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Transition to residency

Zhengrong Yang, Qingxian Zhou, Leo Mok, Anukriti Singh, Douglas J Swartz, Ina L Urbatsch, Christie G Brouillette
Structural changes in mouse P-glycoprotein (Pgp) induced by thermal unfolding were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy to gain insight into the solution conformation(s) of this ABC transporter that may not be apparent from current crystal structures. DSC of reconstituted Pgp showed two thermal unfolding transitions in the absence of MgATP, suggesting that each transition involved the cooperative unfolding of two or more interacting structural domains...
October 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nelly Bonifaci, Zhiling Li, Jussi Eloranta, Steven L Fiedler
The interaction potentials of the He(*)(2) excimer, in the a (3)Σu, b (3)Πg, c (3)Σg , and d (3)Σu electronic states with a ground state helium atom are presented. The symmetry of the interaction potentials closely follows the excimer Rydberg electron density with pronounced short-range minima appearing along the nodal planes of the Rydberg orbital. In such cases, a combination of the electrostatic short-range attraction combined with Pauli repulsion leads to the appearance of unusual long-range maxima in the potentials...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
James E Coverdill, Adnan Alseidi, David C Borgstrom, Daniel L Dent, Russell D Dumire, Jonathan Fryer, Thomas H Hartranft, Steven B Holsten, M Timothy Nelson, Mohsen Shabahang, Stanley Sherman, Paula M Termuhlen, Randy J Woods, John D Mellinger
PURPOSE: Duty hours rules sparked debates about professionalism. This study explores whether and why general surgery residents delay departures at the end of a day shift in ways consistent with shift work, traditional professionalism, or a new professionalism. METHOD: Questionnaires were administered to categorical residents in 13 general surgery programs in 2014 and 2015. The response rate was 76% (N = 291). The 18 items focused on end-of-shift behaviors and the frequency and source of delayed departures...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Melanie J Lewis, Rose Ellis, Sunil K Adusumilli, Ian Cameron
INTRODUCTION: The New South Wales Rural Resident Medical Officer Cadetship Program began in 1988 as a strategy to increase the numbers of junior doctors in rural hospitals. This article outlines the results of an evaluation undertaken in 2014. Specifically, it will look at where former cadets who entered the program between 1989 and 2010 were working in 2014, what training programs they chose and their attitudes toward the program. METHOD: Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire sent to all the former cadets who entered the program from 1989 until 2010...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sagar Satpathi, Mandar Kulkarni, Arnab Mukherjee, Partha Hazra
Among different polymorphs of DNA, G-quadruplex (GQ) formation in guanine rich sequences has received special attention due to its direct relevance to cellular aging and abnormal cell growths. To date, smaller ions like Na(+), K(+), Li(+), and NH4(+) are the best possible selective GQ stabilizing materials. Herein, we report that an ionic liquid (IL), i.e. guanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, can not only instigate the GQ formation in the absence of conventional GQ forming ions (like Na(+), K(+), NH4(+), etc...
October 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lydia W Li, Hongwei Xu, Zhenmei Zhang, Jinyu Liu
China accounts for a large number of suicides worldwide, and most occur in rural areas. Suicide research in China has primarily focused on individual-level risk factors, few have studied the influence of neighborhood contexts. This ecological study examines the association of suicide rates with social fragmentation and socioeconomic deprivation in Chinese rural villages. Data from the community survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were analyzed using negative binomial regression. A total of 307 rural villages were included...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
Annie L Nguyen, Tingjian Yan, Kathleen Ell, Jorge Gonzalez, Susan Enguidanos
OBJECTIVE: Latinos are disproportionately affected by diabetes and people with diabetes experience frequent hospital admissions and readmissions. Care transition interventions can help reduce rates of readmission; however, there are many barriers to recruiting Latinos for participation in intervention research. Exploring reasons for study refusal furthers understanding of low research participation rates to help researchers address barriers. DESIGN: This study presents a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of reasons for study refusal and attrition drawing from data collected as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted to test the effectiveness of a transitions intervention for diabetic Latino discharged from the hospital to home...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Kasper D Tidemand, Hans E M Christensen, Niclas Hoeck, Pernille Harris, Jane Boesen, Günther H Peters
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) catalyses the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Full-length TPH2 is poorly characterized due to low purification quantities caused by its inherent instability. Three truncated variants of human TPH2 (rch TPH2; regulatory and catalytic domain, NΔ47-rch TPH2; truncation of 47 residues in the N terminus of rch TPH2, and ch TPH2; catalytic domain) were expressed, purified, and examined for changes in transition temperature, inactivation rate, and oligomeric state...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Sebastien F Barre, David Haberthür, Tiziana P Cremona, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny
The pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas-exchanging airways. The small tree of gas-exchanging airways which is fed by the most distal conducting airway represents an acinus. Very little is known about the development of the number of acini. The goal of this study was to estimate their number throughout rat postnatal development. Right middle rat lung lobes were obtained at postnatal day 4-60, stained with heavy metals, paraffin embedded, and scanned by synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy or imaged using micro computed tomography after critical point drying...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Laura Huicochea-Gómez, Lynnette Leidy Sievert, Daniel E Brown, Diana Cahuich-Campos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand the experience of calores (hot flashes) in the state of Campeche, Mexico, and characteristics of women's lives. This study was carried out to understand the sociocultural context of women's lives before conducting a larger semistructured survey in the same communities. METHODS: Eighty-five women from rural and urban settings participated in open-ended interviews about the menopausal transition, with particular attention to hot flashes...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Elizabeth M Todd, Julie Y Zhou, Taylor P Szasz, Lauren E Deady, June A D'Angelo, Matthew D Cheung, Alfred H J Kim, Sharon Celeste Morley
Alveolar macrophages are lung-resident sentinel cells that develop perinatally and protect against pulmonary infection. Molecular mechanisms controlling alveolar macrophage generation have not been fully defined. Here we show that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) is required for the perinatal development of alveolar macrophages. Mice expressing a conditional allele of LPL (CD11c.Cre(pos)-LPL(fl/fl)) exhibited significant reductions in alveolar macrophages and failed to effectively clear pulmonary pneumococcal infection, showing that immunodeficiency results from reduced alveolar macrophage numbers...
October 6, 2016: Blood
Juliessa M Pavon, Sandro O Pinheiro, Gwendolen T Buhr
OBJECTIVE: We developed a Transitions of Care (TOC) curriculum to teach and measure learner competence in performing TOC tasks for older adults. DESIGN: Internal medicine interns at an academic residency program received the curriculum, which consisted of experiential learning, self-study, and small group discussion. Interns completed retrospective pre/post surveys rating their confidence in performing five TOC tasks, qualitative open-ended survey questions, and a self-reflection essay...
October 18, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Abdelaziz Boulesbaa, Kai Wang, Masoud Mahjouri-Samani, Mengkun Tian, Alexander A Puretzky, Ilia Ivanov, Christopher M Rouleau, Kai Xiao, Bobby G Sumpter, David B Geohegan
Photoinduced interfacial charge transfer is at the heart of many applications, including photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and photodetection. With the emergence of a new class of semiconductors such as monolayer two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs), charge transfer at the 2D/2D heterojunctions attracted several efforts due to the remarkable optical and electrical properties of 2D-TMDs. Unfortunately, in 2D/2D heterojunctions, for a given combination of two materials, the relative energy band alignment and the charge transfer efficiency are locked...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Natalie Wagner, Christine Fahim, Krista Dunn, Diane Reid, Ranil Sonnadara
BACKGROUND: Residency training programs worldwide are experiencing a shift from the traditional time-based curriculum to competency based medical education (CBME), due to changes in the healthcare system that have impacted clinical learning opportunities. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) programs are one of the first North American surgical specialties to adopt the new CBME curriculum. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the literature pertaining to CBME in OTL-HNS programs worldwide, to identify the tools that have been developed, and identify potential barriers to the implementation of CBME...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
E Chapman, A Eastman, A Gilmore-Bykovskyi, B Vogelman, A J Kind
Older adults often face poor outcomes when transitioning from hospital to home. Although physicians play a key role in overseeing transitions, there is a lack of practice-based educational programs that prepare resident physicians to manage care transitions of older adults. An educational intervention to provide residents with real-life transitional care practice was therefore developed-Resident-coordinated Transitional Care (RC-TraC). RC-TraC adapted the evidence-based Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) nurse role for residents, providing opportunities to follow patients during the peri-hospital period without additional costs to the residency program...
October 17, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Eleni Demetriou, Roee Holtzer
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairments (MCI) is a transitional state in aging associated with increased risk of incident dementia. The current study investigated whether MCI status moderated the effect of time on word generation during verbal fluency tasks. Specifically, the objective was to determine whether MCI status had differential effects on initial automatic or latter more effortful retrieval processes of fluency tasks. METHODS: Participants were community residing older adults enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Courtney K Wilson, June I Matthews, Jamie A Seabrook, Paula D N Dworatzek
University students experience a life transition that often results in poor dietary behaviors and weight gain. Adequate food skills may improve diet quality and prevent chronic disease. Research is limited, however, on students' food skills and food-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether self-perceived food skills and related behaviors of students at a large, Canadian university differed based on sex, having taken a Food and Nutrition (FN) course, and living conditions, using a cross-sectional online survey...
October 11, 2016: Appetite
John V Thomas, Rupan Sanyal, Janis P O'Malley, Satinder P Singh, Desiree E Morgan, Cheri L Canon
The academic educator's portfolio is a collection of materials that document academic performance and achievements, supplementing the curriculum vitae, in order to showcase a faculty member's most significant accomplishments. A decade ago, a survey of medical schools revealed frustration in the nonuniform methods of measuring faculty's medical education productivity. A proposed solution was the use of an academic educator's portfolio. In the academic medical community, compiling an academic portfolio is always a challenge because teaching has never been confined to the traditional classroom setting and often involves active participation of the medical student, resident, or fellow in the ongoing care of the patient...
October 11, 2016: Academic Radiology
Doreen C Harper, Teena M McGuinness, Jean Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree positions nurse practitioners (NPs) and other advanced practice registered nurses, with clinical competencies similar to other disciplines requiring doctoral education (medicine, physical therapy, psychology, and pharmacy). In addition, all these disciplines also offer residencies. However, nursing is the only discipline that does not require a doctoral degree and/or have a systematic approach to residency training for advanced practice roles...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Outlook
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