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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432904/optimising-multi-frame-adf-stem-for-high-precision-atomic-resolution-strain-mapping
#1
Lewys Jones, Sigurd Wenner, Magnus Nord, Per Harald Ninive, Ole Martin Løvvik, Randi Holmestad, Peter D Nellist
Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool to study crystal defects at the atomic scale but historically single slow-scanned frames have been plagued by low-frequency scanning-distortions prohibiting accurate strain mapping at atomic resolution. Recently, multi-frame acquisition approaches combined with post-processing have demonstrated significant improvements in strain precision, but the optimum number of frames to record has not been explored. Here we use a non-rigid image registration procedure before applying established strain mapping methods...
April 15, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432325/chemical-and-electrochemical-synthesis-of-platinum-black
#2
S E Stanca, F Hänschke, A Ihring, G Zieger, J Dellith, E Kessler, H-G Meyer
We present electrochemical and chemical synthesis of platinum black at room temperature in aqueous and non-aqueous media. X-ray analysis established the purity and crystalline nature. The electron micrographs indicate that the nanostructures consist of platinum crystals that interconnect to form porous assemblies. Additionally, the electron micrographs of the platinum black thin layer, which was electrochemically deposited on different metallic and semiconductive substrates (aluminium, platinum, silver, gold, tin-cooper alloy, indium-tin-oxide, stainless steel, and copper), indicate that the substrate influences its porous features but not its absorbance characteristics...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431451/-experience-with-the-hind-foot-relaxation-boot
#3
Hans Zwipp, Michael Borrmann, Eberhard Walter
The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430022/safety-by-design-of-printed-multilayer-materials-intended-for-food-packaging
#4
Celia Domeño, Margarita Aznar, Cristina Nerín, Francesca Isella, Mauro Fedeli, Osvaldo Bosetti
Printing inks are commonly used in multilayer plastics materials used for food packaging and compounds present in inks can migrate to the food either by diffusion through the multilayers or because of set-off phenomena. To avoid this problem the right design of the packaging is crucial. In this work, the safety by design of multilayer materials has been studied. First, the migration from 4 different multilayers manufactured using polyethylene terephthalate (PET), aluminium (Al) and polyethylene (PE) was determined...
April 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429887/effects-of-aluminium-on-long-term-memory-in-rats-and-on-sirt1-mediating-the-transcription-of-creb-dependent-gene-in-hippocampus
#5
Dongying Yan, Cuihong Jin, Yang Cao, Lulu Wang, Xiaobo Lu, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Yuan Cai
Epidemiological investigations have shown that aluminium (Al) is an important neurotoxicant which can be absorbed by organisms via various routes. Previous studies have confirmed that exposure to Al could cause neurodegenerative diseases, decline CREB phosphorylation and then down-regulate the transcription and protein expression of its target genes including BDNF. However, recent studies revealed that CREB activation alone was far from enough to activate the expression of long-term memory (LTM) related genes; there might be other regulatory factors involved in this process...
April 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429019/facile-syntheses-of-pure-uranium-halides-ucl4-ubr4-and-ui4
#6
Stefan S Rudel, Florian Kraus
Herein we describe convenient lab scale syntheses of several uranium(iv) halides of high purity by reaction of AlX3 (X = Cl, Br and I) with UO2, which is readily available by reduction of uranyl salts like UO2(NO3)2·6H2O. UCl4, UBr4, and UI4 are obtained in the form of aggregates of large single crystals. Their identities and purity were checked by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The syntheses introduced here avoid the need for pure metallic uranium and are based on more readily available starting materials, UO2, which does not even have to be pure, and the respective aluminium halide...
April 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427680/numerical-modelling-of-ultrasonic-waves-in-a-bubbly-newtonian-liquid-using-a-high-order-acoustic-cavitation-model
#7
G S Bruno Lebon, I Tzanakis, G Djambazov, K Pericleous, D G Eskin
To address difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal with ultrasound, a fundamental study of acoustic cavitation in liquid aluminium, expressed in an experimentally validated numerical model, is presented in this paper. To improve the understanding of the cavitation process, a non-linear acoustic model is validated against reference water pressure measurements from acoustic waves produced by an immersed horn. A high-order method is used to discretize the wave equation in both space and time. These discretized equations are coupled to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation using two different time scales to couple the bubble and flow scales, resulting in a stable, fast, and reasonably accurate method for the prediction of acoustic pressures in cavitating liquids...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427015/apparent-anisotropy-of-adhesive-bonds-with-weak-adhesion-and-non-destructive-evaluation-of-interfacial-properties
#8
Emmanuel Siryabe, Mathieu Rénier, Anissa Meziane, Jocelyne Galy, Michel Castaings
The present research attempts to non-destructively characterize mechanical properties, which are representative of the interfacial adhesion and bond line cohesion of adhesively bonded assemblies, using an ultrasonic method. Eight bonded samples made of two aluminium substrates and of an epoxy-based adhesive layer were manufactured: four in which the adhesive is fully cured (100%) and four in which crosslinking is partial (80%). For each level of curing, four different surface treatments were applied to the aluminium substrates before assembling, in order to vary the quality of adhesion...
April 9, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426038/evaluation-of-the-dgt-technique-for-selective-measurement-of-aluminium-and-trace-metal-concentrations-in-an-acid-drainage-impacted-coastal-waterway
#9
Amir Houshang Shiva, Peter R Teasdale, David T Welsh, William W Bennett
The performance of DGT-Chelex, DGT-Metsorb and DGT-MBL (Chelex-Metsorb mixed binding layer) with open and restricted diffusive layers for trace metal (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and oxyanion (As, Mo, Sb, V) measurements, was evaluated in four natural waters with different pH (range 3.29-7.81). In moderately acidic (pH ≈ 5) and circumneutral (pH ≈ 6.3) waters, all three binding layers measured relatively similar concentrations of Al, while in more alkaline waters (pH ≈ 8) DGT-MBL measured higher concentrations than the other two binding layers...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425460/modulation-doping-of-silicon-using-aluminium-induced-acceptor-states-in-silicon-dioxide
#10
Dirk König, Daniel Hiller, Sebastian Gutsch, Margit Zacharias, Sean Smith
All electronic, optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications of silicon depend on controlling majority charge carriers via doping with impurity atoms. Nanoscale silicon is omnipresent in fundamental research (quantum dots, nanowires) but also approached in future technology nodes of the microelectronics industry. In general, silicon nanovolumes, irrespective of their intended purpose, suffer from effects that impede conventional doping due to fundamental physical principles such as out-diffusion, statistics of small numbers, quantum- or dielectric confinement...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423583/the-protection-of-meloxicam-against-chronic-aluminium-overload-induced-liver-injury-in-rats
#11
Yang Yang, Qin He, Hong Wang, Xinyue Hu, Ying Luo, Guojuan Liang, Shengnan Kuang, Shaoshan Mai, Jie Ma, Xiaoyan Tian, Qi Chen, Junqing Yang
The present study was designed to observe the protective effect and mechanisms of meloxicam on liver injury caused by chronic aluminium exposure in rats. The histopathology was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The levels of prostaglandin E2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inflammatory cytokines were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of cyclooxygenases-2, prostaglandin E2 receptors and protein kinase A were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our experimental results showed that aluminium overload significantly damaged the liver...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422201/self-exothermic-reaction-prompted-synthesis-of-single-layered-graphene-quantum-dots-at-room-temperature
#12
Bin Bin Chen, Rong Sheng Li, Meng Li Liu, Hong Zhi Zhang, Cheng Zhi Huang
The easy fabrication of single-layered graphene quantum dots (s-GQDs) still faces challenge. Herein, we report an efficient route to fabricate s-GQDs within 5 min at room temperature by introducing a simple self-exothermic reaction. The as-prepared s-GQDs can specifically bind with aluminium ions to produce an aggregation-induced emission enhancement effect.
April 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420217/microfluidic-ebg-sensor-based-on-phase-shift-method-realized-using-3d-printing-technology
#13
Vasa Radonić, Slobodan Birgermajer, Goran Kitić
In this article, we propose a novel microfluidic microstrip electromagnetic band gap (EBG) sensor realized using cost-effective 3D printing technology. Microstrip sensor allows monitoring of the fluid properties flowing in the microchannel embedded between the microstrip line and ground plane. The sensor's operating principle is based on the phase-shift method, which allows the characterization at a single operating frequency of 6 GHz. The defected electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure is realized as a pattern in the microstrip ground plane to improve sensor sensitivity...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419456/time-lapse-lab-based-x-ray-nano-ct-study-of-corrosion-damage
#14
R S Bradley, Y Liu, T L Burnett, X Zhou, S B Lyon, P J Withers, A Gholinia, T Hashimoto, D Graham, S R Gibbon, B Hornberger
An experimental protocol (workflow) has been developed for time-lapse x-ray nanotomography (nano-CT) imaging of environmentally driven morphological changes to materials. Two case studies are presented. First, the leaching of nanoparticle corrosion inhibitor pigment from a polymer coating was followed over 14 days, while in the second case the corrosion damage to an AA2099 aluminium alloy was imaged over 12 hours. The protocol includes several novel aspects relevant to nano-CT with the use of a combination of x-ray absorption and phase contrast data to provide enhanced morphological and composition information, and hence reveal the best information to provide new insights into the changes of different phases over time...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415458/nanopatterned-polystyrene-b-poly-acrylic-acid-surfaces-to-modulate-cell-material-interaction
#15
Erlantz Lizundia, Míriam Sáenz-Pérez, David Patrocinio, Iskander Aurrekoetxea, Maria dM Vivanco, José Luis Vilas
In this work we explore the effect of surface nanoarchitecture of polystyrene (PS) and polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) diblock copolymer films on cell viability. PS and PS-b-PAA have been nanopatterned at temperatures of 110, 120 and 140°C using nanoporous aluminium oxide membranes (AAO) as a template. Surface architecture strongly depends on the infiltration temperature and the nature of the infiltrated polymer. High patterning temperatures yield hollow fibre shape architecture at the nanoscale level, which substantially modifies the surface hydrophobicity of the resulting materials...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413235/comparison-of-total-and-aqua-regia-extractability-of-heavy-metals-in-sewage-sludge-the-case-study-of-a-certified-reference-material
#16
REVIEW
Anna Santoro, Andrea Held, Thomas P J Linsinger, Andres Perez, Marina Ricci
A number of different digestion methods, including aqua regia extraction following two ISO guides were used in an inter-laboratory comparison study. The results obtained showed comparable values for the total and aqua regia extractable content of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn, while Cd, Co and Cr results were about 10% lower when aqua regia was employed. This small difference was covered by the between-laboratory relative standard deviation of the measurements; therefore in this study no difference in the extraction of the elements by the employed methods was found...
April 2017: Trends in Analytical Chemistry: TRAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409334/investigation-of-x-ray-focal-spot-alignment-using-a-jig-of-novel-design
#17
Lockie Yuen, Cameron McLucas
The X-ray focal spot and the centre of the flattening filter should be placed as close as possible to the central axis (CAX) on a linear accelerator (linac) to produce a radially symmetric beam. The aim of this study is to devise a method to easily optimise the focal spot position of Varian linac photon beams generated with a flattening filter. A simple and robust jig was designed and built to be inserted into the largest electron applicator. Accessory and jaw position interlocks were overridden to enable photon beam operation...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407582/influence-of-sample-matrix-on-the-bioavailability-of-arsenic-cadmium-and-lead-during-co-contaminant-exposure
#18
Cameron J Ollson, Euan Smith, Paul Herde, Albert L Juhasz
In this study, the influence of sample matrix on the relative bioavailability of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was assessed following exposure of C57BL/6 mice to spiked aged (12years) soils. AIN93G mouse chow was amended with individual and tertiary As, Cd and Pb soil combinations which were administered to mice over a 9day exposure period. Contaminant relative bioavailability was calculated by comparing As urinary excretion and Cd-kidney/Pb-liver accumulation to corresponding values for compounds used to derive the respective toxicity reference value...
April 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405779/multidirectional-inhibition-of-cortico-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-by-kolaviron-treatment-in-rats
#19
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu Asogwa, Blessing Oluwapelumi Moses, Christiana Bidemi Oyegbola
Earliest signs of neurodegenerative cascades in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, with pathological evidences in both cortical structures correlating with manifestation of behavioural and cognitive deficits. Despite the enormous problems associated with AD's clinical manifestations in sufferers, therapeutic advances for the disorder are still very limited. Therefore, this study examined cortico-hippocampal microstructures in models of AD, and evaluated the possible beneficial roles of kolaviron (Kv)-a biflavonoid complex in rats...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402316/effect-of-anaerobic-digestion-and-liming-on-plant-availability-of-phosphorus-in-iron-and-aluminium-precipitated-sewage-sludge-from-primary-wastewater-treatment-plants
#20
Emilio Alvarenga, Anne Falk Øgaard, Lasse Vråle
More efficient plant utilisation of the phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge is required because rock phosphate is a limited resource. To meet environmental legislation thresholds for P removal from wastewater (WW), primary treatment with iron (Fe) or aluminium (Al) coagulants is effective. There is also a growing trend for WW treatment plants (WWTPs) to be coupled to a biogas process, in order to co-generate energy. The sludge produced, when stabilised, is used as a soil amendment in many countries. This study examined the effects of anaerobic digestion (AD), with or without liming as a post-treatment, on P release from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludges originating from primary WWTPs...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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