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Cranial remodelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843719/cranial-bone-histology-of-metoposaurus-krasiejowensis-amphibia-temnospondyli-from-the-late-triassic-of-poland
#1
Kamil Gruntmejer, Dorota Konietzko-Meier, Adam Bodzioch
In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey's fibers and ISF are present in all bones...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837399/reconstruction-of-the-shallow-acetabulum-with-a-combination-of-autologous-bulk-and-impaction-bone-grafting-fixed-by-cement
#2
Masaaki Maruyama, Shinji Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Ota, Keiji Tensho
BACKGROUND: Acetabular bone deficiency, especially proximal and lateral deficiency, is a difficult technical problem during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We report a new reconstruction method using a medial-reduced cemented socket and additional bulk bone in conjunction with impaction morselized bone grafting (additional bulk bone grafting method). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In a population of patients with acetabular dysplasia undergoing THA using a medial-reduced cemented socket and additional bulk bone with impacted morselized bone grafting, we evaluated (1) the radiographic appearance of bone graft; (2) the proportion of cups that developed loosening and subsequent revision; and (3) clinical results (outcome scores and complications)...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819403/-treatment-of-syringomyelia-in-patients-with-chiari-malformation-and-craniosynostosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
A Aransay-Garcia, F J Villarejo-Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Patients with multisutural or single craniosynostosis, often suffer from Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. The surgical management of syringomyelia in these patients is controversial. CASE REPORT: A 3-year-old girl was referred with complex craniosynostosis that had not been corrected surgically. She was asymptomatic despite the cranial MRI showed a Chiari malformation and one year later she developed a cervico-dorso-lumbar syringomyelia. She underwent a decompressive suboccipital craniectomy but subsequently suffered a worsening of syringomyelia...
November 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817118/continued-growth-after-fixation-of-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis
#4
Per Holmdahl, Torsten Backteman, Aina Danielsson, Johan Kärrholm, Jacques Riad
PURPOSE: When treating slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), a smooth pin with a hook or a short threaded screw can be used to allow further growth, which could be important to prevent the development of impingement and early arthritis. The purpose of this investigation was to measure growth in three dimensions after fixation of SCFE. METHODS: Sixteen participants with unilateral SCFE, nine girls and seven boys with a median age of 12.0 years (range 8.4-15...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802079/mandibular-and-glenoid-fossa-changes-after-bone-anchored-maxillary-protraction-therapy-in-patients-with-uclp-a-3-d-preliminary-assessment
#5
Marilia Yatabe, Daniela Garib, Renato Faco, Hugo de Clerck, Bernardo Souki, Guilherme Janson, Tung Nguyen, Lucia Cevidanes, Antonio Ruellas
OBJECTIVE: To assess mandibular and glenoid fossa (GF) changes after bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) therapy in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cleft group (CG) comprised 19 patients with (mean initial age of 11.8 years). The noncleft group (NCG) comprised 24 patients without clefts (mean initial age of 11.7 years). Both groups had Class III malocclusion and were treated with BAMP therapy for 18 and 12 months, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770634/repair-of-bone-defects-in%C3%A2-vivo-using-tissue-engineered-hypertrophic-cartilage-grafts-produced-from-nasal-chondrocytes
#6
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607110/the-effects-of-molding-helmet-therapy-on-spring-mediated-cranial-vault-remodeling-for-sagittal-craniosynostosis
#7
Jordan W Swanson, Jacqueline A Haas, Brianne T Mitchell, Philip B Storm, Scott P Bartlett, Gregory G Heuer, Jesse A Taylor
There is no clear consensus for the optimal treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis; however, recent studies suggest that improved neurocognitive outcomes may be obtained when surgical intervention imparts active cranial expansion or remodeling and is performed before 6 months of age. The authors consider spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) to optimally address these imperatives, and this is an investigation of how helmet orthoses before or after SMC affect aesthetic outcomes.The authors retrospectively evaluated patients treated with SMC and adjunct helmeting for sagittal synostosis...
September 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595190/surgical-correction-of-lambdoid-synostosis-new-technique-and-first-results
#8
Jan-Falco Wilbrand, Hans-Peter Howaldt, Marcus Reinges, Petros Christophis
OBJECTIVE: Premature craniosynostosis of the lambdoid suture is rare. The use of differential diagnosis to rule out positional occipital plagiocephaly is crucial. Nevertheless, once diagnosed, lambdoid craniosynostosis requires corrective surgery to prevent intracranial harm and aesthetic stigma by significant dyscrania. Operative correction of the lambdoid fusion is often performed by suturectomy and helmet therapy, total occipital remodeling interventions, transposition of occipital bone flaps, or occipital advancement procedures either with or without distraction osteogenesis...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591089/volume-measurements-on-three-dimensional-photogrammetry-after-extended-strip-versus-total-cranial-remodeling-for-sagittal-synostosis-a-comparative-cohort-study
#9
Marie-Lise C van Veelen, Marielle Jippes, Julius-Carl A Carolina, Johan de Rooi, Clemens M F Dirven, Leon N A van Adrichem, Irene M Mathijssen
BACKGROUND: Surgery for sagittal synostosis aims at correction of skull shape and restoration of growth potential. Small cranial volume is associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Although many techniques have been described, information on postoperative volume related to early and late remodeling is lacking. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2008, a total of 95 patients were collected who underwent either early extended strip craniectomy or late total cranial remodeling according to age of presentation...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571325/development-of-the-epaxial-muscles-in-the-human-embryo
#10
Hayelom K Mekonen, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Greet Mommen, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
Although the intrinsic muscles of the back are defined by their embryological origin and innervation pattern, no detailed study on their development is available. Human embryos (5-10 weeks development) were studied, using Amira3D® reconstruction and Cinema4D® remodelling software for visualization. At Carnegie Stage (CS)15, the epaxial portions of the myotomes became identifiable laterally to the developing vertebrae. At CS16, these portions fused starting cranially to form a longitudinal muscle column, which became innervated by the dorsal branches of the spinal nerves...
August 29, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558363/pediatric-cranial-intraosseous-hemangiomas-a-review
#11
G Lakshmi Prasad, Kanthilatha Pai
Hemangiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors composed of sinusoidal blood vessels. Skeletal hemangiomas are uncommon and are mostly vertebral, followed by cranial in location. Cranial hemangiomas are very rarely encountered in children. Authors report a 12-year girl who presented with a painless enlarging mass over the parietal scalp for 3 months. Imaging revealed a left parietal intraosseous lytic mass with a sunburst appearance. Enbloc removal and cranioplasty was performed, and histopathology was suggestive of hemangioma...
August 25, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557459/implementation-of-a-tranexamic-acid-protocol-to-reduce-blood-loss-during-cranial-vault-remodeling-for-craniosynostosis
#12
David T Martin, Heike Gries, Nick Esmonde, Brian Diggs, Jeffrey Koh, Nathan R Selden, Martin Schreiber, Anna A Kuang
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric cranial vault remodeling for repair of craniosynostosis is associated with significant blood loss and transfusion requirements. Beginning in 2011, the authors evaluated the impact tranexamic acid (TXA) on blood loss and blood product transfusion for children less than 15 months of age undergoing primary surgical repair of nonsyndromic single suture craniosynostosis. METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, the authors performed a retrospective study of all children undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis at Oregon Health & Science University from 2005 to 2015...
September 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522975/aortic-arch-and-thoracic-aorta-curvature-remodeling-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair
#13
Gaspar Mestres, Marvin E Garcia, Xavier Yugueros, Rodrigo Urrea, Paolo Tripodi, Fernando Gomez, Jordi Maeso, Vicenç Riambau
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to analyze the original curvature of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta, and how it is modified after the placement of a thoracic endograft. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all patients primarily treated for thoracic aortic aneurysms and blunt traumatic aortic injuries by means of an endograft sealed into the aortic arch (zones Z1-Z3) in two different centers (Vascular Surgery Division, Hospital Clinic, UB; and Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Department, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, UAB; Barcelona, Spain), between 2010-2015...
August 11, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506322/relationship-between-the-cranial-base-and-the-mandible-in-artificially-deformed-skulls
#14
I Ferros, M J Mora, I F Obeso, P Jimenez, A Martinez-Insua
OBJECTIVES: There is controversy regarding the relationship between mandibular position and alterations of the cranial base that provoke a more anterior location of the glenoid fossa. Artificially deformed skulls display marked alterations of the cranial base. This study evaluates mandibular changes as function of the morphology of the cranial base in these skulls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A geometric morphometric study was performed on lateral cephalometric X-rays of three groups of skulls: 32 with anteroposterior deformity, 17 with circumferential deformity and 39 with no apparent deformity...
November 2016: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503248/timing-of-cranial-vault-remodeling-in-nonsyndromic-craniosynostosis-a-single-institution-30-year-experience
#15
Alan F Utria, Joseph Lopez, Regina S Cho, Gerhard S Mundinger, George I Jallo, Edward S Ahn, Craig Vander Kolk, Amir H Dorafshar
OBJECTIVE Due to the changing properties of the infant skull, there is still no clear consensus on the ideal time to surgically intervene in cases of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC). This study aims to shed light on how patient age at the time of surgery may affect surgical outcomes and the subsequent need for reoperation. METHODS A retrospective cohort review was conducted for patients with NSC who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling between 1990 and 2013. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics and surgical interventions were recorded...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449336/local-delivery-of-iron-chelators-reduces-in-vivo-remodeling-of-a-calcium-phosphate-bone-graft-substitute
#16
Justin Drager, Zeeshan Sheikh, Yu Ling Zhang, Edward J Harvey, Jake E Barralet
UNLABELLED: Iron chelators are known activators of the Hypoxia Includible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathway, a critical cellular pathway involved in angiogenic responses to hypoxia. Local delivery of these chelators has shown promise in bone tissue engineering strategies by inducing angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Hypoxic microenvironments are also a stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity, a process likely mediated by HIF-1α. In vitro, low doses of the iron chelator Deferoxamine (DFO) has shown to induce HIF-1α mediated osteoclast formation and function...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447182/contemporary-occurrence-of-hydrocephalus-and-chiari-i-malformation-in-sagittal-craniosynostosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Francesco Giovanni Sgulò, Pietro Spennato, Ferdinando Aliberti, Giuliana Di Martino, Daniele Cascone, Giuseppe Cinalli
Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and hydrocephalus are often associated with complex craniosynostosis. On the contrary, their simultaneous occurrence in monosutural synostosis is extremely rare. The pathophysiological hypothesis is that they may alter posterior fossa growth and lead to cerebellar tonsil herniation also without skull base primary involvement. Hydrocephalus is multifactorial and may be secondary to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction. The management of these cases is quite complex and not well defined...
July 22, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434273/hemodynamic-assessment-of-a-murine-heterotopic-biventricularly-loaded-cardiac-transplant-in-vivo-model
#18
Agnieszka A Książek, Katharyn J Mitchell, Laurent Morax, Colin C Schwarzwald, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic heart transplantation (HHT) in rodent animal models represents an important technique enabling studies on organ transplantation immunology and pharmaceutical development. Recent investigations used nonworking HHT designs, with the left ventricle (LV) bypassed in the anastomosis system. In spite of their principal success, the lack of orthogonal ventricular filling leads to myocardial atrophy. However, when focusing on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the in vivo remodeling of the myocardium or cell-based cardiovascular implants, a nonworking model is suboptimal as it lacks the native-analogous hemodynamic and metabolic situation...
July 20, 2016: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421984/-pathogenesis-and-molecular-pathology-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#19
M Brodhun, V Stahn, A Harder
Schwannomas are benign Schwann cell-derived tumors of the peripheral nerve sheath often involving the vestibular cranial nerve (vestibular schwannoma). Histologically, they consist of bipolar spindle cells and show a moderate cellularity. Typically, Antoni A regions with a storiform pattern and loose Antoni B regions are intermingled. Verocay bodies are the pathognomonic palisading structures. Malignant transformation is rare. Merlin (schwannomin), the protein product of NF2, is inactivated by mutations, loss of heterozygosity or methylation...
July 15, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401459/long-term-spinal-cord-stimulation-modifies-canine-intrinsic-cardiac-neuronal-properties-and-ganglionic-transmission-during-high-frequency-repetitive-activation
#20
Frank M Smith, Michel Vermeulen, René Cardinal
Long-term spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applied to cranial thoracic SC segments exerts antiarrhythmic and cardioprotective actions in the canine heart in situ. We hypothesized that remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neuronal and synaptic properties occur in canines subjected to long-term SCS, specifically that synaptic efficacy may be preferentially facilitated at high presynaptic nerve stimulation frequencies. Animals subjected to continuous SCS for 5-8 weeks (long-term SCS: n = 17) or for 1 h (acute SCS: n = 4) were compared with corresponding control animals (long-term: n = 15, acute: n = 4)...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
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