pattern recognition in dynamic noisy environment are based on fixed structure stochastic automata whose state transition function is fixed and predesigned to guarantee their immunity to noise...
April 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389546/high-levels-of-the-xenorhabdus-nematophila-transcription-factor-lrp-promote-mutualism-with-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematode-hosts
#10
Mengyi Cao, Tilak Patel, Tara Rickman, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Elizabeth A Hussa
Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria are mutualistic symbionts of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and pathogens of insects. The X. nematophila global regulator Lrp controls expression of many genes involved in both mutualism and pathogenic activities, suggesting a role in the transition between the two host organisms. We previously reported that natural populations of X. nematophila exhibit variable levels of Lrp expression, and that cells expressing relatively low levels of Lrp are optimized for virulence in the insect Manduca sexta...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389368/silk-i-and-silk-ii-studied-by-fast-scanning-calorimetry
#11
Peggy Cebe, Benjamin P Partlow, David L Kaplan, Andreas Wurm, Evgeny Zhuravlev, Christoph Schick
Using fast scanning calorimetry (FSC), we investigated the glass transition and crystal melting of samples of B. mori silk fibroin containing Silk I and/or Silk II crystals. Due to the very short residence times at high temperatures during such measurements, thermal decomposition of silk protein can be significantly suppressed. FSC was performed at 2000 K/s using the Mettler Flash DSC1 on fibroin films with masses around 130-270 ng. Films were prepared with different crystalline fractions (ranging from 0.26 to 0...
April 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388533/brca1-haploinsufficiency-cell-autonomously-activates-rankl-expression-and-generates-denosumab-responsive-breast-cancer-initiating-cells
#12
Elisabet Cuyàs, Bruna Corominas-Faja, María Muñoz-San Martín, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Ruth Lupu, Joan Brunet, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Javier A Menendez
Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), might be a novel preventative therapy for BRCA1-mutation carriers at high risk of developing breast cancer. Beyond its well-recognized bone-targeted activity impeding osteoclastogenesis, denosumab has been proposed to interfere with the cross-talk between RANKL-producing sensor cells and cancer-initiating RANK+ responder cells that reside within premalignant tissues of BRCA1-mutation carriers. We herein tested the alternative but not mutually exclusive hypothesis that BRCA1 deficiency might cell-autonomously activate RANKL expression to generate cellular states with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties...
March 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380714/accessing-faith-based-organizations-using-public-transportation
#13
Terri Lewinson, Olivia Maley, Ann-Margaret Esnard
Nondriving aging adults are at risk of experiencing mobility barriers that inhibit access to important community resources for managing health and wellbeing. This multimethod study explores bus transportation experiences of older adults who live in extended stay hotels and use faith-based organizations to access resources. Interviews from 17 nondriving older adults were analyzed for perspectives about using faith-based organizations and residents' experiences navigating to faith-based organizations through available bus transportation in their communities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380712/differences-in-living-arrangements-among-older-adults-transitioning-into-the-community
#14
Chanee D Fabius, Julie Robison
The federal Money Follows the Person Rebalancing Demonstration program allows nursing home residents to use Medicaid funds for home and community-based services rather than institutional care. Race, choice in housing, and challenges faced prior to transitioning may impact living arrangements following a discharge into the community. This study examines the influence of these factors on living arrangements for 659 program participants age 65 or older. Unmarried Blacks and people with financial or legal challenges are less likely to live with a live-in caregiver or in supervised housing compared with unmarried Whites...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378517/the-creation-and-dissemination-of-downloadable-information-on-dementia-and-driving-from-a-social-health-perspective
#15
Yumiko Arai, Asuna Arai, Yoko Mizuno, Naoto Kamimura, Manabu Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Driving cessation is a likely consequence of progressive dementia. Patients and families can benefit from support through this transition, both to safeguard the patient and public and to help preserve healthy social activity of the patient. METHODS: To provide appropriate supportive information, we developed a 35-page manual ('Supporting family caregivers of older drivers with dementia') available as a free download from our department website. We then informed municipal governments of its availability, tracked website access metrics, and followed up 7 months later with a postal survey to the heads of each municipal government's department of welfare for older citizens...
April 4, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375852/postoperative-complications-and-outcomes-associated-with-a-transition-to-24-7-intensivist-management-of-cardiac-surgery-patients
#16
Marc A Benoit, Sean M Bagshaw, Colleen M Norris, Mohamad Zibdawi, Wu Dat Chin, David B Ross, Sean van Diepen
OBJECTIVES: Nighttime intensivist staffing does not improve patient outcomes in general ICUs. Few studies have examined the association between dedicated in-house 24/7 intensivist coverage on outcomes in specialized cardiac surgical ICUs. We sought to evaluate the association between 24/7 in-house intensivist-only management of cardiac surgical patients on postoperative complications and health resource utilization. DESIGN: Before-and-after propensity matched cohort study...
April 3, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374017/nonstationary-stochastic-dynamics-underlie-spontaneous-transitions-between-active-and-inactive-behavioral-states
#17
Alexandre Melanson, Jorge F Mejias, James J Jun, Leonard Maler, André Longtin
The neural basis of spontaneous movement generation is a fascinating open question. Long-term monitoring of fish, swimming freely in a constant sensory environment, has revealed a sequence of behavioral states that alternate randomly and spontaneously between periods of activity and inactivity. We show that key dynamical features of this sequence are captured by a 1-D diffusion process evolving in a nonlinear double well energy landscape, in which a slow variable modulates the relative depth of the wells. This combination of stochasticity, nonlinearity, and nonstationary forcing correctly captures the vastly different timescales of fluctuations observed in the data (∼1 to ∼1000 s), and yields long-tailed residence time distributions (RTDs) also consistent with the data...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367396/comparing-anesthesiology-residency-training-structure-and-requirements-in-seven-different-countries-on-three-continents
#18
Satoshi Yamamoto, Pedro Tanaka, Matias V Madsen, Alex Macario
Little has been published comparing the graduate medical education training structure and requirements across multiple countries. The goal of this study was to summarize and compare the characteristics of anesthesiology training programs in the USA, UK, Canada, Japan, Brazil, Denmark, and Switzerland as a way to better understand efforts to train anesthesiologists in different countries. Two physicians trained in each of the seven countries (convenience sample) were interviewed using a semi-structured approach...
February 26, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365845/assessing-the-effects-of-rural-livelihood-transition-on-non-point-source-pollution-a-coupled-abm-iecm-model
#19
Chengcheng Yuan, Liming Liu, Jinwei Ye, Guoping Ren, Dong Zhuo, Xiaoxing Qi
Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution...
April 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362418/utilizing-phluorin-tagged-receptors-to-monitor-subcellular-localization-and-trafficking
#20
Ashley M Fox-Loe, Brandon J Henderson, Christopher I Richards
Understanding membrane protein trafficking, assembly, and expression requires an approach that differentiates between those residing in intracellular organelles and those localized on the plasma membrane. Traditional fluorescence-based measurements lack the capability to distinguish membrane proteins residing in different organelles. Cutting edge methodologies transcend traditional methods by coupling pH-sensitive fluorophores with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). TIRF illumination excites the sample up to approximately 150 nm from the glass-sample interface, thus decreasing background, increasing the signal to noise ratio, and enhancing resolution...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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