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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046052/protective-effect-of-different-antioxidant-agents-in-uvb-irradiated-keratinocytes
#1
Sara Salucci, Sabrina Burattini, Francesca Buontempo, Alberto Maria Martelli, Elisabetta Falcieri, Michela Battistelli
Skin cells can respond to UVB-induced damage either by tolerating it, or restoring it through antioxidant activation and DNA repair mechanisms or, ultimately, undergoing programmed cell death, when damage is massive. Nutritional factors, in particular, food antioxidants, have attracted much interest because of their potential use in new preventive, protective, and therapeutic strategies for chronic degenerative diseases, including skin inflammation and cancer. Some polyphenols, present in virgin olive oil, well tolerated by organism after oral administration, show a variety of pharmacological and clinical benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective activities...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045420/inhibition-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-alters-the-wound-epidermis-and-enhances-auricular-cartilage-regeneration
#2
Qian-Shi Zhang, Deepa S Kurpad, My G Mahoney, Marla J Steinbeck, Theresa A Freeman
Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO) or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1), also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045012/photodynamic-therapy-inhibits-melanogenesis-through-paracrine-effects-by-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#3
Sue Kyung Kim, Seung-Jae Oh, Se-Yeon Park, Woo-Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, You Chan Kim
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment option for skin cancer and premalignant skin diseases and exhibits rejuvenation effects, including reducing fine wrinkles and whitening, on aged skin. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the whitening effects of PDT on melanocytes in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of melanocytes to PDT in vitro reduced their melanin content and tyrosinase activity without, however, affecting cell survival. Interestingly, melanogenesis was also inhibited by exposing melanocytes to conditioned media of PDT-treated keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044987/sticky-fingers-at-work-palmitoylation-dependent-mc1r-activation
#4
Jose Carlos Garcia-Borron, Celia Jimenez-Cervantes
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) positively coupled to the cAMP pathway. MC1R is expressed in melanocytes, where it is critically involved in the cutaneous responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The current paradigm posits that UVR-induced DNA damage in skin keratinocytes activates expression of the POMC gene encoding for the precursor of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). The resulting paracrine release of αMSH activates MC1R in melanocytes and switches the production of melanin pigments from basal pheomelanogenesis to synthesis of eumelanins...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044700/epidermal-nevus-syndromes-new-insights-into-whorls-and-swirls
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Asch, Jeffrey L Sugarman
Knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of many epidermal nevi and epidermal nevus syndrome has expanded rapidly in recent years. In this review and update on epidermal nevus syndrome, we will cover recent genetic discoveries involving epidermal nevi, including nevus sebaceus, keratinocytic epidermal nevus, nevus comedonicus, congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentokeratotica, Becker's nevus, porokeratotic adnexal ostial nevus, inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevi, and cutaneous-skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043977/a-protein-phosphatase-network-controls-the-temporal-and-spatial-dynamics-of-differentiation-commitment-in-human-epidermis
#6
Ajay Mishra, Benedicte Oules, Angela Oliveira Pisco, Tony Ly, Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Gernot Walko, Priyalakshmi Viswanathan, Matthieu Tihy, Jagdeesh Nijjher, Sara-Jane Dunn, Angus I Lamond, Fiona M Watt
Epidermal homeostasis depends on a balance between stem cell renewal and terminal differentiation. The transition between the two cell states, termed commitment, is poorly understood. Here we characterise commitment by integrating transcriptomic and proteomic data from disaggregated primary human keratinocytes held in suspension to induce differentiation. Cell detachment induces several protein phosphatases, five of which - DUSP6, PPTC7, PTPN1, PTPN13 and PPP3CA - promote differentiation by negatively regulating ERK MAPK and positively regulating AP1 transcription factors...
October 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043097/histological-study-on-the-effect-of-nicotine-on-adult-male-guinea-pig-thin-skin
#7
Sohair A Eltony, Safaa S Ali
Tobacco smoking has been identified as an important factor in premature skin aging to detect the histological changes occurred in adult male guinea pig thin skin under the influence of low and high doses of nicotine; which constitutes approximately 0.6%-3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Fifteen adult male pigmented guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: group I, control; group IIA, low dose nicotine treated; 3 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks; and group IIB, high dose nicotine treated; 6 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042175/calcitriol-promotes-proangiogenic-molecules-in-keratinocytes-in-a-diabetic-foot-ulcer-model
#8
Valentin Trujillo, Paulina Marín-Luevano, Irma González-Curiel, Adrián Rodríguez-Carlos, Maira Ramírez-Reyes, Esther Layseca-Espinosa, José A Enciso-Moreno, Lorenza Díaz, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Foot ulceration is one of the most common and complex sequelae of diabetes mellitus, generally posing a therapeutic challenge due to poor healing responses and high rates of complications, including peripheral vascular disease, ischemia and infections. Calcitriol, the most active vitamin D metabolite, induces antimicrobial peptides production in keratinocytes from diabetic foot ulcers (DFU); however, little is known about its effects on angiogenic factors in this pathology. Herein we aimed at studying whether calcitriol induces angiogenic molecules in keratinocytes under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and if these molecules are able to improve cell migration in vitro...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042026/identification-signaling-and-functions-of-ltb4-receptors
#9
REVIEW
Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a lipid mediator produced from arachidonic acid, is a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes. We identified two receptors for LTB4, the high-affinity receptor BLT1 and the low-affinity receptor BLT2. BLT1 is expressed in various subsets of leukocytes, and analyses of BLT1-deficient mice revealed that the LTB4/BLT1 axis enhances leukocyte recruitment to infected sites, and is involved in the elimination of pathogens. Hyperactivation of the LTB4/BLT1 axis induces acute and chronic inflammation, resulting in various inflammatory diseases...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040328/integrin-beta-1-inhibition-alleviates-the-chronic-hyperproliferative-dermatitis-phenotype-of-sharpin-deficient-mice
#10
Emilia Peuhu, Siiri I Salomaa, Nicola De Franceschi, Christopher S Potter, John P Sundberg, Jeroen Pouwels
SHARPIN (Shank-Associated RH Domain-Interacting Protein) is a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which enhances TNF-induced NF-κB activity. SHARPIN-deficient (Sharpincpdm/cpdm) mice display multi-organ inflammation and chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) due to TNF-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. In cells, SHARPIN also inhibits integrins independently of LUBAC, but it has remained enigmatic whether elevated integrin activity levels in the dermis of Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice is due to increased integrin activity or is secondary to inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039484/mir%C3%A2-203-contributes-to-il%C3%A2-17%C3%A2-induced-vegf-secretion-by-targeting-socs3-in-keratinocytes
#11
Yuanyuan Xu, Yongzhi Ji, Xiaoou Lan, Xinghua Gao, Hong-Duo Chen, Long Geng
Interleukin (IL)-17 signaling serves an important role in the development and pathogenesis of psoriasis; a chronic skin disease characterized by increased dermal vascularity and the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. microRNA (miR)‑203 is preferentially expressed in the skin and is an important regulator of keratinocyte differentiation. miR‑203 has been implicated in a number of skin diseases, including psoriasis. However, the role of miR‑203 in IL‑17‑induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion has yet to be elucidated...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039482/protective-effects-of-compounds-from-garcinia-mangostana-l-mangosteen-against-uvb-damage-in-hacat-cells-and-hairless-mice
#12
A-Rang Im, Young-Mi Kim, Young-Won Chin, Sungwook Chae
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes alterations in the skin, such as epidermal thickening, wrinkle formation and inflammation. Therefore, preventing UVB-induced skin damage can promote general health among the human population. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) is a fruit that has become a popular botanical dietary supplement because of its perceived role in promoting overall health. The present study investigated the photoprotective effects of α-, β-, γ-mangostins and gartanin against UVB radiation using the HaCaT immortalized human keratinocyte cell line as an in vitro model and hairless mice as an in vivo model...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039452/molecular-analysis-of-keratocystic-odontogenic-tumor-cell-lines-derived-from-sporadic-and-basal-cell-nevus-syndrome-patients
#13
Kazuma Noguchi, Keiko Wakai, Tohru Kiyono, Mutsuki Kawabe, Kyohei Yoshikawa, Tomoko Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Hiromitsu Kishimoto, Yoshiro Nakano
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a benign tumor often associated with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Mutations in Patched 1 (PTCH1), the Hedgehog (Hh) receptor, are responsible for BCNS. BCNS is distinguished by morphological anomalies and predisposition to benign and malignant tumors, including medulloblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, KCOT and ovarian fibromas. Among these tumors, KCOT is the least well studied because a suitable model system is not available for its investigation. To enable KCOT to be studied, we established two KCOT cell lines, one from a BCNS case (designated as iKCOT1) and one from a sporadic KCOT case (designated as sKCOT1)...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039047/the-expression-pattern-of-keratin-24-in-tissue-engineered-dermo-epidermal-human-skin-substitutes-in-an-in-vivo-model
#14
Agnes S Klar, Katarzyna Michalak, Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth, Ernst Reichmann, Martin Meuli, Thomas Biedermann
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The use of autologous tissue-engineered skin substitutes is a promising approach to cover large skin defects in patients. Preclinical investigation is pivotal to test and improve the quality of these bio-engineered substitutes. In the skin, the epidermis, formed mainly by keratinocytes, provides the first physical barrier protecting from the environment. Proper keratinocyte differentiation and, thus, formation of a stratified epidermis is essential for this function...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038621/tweak-fn14-activation-participates-in-skin-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Qilu Liu, Shengxiang Xiao, Yumin Xia
Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in multiple biological activities via binding to its sole receptor-fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14). The TWEAK/Fn14 signaling pathway is activated in skin inflammation and modulates the inflammatory responses of keratinocytes by activating nuclear factor-κB signals and enhancing the production of several cytokines, including interleukins, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037911/assessing-daylight-low-light-photodynamic-therapy-efficacy-using-biomarkers-of-photophysical-biochemical-and-biological-damage-metrics-in-situ
#16
Ana Luiza Ribeiro de Souza, Ethan LaRochelle, Kayla Marra, Jason Gunn, Scott C Davis, Kimberley S Samkoe, M Shane Chapman, Edward V Maytin, Tayyaba Hasan, Brian W Pogue
BACKGROUND: Sunlight can activate photodynamic therapy (PDT), and this is a proven strategy to reduce pain caused by the conventional PDT treatment, but assessment of this and other alternative low dose rate light sources, and their efficacy, has not been studied in an objective, controlled pre-clinical setting. This study used three objective assays to assess the efficacy of different PDT treatment regimens, using PpIX fluorescence as a photophysical measure, STAT3 cross-linking as a photochemical measure, and keratinocyte damage as a photobiological measure...
October 13, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037765/mechanisms-causing-loss-of-keratinocyte-cohesion-in-pemphigus
#17
REVIEW
Volker Spindler, Rüdiger Eming, Enno Schmidt, Masayuki Amagai, Sergei Grando, Marcel F Jonkman, Andrew P Kowalczyk, Eliane J Müller, Aimee S Payne, Carlo Pincelli, Animesh A Sinha, Eli Sprecher, Detlef Zillikens, Michael Hertl, Jens Waschke
The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus is caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins, but the precise mechanisms are in part a matter of controversial discussions. This review focuses on the currently existing models of the disease and highlights the relevance of desmoglein-specific versus nondesmoglein autoantibodies, the contribution of nonautoantibody factors, and the mechanisms leading to cell dissociation and blister formation in response to autoantibody binding. As the review brings together the majority of laboratories currently working on pemphigus pathogenesis, it aims to serve as a solid basis for further investigations for the entire field...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037354/baseline-factors-affecting-closure-of-venous-leg-ulcers
#18
William A Marston, William J Ennis, John C Lantis, Robert S Kirsner, Robert D Galiano, Wolfgang Vanscheidt, Sabine A Eming, Marcin Malka, D Innes Cargill, Jaime E Dickerson, Herbert B Slade
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with closure of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) in a pooled analysis of subjects from three randomized clinical trials. METHODS: Closure of VLUs after treatment with HP802-247, an allogeneic living cell therapy consisting of growth-arrested human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, vs standard therapy with compression bandaging was evaluated in three phase 3 clinical trials of similar design. Two trials enrolled subjects with VLUs ranging from 2 cm(2) to 12 cm(2) in area with 12-week treatment periods; the third trial enrolled subjects with VLUs between >12 cm(2) and ≤36 cm(2) with a 16-week treatment period...
November 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036257/improvement-of-actinic-keratoses-using-topical-dna-repair-enzymes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Marie Stoddard, Jennifer Herrmann, Lauren Moy, Ronald Moy
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are proliferations of abnormal keratinocytes, which may progress into non-melanoma skin cancers. Although multiple treatment modalities exist for AKs, their incidence continues to rise, making new methods of both prevention and treatment necessary. DNA repair enzymes have been shown to reverse sun-damage, resulting in reduced rates of AKs and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in specific patient populations. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of a topical DNA repair enzyme lotion as a field therapy for AKs...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036251/an-adhesive-patch-based-skin-biopsy-device-for-molecular-diagnostics-and-skin-microbiome-studies
#20
Zuxu Yao, Ronald Moy, Talisha Allen, Burkhard Jansen
INTRODUCTION: A number of diagnoses in clinical dermatology are currently histopathologically confirmed and this image recognition-based confirmation generally requires surgical biopsies. The increasing ability of molecular pathology to corroborate or correct a clinical diagnosis based on objective gene expression, mutation analysis, or molecular microbiome data is on the horizon and would be further supported by a tool or procedure to collect samples non-invasively. This study characterizes such a tool in form of a 'bladeless' adhesive patch-based skin biopsy device...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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