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head impact

Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Eric J T Smith, Michael Scheipe, Rodrigo F Alban, Nicolas Melo, Daniel R Margulies, Eric J Ley
Elderly trauma patients may be at increased risk for underassessment and inadequate pain control in the emergency department (ED). We sought to characterize risk factors for oligoanalgesia in the ED in elderly trauma patients and determine whether it impacts outcomes in elderly trauma patients. We included elderly patients (age ≥55 years) with Glasgow Coma Scale scores 13 to 15 and Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥9 admitted through the ED at a Level I trauma center. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared between those who reported pain and received analgesics medication in the ED (MED) and those who did not (NO MED)...
October 2016: American Surgeon
B Büttner, A Mansur, M Bauer, J Hinz, I Bergmann
Unilateral spinal anesthesia is a cost-effective and rapidly performed anesthetic technique. An exclusively unilateral block only affects the sensory, motor and sympathetic functions on one side of the body and offers the advantages of a spinal block without the typical adverse side effects seen with a bilateral block. The lack of hypotension, in particular, makes unilateral spinal anesthesia suitable for patients with cardiovascular risk factors e. g. aortic valve stenosis or coronary artery disease. Increasing numbers of surgical procedures are now being performed on an outpatient basis...
October 24, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Shane Virani, Colin Russell, Megan L Bruschetta, Kevin Ngoc Hua, Brigitte M Potvin, David Cox, Stephen N Robinovitch
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder-to-head contact is the most common cause of concussions in ice hockey, accounting for 42% of cases in the National Hockey League (NHL). The goal of this project was to determine how shoulder pad stiffness, modified by adding foam padding over the shoulder cap of existing shoulder pads, affected head impact severity when participants delivered checks to an instrumented dummy. METHODS: Fifteen participants administered "the hardest shoulder checks they were comfortable delivering" to the head of a dummy equipped with tri-axial accelerometers and gyros mounted in its helmet...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Naeim Bahrami, Dev Sharma, Scott Rosenthal, Elizabeth M Davenport, Jillian E Urban, Benjamin Wagner, Youngkyoo Jung, Christopher G Vaughan, Gerard A Gioia, Joel D Stitzel, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian
Purpose To examine the effects of subconcussive impacts resulting from a single season of youth (age range, 8-13 years) football on changes in specific white matter (WM) tracts as detected with diffusion-tensor imaging in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussions. Materials and Methods Head impact data were recorded by using the Head Impact Telemetry system and quantified as the combined-probability risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP). Twenty-five male participants were evaluated for seasonal fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in specific WM tracts: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Giancarlo Tirelli, Marco Piovesana, Annalisa Gatto, Lucio Torelli, Roberto Di Lenarda, Francesca Boscolo Nata
PURPOSE: Despite advances in the surgical management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the identification of synchronous lesions, precancerous lesions around the main tumor, or the unknown primary in the case of neck metastasis remains a problem, as these lesions may be invisible to the naked eye or with standard white light (WL) endoscopy. However, the advent of tools such as narrow-band imaging (NBI) could help the clinician. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of NBI during the pre-operative and intra-operative stages of management of oral and oropharyngeal cancers...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Christopher T Boughter, Viviana Monje-Galvan, Wonpil Im, Jeffery B Klauda
In this study, the influence of cholesterol on lipid bilayers is investigated by changing phospholipid head group, cholesterol concentration, chain saturation, and temperature. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to characterize bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) head groups with either fully saturated dimyristoyl (DM) or monounsaturated dioleoyl (DO) acyl chains and cholesterol concentrations ranging from 5-50%. To further explore the effects of cholesterol on bilayers with different head groups, we also preformed MD simulations of bilayer systems having 15% cholesterol with phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylserine (PS), each having DM chains and at a temperature above the solid gel phase transition...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Zhihui Yang, Fan Lin, Amanda S Weissman, Emily Jaalouk, Qing-Shan Xue, Kevin K W Wang
Despite the concussion/ mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) being the most frequent occurrence of traumatic brain injury, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury and its effects. To develop a better understanding of concussions, animals are often used because they provide a controlled, rigorous, and efficient model. Studies have adapted traditional animal models to perform mTBI to stimulate mild injury severity by changing the injury parameters. These models have been used because they can produce morphologically similar brain injuries to the clinical condition and provide a spectrum of injury severities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nir Hirshoren, Olivia Ruskin, Tsien Fua, Stephen Kleid, Matthew Magarey, Benjamin Dixon
BACKGROUND: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is now a well-validated technique for resection of head and neck cancers. Benefits include reduced patient morbidity, swallowing preservation and rationalization of adjuvant therapies. METHODS: This was a single-centre, retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent TORS of oro-, retro- and parapharyngeal tumours between March 2014 and August 2015. Outcome measures included resection margins, swallowing function and impact on post-operative radiotherapy...
October 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Kanchan P Dholam, Jinesh A Dugad, Karthik M Sadashiva
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The treatment of oral cancers affects oral functions and quality of life (QOL). Dental rehabilitation is a major step toward enhancing quality of life after controlling the disease. The effects of the disease, treatment, and rehabilitation need to be evaluated to assess oral health-related QOL. The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 (LORQv3) and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) are specific assessment questionnaires of oral rehabilitation...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Olga Calcagnile, Anders Anell, Johan Undén
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with substantial costs due to over-triage of patients to computed tomography (CT) scanning, despite validated decision rules. Serum biomarker S100B has shown promise for safely omitting CT scans but the economic impact from clinical use has never been reported. In 2007, S100B was adapted into the existing Scandinavian management guidelines in Halmstad, Sweden, in an attempt to reduce CT scans and save costs. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients with mild TBI (GCS 14-15, loss of consciousness and/or amnesia), managed with the aid of S100B, were prospectively included in this study...
October 20, 2016: BMC Neurology
Walter Young, Shelley Karp, Peter Bialick, Cindy Liverance, Ashley Seder, Erica Berg, Liberty Karp
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. METHODS: Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace Beth Stuzmann, Sarah Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared to single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both single and multiple concussions in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nora K Horick, Adoma Manful, Jan Lowery, Susan Domchek, Patricia Moorman, Constance Griffin, Kala Visvanathan, Claudine Isaacs, Anita Y Kinney, Dianne M Finkelstein
PURPOSE: Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. METHODS: Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Stephanie M Wolahan, Mayumi L Prins, David L McArthur, Courtney R Real, David A Hovda, Neil A Martin, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the impact of targeting tight glycemic control (4.4-6.1 mM) on endogenous ketogenesis in severely head-injured adults. METHODS: The data were prospectively collected during a randomized, within-patient crossover study comparing tight to loose glycemic control, defined as 6.7-8.3 mM. Blood was collected periodically during both tight and loose glycemic control epochs. Post hoc analysis of insulin dose and total nutritional provision was performed...
October 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Alan G McElligott
Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min)...
2016: PeerJ
Curtis A Fedorchuk, Matthew McCoy, Douglas F Lightstone, David A Bak, Jacque Moser, Brett Kubricht, John Packer, Dustin Walton, Jose Binongo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. METHODS: 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. RESULTS: Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Sanna L Lahtinen, Janne H Liisanantti, Meri M Poukkanen, Päivi A Laurila
BACKGROUND: Goal-directed fluid management using stroke volume variation (SVV) analysis is not well studied in free flap reconstruction surgery in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Patients operated due to cancer of the head and neck with free flap reconstruction during 2008-2010 and 2012-2014 in Oulu University Hospital were retrospectively evaluated to determine the impact of SVV-guided fluid management on perioperative fluid balance, postoperative complications and hospital length of stay (LOS)...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Manasi Hulyalkar, Stephen J Gleich, Rahul Kashyap, Amelia Barwise, Harsheen Kaur, Yue Dong, Lei Fan, Srinivas Murthy, Grace M Arteaga, Sandeep Tripathi
Increasing process complexity in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can lead to information overload resulting in missing pertinent information and potential errors during morning rounds. An efficient model using a novel electronic rounding tool was designed as part of a broader critical care decision support system-checklist for early recognition and treatment of acute illness and injury in pediatrics (CERTAINp). We aimed to evaluate its impact on improving the process of care during rounding. Prospective pre- and post-interventional data included: team performance baseline assessment, patient safety discussion, guideline adherence, rounding time, and a survey of Residents' and Nurses' perception using a Likert scale...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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