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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646753/mechanical-properties-and-molecular-structure-analysis-of-subsurface-dentin-after-er-yag-laser-irradiation
#1
Zhengdi He, Lingling Chen, Xuejuan Hu, Yasushi Shimada, Masayuki Otsuki, Junji Tagami, Shuangchen Ruan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical and mechanical modifications in subsurface dentin layer after Er: YAG (Erbium-Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) laser irradiation, as the guidance of new dental restorative materials specific for laser irradiated dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin disks obtained from extracted human molars were prepared and exposed to a single pulse Er:YAG laser irradiation at 80mJ/pulse. After laser irradiation the mechanical and chemical characteristics of intertubular dentin in subsurface layer were studied using nanoindentation tester and micro-Raman spectromy (μ-RS)...
June 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645629/production-and-characterization-of-aluminium-oxide-nanoshells-on-spray-dried-lactose
#2
Joel Hellrup, Mårten Rooth, Anders Johansson, Denny Mahlin
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables deposition of dense nanometer thick metal oxide nanoshells on powder particles with precise thickness control. This leads to products with low weight fraction coating, also when depositing on nano- or micron sized powder particles. This study aimed at investigating the aluminium oxide nanoshell thickness required to prevent moisture sorption. The nanoshells were produced with ALD on spray-dried lactose, which is amorphous and extremely hygroscopic. The particles were studied with dynamic vapor sorption between 0 to 50% RH, light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and polarized light microscopy...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644866/the-high-tolerance-to-aluminium-in-crucian-carp-carassius-carassius-is-associated-with-its-ability-to-avoid-hypoxia
#3
Antonio B S Poléo, Joachim Schjolden, Jørgen Sørensen, Göran E Nilsson
It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642552/trial-finds-better-haemostasis-with-aluminium-chloride-during-periapical-surgery
#4
Niall Mc Goldrick, Carly Ross, James Nelson
DesignRandomised controlled trial in a university setting.InterventionPatients were randomised to epinephrine impregnated gauze or aluminium chloride for periapical surgery involving a single tooth with a periapical area of <10mm.Outcome measureHaemorrhage control.ResultsOne hundred and twenty patients were randomised, with 98 being allocated. Forty-eight patients in the epinephrine group and 51 in the aluminium chloride group were analysed. Adequate haemostasis was achieved in 25 (52.1%) of the epinephrine group and 37 (72...
June 23, 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641206/efficacy-of-surgical-laser-therapy-in-the-management-of-oral-pigmented-lesions-a-systematic-review
#5
Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Zohaib Akram, Siti Mariam Ab Ghani, Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: Oral pigmentation, especially in the gingiva poses esthetic problems. Laser therapy has been widely used for cosmetic therapy in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy of surgical laser therapy (SLT) in the management of oral pigmented lesions (OPL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is SLT effective in the management of OPL?" Databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched from 1970 up to and including February 2017...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638996/smooth-at-one-end-and-rough-at-the-other-influence-of-object-texture-on-grasping-behaviour
#6
Catharina Glowania, L C J van Dam, E Brenner, M A Plaisier
When picking up objects using a pinch grip, there are usually numerous places at which one could place the thumb and index finger. Yet, people seem to consistently place them at or close to the centre of mass (COM), presumably to minimize torque and therefore the required grip force. People also prefer to grasp objects by parallel surfaces and ones with higher friction coefficients (rough surfaces), to prevent the object from slipping when they lift it. Here, we examine the trade-off between friction and COM...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638906/controlled-defect-creation-and-removal-in-graphene-and-mos2-monolayers
#7
D W Li, Q M Zou, X Huang, H Rabiee Golgir, K Keramatnejad, J F Song, Z Y Xiao, L S Fan, X Hong, L Jiang, J F Silvain, S Sun, Y F Lu
It is known that defects strongly influence the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The controlled creation and removal of defects can be utilized to tailor the optical and electronic responses of these 2D materials for optoelectronic and nanoelectronic applications. In this study, we developed an efficient approach to reversibly control the defect states in mechanically exfoliated graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers. The defects were created by aluminium oxide (Al2O3) plasmas and removed by moderate thermal annealing at up to 300 °C...
June 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632501/evaluation-of-automatic-dose-rate-control-for-flat-panel-imaging-using-a-spatial-frequency-domain-figure-of-merit
#8
Michiel Dehairs, Hilde Bosmans, Walter Desmet, Nicholas W Marshall
Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC technique. Phantom thickness covered a water equivalent thickness range of 2...
June 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622558/photodynamic-therapy-treatment-of-onychomycosis-with-aluminium-phthalocyanine-chloride-nanoemulsions-a-proof-of-concept-clinical-trial
#9
Luciano Ferreira Morgado, Ana Regina Franchi Trávolo, Luís Alexandre Muehlmann, Paulo Souza Narcizo, Rodrigo Barbosa Nunes, Pedro Alencar Gomes Pereira, Karen Rapp Py-Daniel, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Jinsong Gu, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, João Paulo Figueiró Longo
The conventional treatment of onychomycosis, a common fungal infection, consists in the use of local and systemic drugs for 4-6 months. This long protocol is often ineffective due to patient compliance, and usually promotes important collateral effects such as liver and kidney failure. As the alternative, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has been used as a noninvasive alternative local treatment for onychomycosis due to the reduction of systemic side effects, fact indicates their use for patients undergoing other systemic treatments...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620956/functional-characterization-of-two-half-size-abc-transporter-genes-in-aluminium-accumulating-buckwheat
#10
Gui Jie Lei, Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Miho Fujii-Kashino, Jian Feng Ma
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is able to detoxify high aluminium (Al) internally by sequestering it to the vacuoles in the leaves; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this sequestration are unknown. We performed proteomic analysis with the leaf tonoplast-rich fraction and identified two half-size ABC transporters; FeASL1.1 and FeALS1.2. We investigated the gene expression patterns and subcellular localization. To demonstrate their physiological role, we expressed FeALS1.1 or FeALS1.2 in the Arabidopsis atals1 mutant under the control of AtALS1 promoter...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613317/tuning-the-properties-of-metal-organic-framework-nodes-as-supports-of-single-site-iridium-catalysts-node-modification-by-atomic-layer-deposition-of-aluminium
#11
Dong Yang, Mohammad R Momeni, Hakan Demir, Dale R Pahls, Martino Rimoldi, Timothy C Wang, Omar K Farha, Joseph T Hupp, Christopher J Cramer, Bruce C Gates, Laura Gagliardi
The metal-organic framework NU-1000, with Zr6-oxo, hydroxo, and aqua nodes, was modified by incorporation of hydroxylated Al(iii) ions by ALD-like chemistry with [Al(CH3)2(iso-propoxide)]2 followed by steam (ALD = atomic layer deposition). Al ions were installed to the extent of approximately 7 per node. Single-site iridium diethylene complexes were anchored to the nodes of the modified and unmodified MOFs by reaction with Ir(C2H4)2(acac) (acac = acetylacetonate) and converted to Ir(CO)2 complexes by treatment with CO...
June 14, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611497/stress-tolerant-viridibacillus-arenosi-strain-ihb-b-7171-from-tea-rhizosphere-as-a-potential-broad-spectrum-microbial-inoculant
#12
Rishu Thakur, K C Sharma, Ashu Gulati, R K Sud, Arvind Gulati
Viridibacillus arenosi strain IHB B 7171 identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence produced colony forming units (cfu/ml) ranging from 3.3 × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(10) under pH 5-11, 2.2 × 10(2) to 1.4 × 10(10) for temperature 5-40 °C, 2.4 × 10(2) to 1.1 × 10(10) for PEG 6000 10-30%, 2.2 × 10(2) to 1.4 × 10(10) for 2.5-10% NaCl, 3.1 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(9) for 2.5-7.5 mM CaCl2, 2.2 × 10(2) to 1.4 × 10(7) for 2.5-7.5 mM AlCl3, and 3.2 × 10(2) to 1.2 × 10(7) for 2.5-7...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610692/a-didactic-experiment-showing-the-compton-scattering-by-means-of-a-clinical-gamma-camera
#13
Ernesto Amato, Lucrezia Auditore, Alfredo Campennì, Fabio Minutoli, Mariapaola Cucinotta, Alessandro Sindoni, Sergio Baldari
We describe a didactic approach aimed to explain the effect of Compton scattering in nuclear medicine imaging, exploiting the comparison of a didactic experiment with a gamma camera with the outcomes from a Monte Carlo simulation of the same experimental apparatus. We employed a (99m)Tc source emitting 140.5keV photons, collimated in the upper direction through two pinholes, shielded by 6mm of lead. An aluminium cylinder was placed on the source at 50mm of distance. The energy of the scattered photons was measured on the spectra acquired by the gamma camera...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607203/hydrogen-enhanced-cracking-revealed-by-in-situ-micro-cantilever-bending-test-inside-environmental-scanning-electron-microscope
#14
Yun Deng, Tarlan Hajilou, Afrooz Barnoush
To evaluate the hydrogen (H)-induced embrittlement in iron aluminium intermetallics, especially the one with stoichiometric composition of 50 at.% Al, a novel in situ micro-cantilever bending test was applied within an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), which provides both a full process monitoring and a clean, in situ H-charging condition. Two sets of cantilevers were analysed in this work: one set of un-notched cantilevers, and the other set with focused ion beam-milled notch laying on two crystallographic planes: (010) and (110)...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603852/unusual-neuropathological-features-and-increased-brain-aluminium-in-a-resident-of-camelford-uk
#15
Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Miren Aizpurua, Ambreen Mirza, Angela Hodges, Safa Al-Sarraj, Christopher Exley
The possible role of aluminium in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hotly debated over the past few decades. Whereas the so-called "aluminium hypothesis" was popular in the 1970s and 1980s it has gradually fallen out of favour in the past few years possibly following a number of inconclusive and contradictory human environmental/clinical studies. Nevertheless, there have from time to time been reminders in the media of environmental accidents; these have prevented the topic from disappearing completely from public memory...
June 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602792/comparative-studies-of-al-3-ions-and-al2o3-nanoparticles-on-growth-and-metabolism-of-cabbage-seedlings
#16
Nimisha Amist, N B Singh, Kavita Yadav, S C Singh, J K Pandey
In the present study, we compared the effects of Al(3+) ions and alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) on growth and biochemical parameters of cabbage seedlings. The seedlings were treated with A=698.8μM Al(3+)ions and A1=101.8μM, A2=253.8μM, A3=507.7μM, A4=1.02mM, A5=2.17mM NPs of Al2O3 in 700mL Hoagland solution. The untreated seedlings were taken as control. It was observed that aluminium ions were phytotoxic and adversely affected seedling growth and biochemical parameters of the test crop with stunting of the stem growth, while lower doses of alumina NPs enhanced seedling growth, pigments, sugar and protein contents of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602286/studying-radiolytic-ageing-of-nuclear-power-plant-electric-cables-with-ftir-spectroscopy
#17
A Levet, J Colombani, L Duponchel
Due to the willingness to extend the nuclear power plants length of life, it is of prime importance to understand long term ageing effect on all constitutive materials. For this purpose gamma-irradiation effects on insulation of instrumentation and control cables are studied. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to highlight molecular modifications induced by gamma-irradiation under oxidizing conditions. In order to be closer to real world conditions, a low dose rate of 11Gyh(-1) was used to irradiate insulations in full cable or alone with a dose up to 58 kGy...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600571/micro-scale-heterogeneity-of-soil-phosphorus-depends-on-soil-substrate-and-depth
#18
Florian Werner, Carsten W Mueller, Jürgen Thieme, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Camille Rivard, Carmen Höschen, Jörg Prietzel
Soils comprise various heterogeneously distributed pools of lithogenic, free organic, occluded, adsorbed, and precipitated phosphorus (P) forms, which differ depending on soil forming factors. Small-scale heterogeneity of element distributions recently has received increased attention in soil science due to its influence on soil functions and soil fertility. We investigated the micro-scale distribution of total P and different specific P binding forms in aggregates taken from a high-P clay-rich soil and a low-P sandy soil by combining advanced spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques to introduce new insights on P accessibility and availability in soils...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598977/coagulant-plus-ballast-technique-provides-a-rapid-mitigation-of-cyanobacterial-nuisance
#19
Natalia P Noyma, Leonardo de Magalhães, Marcela Miranda, Maíra Mucci, Frank van Oosterhout, Vera L M Huszar, Marcelo M Marinho, Eduardo R A Lima, Miquel Lürling
Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan) with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite) to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598441/controlling-hybrid-nonlinearities-in-transparent-conducting-oxides-via-two-colour-excitation
#20
M Clerici, N Kinsey, C DeVault, J Kim, E G Carnemolla, L Caspani, A Shaltout, D Faccio, V Shalaev, A Boltasseva, M Ferrera
Nanophotonics and metamaterials have revolutionized the way we think about optical space (ɛ,μ), enabling us to engineer the refractive index almost at will, to confine light to the smallest of the volumes, and to manipulate optical signals with extremely small footprints and energy requirements. Significant efforts are now devoted to finding suitable materials and strategies for the dynamic control of the optical properties. Transparent conductive oxides exhibit large ultrafast nonlinearities under both interband and intraband excitations...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
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