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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198608/high-throughput-continuous-hydrothermal-synthesis-of-transparent-conducting-aluminium-and-gallium-co-doped-zinc-oxides
#1
Dougal Peter Howard, Peter Marchand, Liam McCafferty, Claire J Carmalt, Ivan P Parkin, Jawwad A Darr
High-throughput continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis was used to generate a library of aluminium and gallium co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles of specific atomic ratios. Resistivities of the materials were determined by Hall Effect measurements on heat-treated pressed discs and the results collated into a resistivity-composition map. Optimal resis-tivities of ca. 9 x 10-3 Ω cm were reproducibly achieved for several samples e.g. co-doped ZnO with 2 at% Ga and 1 at% Al. The optimum sample on balance of performance and cost was deemed to be ZnO co-doped with 3 at% Al and 1 at% Ga...
February 15, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197855/soil-microbial-community-responses-to-contamination-with-silver-aluminium-oxide-and-silicon-dioxide-nanoparticles
#2
C F McGee, S Storey, N Clipson, E Doyle
Soil microorganisms are key contributors to nutrient cycling and are essential for the maintenance of healthy soils and sustainable agriculture. Although the antimicrobial effects of a broad range of nanoparticulate substances have been characterised in vitro, little is known about the impact of these compounds on microbial communities in environments such as soil. In this study, the effect of three widely used nanoparticulates (silver, silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide) on bacterial and fungal communities in an agricultural pastureland soil was examined in a microcosm-based experiment using a combination of enzyme analysis, molecular fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196786/assessing-the-chronic-toxicity-of-copper-and-aluminium-to-the-tropical-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida
#3
Melanie A Trenfield, Joost W van Dam, Andrew J Harford, David Parry, Claire Streten, Karen Gibb, Rick A van Dam
The world's most productive bauxite mines and alumina refineries are located in tropical or sub-tropical regions. The discharge water from alumina refineries can contain elevated aluminium (Al, <0.45µm fraction), from 30 to 1000μg/L. There is a need for additional information on the toxicity of Al to aquatic organisms to improve the environmental regulation and management of alumina refinery operations in tropical coastal regions. A 14-d chronic toxicity test was developed for the tropical sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida...
February 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195172/who-water-quality-standards-vs-synergic-effect-s-of-fluoride-heavy-metals-and-hardness-in-drinking-water-on-kidney-tissues
#4
Hewa M S Wasana, Gamage D R K Perera, Panduka De S Gunawardena, Palika S Fernando, Jayasundera Bandara
Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194315/screening-of-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-accessions-to-acidity-and-aluminium-stresses
#5
Kiflemariam Y Belachew, Frederick L Stoddard
BACKGROUND: Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. METHODS: A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194027/advanced-rechargeable-aluminium-ion-battery-with-a-high-quality-natural-graphite-cathode
#6
Di-Yan Wang, Chuan-Yu Wei, Meng-Chang Lin, Chun-Jern Pan, Hung-Lung Chou, Hsin-An Chen, Ming Gong, Yingpeng Wu, Chunze Yuan, Michael Angell, Yu-Ju Hsieh, Yu-Hsun Chen, Cheng-Yen Wen, Chun-Wei Chen, Bing-Joe Hwang, Chia-Chun Chen, Hongjie Dai
Recently, interest in aluminium ion batteries with aluminium anodes, graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes has increased; however, much remains to be done to increase the cathode capacity and to understand details of the anion-graphite intercalation mechanism. Here, an aluminium ion battery cell made using pristine natural graphite flakes achieves a specific capacity of ∼110 mAh g(-1) with Coulombic efficiency ∼98%, at a current density of 99 mA g(-1) (0.9 C) with clear discharge voltage plateaus (2...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192749/ascorbic-acid-ameliorates-behavioural-deficits-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Tolulope Timothy Arogundade, Ezra Lambe, Kosisochukwu Obasi, Ismail Tayo Lawal, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Kehinde Yomi Ogunrinola
Exploring the links between neural pathobiology and behavioural deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigating substances with known therapeutic advantages over subcellular mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions could advance the development of potent therapeutic molecules for AD treatment. Here we investigated the efficacy of ascorbic acid (AA) in reversing aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced behavioural deficits and neurotoxic cascades within prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of rats. A group of rats administered oral AlCl3 (100mg/kg) daily for 15days showed degenerative changes characterised by significant weight loss, reduced exploratory/working memory, frontal-dependent motor deficits, cognitive decline, memory dysfunction and anxiety during behavioural assessments compared to control...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191557/aluminium-and-magnesium-insertion-in-sulfur-based-spinels-a-first-principles-study
#8
Vadym V Kulish, Daniel Koch, Sergei Manzhos
We computationally screen several sulfur-based materials with a spinel crystal structure as potential Al and Mg insertion hosts for Al- and Mg-ion batteries. We evaluate the effect of transition-metal substitution (TM = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) on the key properties determining electrode performance. We systematically calculate the thermodynamic stability, average voltage, binding energy, volume expansion, and Al/Mg diffusion for all compounds. The results suggest that the Ni-based spinel shows a relatively high Al and Mg insertion voltage and low diffusion barriers, and thus is a promising candidate cathode material for Al- and Mg-ion batteries...
February 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189060/response-of-the-antioxidant-enzymes-of-the-erythrocyte-and-alterations-in-the-serum-biomarkers-in-rats-following-oral-administration-of-nanoparticles
#9
Esin G Canli, Gülüzar Atli, Mustafa Canli
In this study, Al2O3, CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were administered to mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) via oral gavage (0, 0.5, 5, 50mg/kg b.w./day) for 14days to investigate their effects on 14 serum biomarkers and 4 antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase) activities in the erythrocyte. Data showed that Al2O3 did not cause any significant (P>0.05) change in the parameters, except few cases, while CuO and TiO2 caused significant alterations in antioxidant system parameters of the erythrocytes...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183282/enhanced-and-long-term-immunogenicity-of-a-her-2-neu-multi-epitope-vaccine-conjugated-to-the-carrier-crm197-in-conjunction-with-the-adjuvant-montanide
#10
Joshua Tobias, Joanna Jasinska, Karin Baier, Michael Kundi, Nicholas Ede, Christoph Zielinski, Ursula Wiedermann
BACKGROUND: We previously identified three short single peptides (P4, P6 and P7) representing different B-cell epitopes on the extracellular domain of Her-2/neu for a vaccine that was tested in a phase-I clinical trial. Here we describe the improvement of the multi peptide vaccine by fusing the single peptides to a hybrid peptide P467. METHODS: After coupling to either virosomes or to diphtheria toxoid CRM197 (CRM), the hybrid peptide was tested in different concentrations in combination with either Montanide or Aluminium hydroxide (Alum) in preclinical studies...
February 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178374/simultaneous-densitometric-determination-of-anthelmintic-drug-albendazole-and-its-metabolite-albendazole-sulfoxide-by-hptlc-in-human-plasma-and-pharmaceutical-formulations
#11
Jui J Pandya, Mallika Sanyal, Pranav S Shrivastav
A new, simple, accurate and precise high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of an anthelmintic drug, albendazole and its active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide. Planar chromatographic separation was performed on aluminium-backed layer of silica gel 60G F254 using a mixture of toluene- acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (7.0: 2.9: 0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the separated spots were scanned densitometrically at 225 nm...
February 8, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170223/growth-rates-and-spontaneous-navigation-of-condensate-droplets-through-randomly-structured-textures
#12
Chander Shekhar Sharma, Juliette Combe, Markus Giger, Theo Emmerich, Dimos Poulikakos
Dropwise condensation is a phenomenon of common occurrence in everyday life, the understanding and controlling of which is of great interest to applications ranging from technology to nature. Scalable superhydrophobic textures on metals are of direct relevance in improving phase change heat transport in realistic industrial applications. Here we reveal important facets of individual droplet growth rate and droplet departure during dropwise condensation on randomly structured hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum textures, that is, surfaces with a microstructure consisting of irregular re-entrant microcavities and an overlaying nanostructure...
February 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167352/evaluation-of-amendments-to-reduce-arsenic-and-antimony-leaching-from-co-contaminated-soils
#13
Steven J Doherty, Matthew K Tighe, Susan C Wilson
Co-contamination of soils with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) presents unique challenges for risk management. In this study a sequence of leaching experiments evaluated zero valent iron powder, ferrihydrite, ferric chloride, aluminium and manganese oxides, and kaolinite for As and Sb immobilisation in co-contaminated soils. Iron based amendments were most effective for the reduction of As and Sb in leachate in a column leaching study. Over 48 h zero valent iron powder and ferrihydrite applied at 3% (w/w dry weight) were most efficient, decreasing total As and Sb leachate concentrations by more than 80%...
January 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166930/polymeric-antigen-blsomp31-in-aluminium-hydroxide-induces-serum-bactericidal-and-opsonic-antibodies-against-brucella-canis-in-dogs
#14
Maria Clausse, Alejandra G Díaz, Romina P Pardo, Vanesa Zylberman, Fernando A Goldbaum, Silvia M Estein
Polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 is an immunogenic vaccine candidate that confers protection against Brucella canis in mice. In this preliminary study, the immunogenicity and safety of BLSOmp31 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (BLSOmp31-AH) were evaluated in Beagle dogs. In addition, the potential to elicit serum antibodies with complement-dependent bactericidal activity and/or to enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils were analyzed. Dogs were immunized three times with BLSOmp31-AH by subcutaneous route, followed by an annual booster...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161947/applying-the-power-of-reticular-chemistry-to-finding-the-missing-alb-mof-platform-based-on-the-6-12-coordinated-edge-transitive-net
#15
Zhijie Chen, Łukasz J Weseliński, Karim Adil, Youssef Belmabkhout, Aleksander Shkurenko, Hao Jiang, Prashant M Bhatt, Vincent Guillerm, Emilie Dauzon, Dong-Xu Xue, Michael O'Keeffe, Mohamed Eddaoudi
Highly connected and edge-transitive nets are of prime importance in crystal chemistry and are regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report the design and synthesis of highly connected MOFs based on reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as double six-membered-ring (d6R) building unit, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal-prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminum diboride, hexagonal-prism and trigonal-prism)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161689/bioactivity-cytocompatibility-and-thermal-properties-of-experimental-bioglass-reinforced-composites-as-potential-root-canal-filling-materials
#16
Raghad Abdulrazzaq Alhashimi, Francesco Mannocci, Salvatore Sauro
To evaluate the bioactivity and the cytocompatibility of experimental Bioglass-reinforced polyethylene-based root-canal filling materials. The thermal properties of the experimental materials were also evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry, while their radiopacity was assessed using a grey-scale value (GSV) aluminium step wedge and a phosphor plate digital system. Bioglass 45S5 (BAG), polyethylene and Strontium oxide (SrO) were used to create tailored composite fibres. The filler distribution within the composites was assessed using SEM, while their bioactivity was evaluated through infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after storage in simulated body fluid (SBF)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161204/chemical-alternatives-assessment-of-different-flame-retardants-a-case-study-including-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-as-synergist
#17
REVIEW
Karin Aschberger, Ivana Campia, Laia Quiros Pesudo, Anita Radovnikovic, Vittorio Reina
Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals used as additives in a wide range of products to inhibit, suppress, or delay ignition and to prevent the spread of fire. Halogenated FRs (HFRs) are widely used because of their low impact on other material properties and the low loading levels necessary to meet the required flame retardancy. Health and environmental hazards associated with some halogenated FRs have driven research for identifying safer alternatives. A variety of halogen-free FRs are available on the market, including organic (phosphorus and nitrogen based chemicals) and inorganic (metals) materials...
February 1, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159219/aluminium-in-brain-tissue-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Ambreen Mirza, Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Christopher Exley
The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease...
March 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155655/between-species-differences-in-gene-copy-number-are-enriched-among-functions-critical-for-adaptive-evolution-in-arabidopsis-halleri
#19
Vasantika Suryawanshi, Ina N Talke, Michael Weber, Roland Eils, Benedikt Brors, Stephan Clemens, Ute Krämer
BACKGROUND: Gene copy number divergence between species is a form of genetic polymorphism that contributes significantly to both genome size and phenotypic variation. In plants, copy number expansions of single genes were implicated in cultivar- or species-specific tolerance of high levels of soil boron, aluminium or calamine-type heavy metals, respectively. Arabidopsis halleri is a zinc- and cadmium-hyperaccumulating extremophile species capable of growing on heavy-metal contaminated, toxic soils...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153399/changes-in-surface-water-chemistry-caused-by-natural-forest-dieback-in-an-unmanaged-mountain-catchment
#20
J Kopáček, H Fluksová, J Hejzlar, J Kaňa, P Porcal, J Turek
Ionic and nutrient compositions of throughfall, tributaries and lake outlet were analysed in the Plešné catchment-lake system (an unmanaged mountain forest in Central Europe) from 1997 to 2016. The aim was to evaluate changes in surface water chemistry after natural forest dieback. In the 2004-2008, 93% of the Norway spruce trees were killed by bark beetle outbreak, and all dead biomass remained in the catchment. Forest dieback changed the chemistry of all water fluxes, and the magnitude, timing, and duration of these changes differed for individual water constituents...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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