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Cranial vault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782609/low-cost-customized-cranioplasty-using-a-3d-digital-printing-model-a-case-report
#1
Abel De La Peña, Javier De La Peña-Brambila, Juan Pérez-De La Torre, Miguel Ochoa, Guillermo J Gallardo
Background: Cranial defects usually occur after trauma, neurosurgical procedures like decompressive craniotomy, tumour resections, infection and congenital defects. The purpose of cranial vault repair is to protect the underlying brain tissue, to reduce any localized pain and patient anxiety, and improve cranial aesthetics. Cranioplasty is a frequent neurosurgical procedure achieved with the aid of cranial prosthesis made from materials such as: titanium, autologous bone, ceramics and polymers...
2018: 3D printing in medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778411/a-probable-primary-malignant-bone-tumor-in-a-pre-columbian-human-humerus-from-cerro-brujo-bocas-del-toro-panam%C3%A3
#2
Nicole E Smith-Guzmán, Jeffrey A Toretsky, Jason Tsai, Richard G Cooke
We present a rare case of primary bone cancer principally affecting the right humerus of a skeleton from the pre-Columbian site of Cerro Brujo (1265-1380 CE) in Bocas del Toro, on the Caribbean coast of Panamá, excavated in the early 1970s. The humerus contains a dense, calcified sclerotic mass with associated lytic lesions localized around the midshaft of the diaphysis. Evidence of systemic inflammation and anemia, likely caused by the cancer, are visible in the form of severe porotic hyperostosis of the cranial vault and bilateral periosteal reactions in the tibiae...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771386/immunotherapy-in-cns-cancers-the-role-of-immune-cell-trafficking
#3
Nivedita M Ratnam, Mark R Gilbert, Amber J Giles
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant CNS tumor with very poor survival despite intervention with conventional therapeutic strategies. Although the CNS is separated from the immune system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), emerging evidence of immune surveillance and the selective infiltration of GBMs by immune suppressive cells indicates that there is breakdown or compromise of these physical barriers. This in turn offers hope that immunotherapy can be applied to specifically target and reduce tumor burden...
May 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767432/open-sepulchers-and-closed-boundaries-biodistance-analysis-of-cemetery-structure-and-postmarital-residence-in-the-late-prehispanic-andes
#4
Matthew C Velasco
OBJECTIVES: In the Late Intermediate Period Andes (AD 1100-1450), the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers reconfigured social boundaries within and between communities engaged in protracted conflict. However, the biosocial dimensions of these mortuary practices, and their implications for conflict and alliance formation, remain unexplored. This study examines patterns of phenotypic variation to: (1) evaluate if open sepulchers were organized on the basis of biological relatedness, and (2) explore if sex-specific phenotypic variability conforms to models of postmarital residence...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762326/temporal-progression-of-craniofacial-dysmorphology-in-unilateral-coronal-synostosis-a-mechanistic-hypothesis
#5
Kirun Baweja, Alexander H Sun, Rajendra Sawh-Martinez, John A Persing
AIM: This study chronicles skull base and face development in nonsyndromic unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) during infancy, to characterize the mechanistic progression of facial dysmorphology. METHODS: Computed tomography scans from 51 subjects were reviewed (26 UCS, 25 controls) and data were reconstructed. Patients were stratified into 5 age groups. A series of measurements were taken from the reconstructions. RESULTS: All patients had a unilaterally fused coronal suture at the time of analysis...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752281/increased-fgf8-signaling-promotes-chondrogenic-rather-than-osteogenic-development-in-the-embryonic-skull
#6
Linnea Schmidt, Aftab Taiyab, Vida Senkus Melvin, Kenneth L Jones, Trevor Williams
The bones of the cranial vault are formed directly from mesenchymal cells through intramembranous ossification rather than via a cartilage intermediate. Formation and growth of the skull bones involves the interaction of multiple cell:cell signaling pathways, with Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) and their receptors exerting prominent influence. Mutations within this pathway are the most frequent cause of craniosynostosis, which is a common human craniofacial developmental abnormality characterized by the premature fusion of the cranial sutures...
May 10, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749885/assessing-calvarial-vault-constriction-associated-with-helmet-therapy-in-deformational-plagiocephaly
#7
Erin C Peterson, Kamlesh B Patel, Gary B Skolnick, Kristin D Pfeifauf, Katelyn N Davidson, Matthew D Smyth, Sybill D Naidoo
OBJECTIVE Deformational plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (DPB) is a cranial flattening frequently treated in pediatric craniofacial centers. The standard of care for DPB involves patient positioning or helmet therapy. Orthotic therapy successfully reduces cranial asymmetry, but there is concern over whether the orthotics have the potential to restrict cranial growth. Previous research addressing helmet safety was limited by lack of volume measurements and serial data. The purpose of this study was to directly compare head growth data in patients with DPB between those who underwent helmet therapy and those who received repositioning therapy...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746183/msx2-marks-spatially-restricted-populations-of-mesenchymal-precursors
#8
N Sakagami, Y Matsushita, S Syklawer-Howle, H M Kronenberg, W Ono, N Ono
Craniofacial development requires a set of patterning codes that define the identities of postmigratory mesenchymal cells in a region-specific manner, in which locally expressed morphogens, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide instructive cues. Msx2, a bona fide target of BMP signaling, is a transcription factor regulating Runx2 and osterix (Osx), whose mutations are associated with cranial deformities in humans. Here we show that Msx2 defines osteo-chondro precursor cells in specific regions of the craniofacial mesenchyme at the postmigratory stage, particularly in the mandibular process and the posterior cranial vault...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742364/surgical-correction-of-metopic-craniosynostosis-a-3-d-photogrammetric-analysis-of-cranial-vault-outcomes
#9
Olivia E Linden, Vanessa M Baratta, Jose A Gonzalez, Margaret E Byrne, Petra M Klinge, Stephen R Sullivan, Helena O Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 3-dimensional (3-D) photogrammetry as a tool for assessing the postoperative head shape of patients who had undergone cranial vault remodeling for metopic synostosis. DESIGN: We prospectively analyzed images of patients with metopic craniosynostosis who had undergone anterior cranial vault remodeling and age-matched controls. To ensure standardized facial orientation, each 3-D image was positioned to "best fit" the preoperative face by aligning 6 soft tissue landmarks...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716817/all-in-one-surgical-guide-a-new-method-for-cranial-vault-resection-and-reconstruction
#10
Alessandro Tel, Fabio Costa, Salvatore Sembronio, Andrea Lazzarotto, Massimo Robiony
INTRODUCTION: Great precision is required for craniofacial surgery, and computer-aided design (CAD) methods may be used to plan surgery before it is performed. In this study, three-dimensional (3D)-printed cutting guides are used to match computer models with surgical procedures. We describe a novel method of computer-aided surgery for autologous cranioplasty that includes a new strategy for generating and using cutting guides. These guides may be used not only for osteotomies, but also for many other steps in the surgical procedure...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710088/safety-of-osteopathic-cranial-manipulative-medicine-as-an-adjunct-to-conventional-postconcussion-symptom-management-a-pilot-study
#11
Komal G Patel, Rosanna C Sabini
Context: Osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine is not a well-established adjunct to conventional treatment for patients with postconcussion symptoms. Objective: To determine whether adjunctive osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine is safe for patients with concussion when accompanied by conventional treatments. Design: Prospective observational pilot study. Setting: Outpatient concussion clinic. Participants: Patients who sustained a concussion were prospectively recruited from an outpatient concussion clinic by a neuropsychologist specialized in concussion...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698431/mapping-genetic-variants-for-cranial-vault-shape-in-humans
#12
Jasmien Roosenboom, Myoung Keun Lee, Jacqueline T Hecht, Carrie L Heike, George L Wehby, Kaare Christensen, Eleanor Feingold, Mary L Marazita, A Murat Maga, John R Shaffer, Seth M Weinberg
The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685754/using-modern-human-cortical-bone-distribution-to-test-the-systemic-robusticity-hypothesis
#13
Karen L Baab, Lynn E Copes, Devin L Ward, Nora Wells, Frederick E Grine
The systemic robusticity hypothesis links the thickness of cortical bone in both the cranium and limb bones. This hypothesis posits that thick cortical bone is in part a systemic response to circulating hormones, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone, possibly related to physical activity or cold climates. Although this hypothesis has gained popular traction, only rarely has robusticity of the cranium and postcranial skeleton been considered jointly. We acquired computed tomographic scans from associated crania, femora and humeri from single individuals representing 11 populations in Africa and North America (n = 228)...
June 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672313/delayed-chronic-subdural-hematoma-after-total-cranial-vault-reconstruction-for-sagittal-synostosis
#14
Christopher R Pasarikovski, Taylor J Abel, Chris R Forrest, Peter B Dirks, George M Ibrahim
When diagnosed and treated after the first year of life, the surgical management of sagittal synostosis typically necessitates total cranial vault reconstruction. The safety of total cranial vault reshaping has improved greatly over the past 3 decades. We report on the first published case of an asymptomatic 5-year-old patient who was found to have a large left sided chronic subdural hematoma 4 months after total cranial vault reshaping requiring surgery, detected on routine imaging. We hypothesize that augmentation of venous blood egression through the emissary veins during surgery may have led to venous hypertension and subsequently the development of the chronic subdural hematoma...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662726/chronic-debilitating-headache-in-adults-caused-by-craniocerebral-disproportion-treatment-by-cranial-vault-expansion
#15
Ken R Winston, Brooke French, Jason Bunn
Craniocerebral disproportion is rarely considered as a cause for chronic, debilitating headache in adults. Children reported with this disorder typically suffer from headaches and lethargy for many years and have multisutural synostosis. The terms craniocerebral disproportion, craniostenosis, and slit-ventricle syndrome are used inconsistently as diagnostic designations. Three adults with craniocerebral disproportion who had been treated in infancy for two different pathologies are reported. All benefited greatly from cranial vault expansion...
February 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629226/endoscopy-assisted-craniosynostosis-surgery-followed-by-helmet-therapy
#16
H H K Delye, W A Borstlap, E J van Lindert
Background: Surgical methods to treat craniosynostosis have evolved from a simple strip craniectomy to a diverse spectrum of partial or complete cranial vault remodeling with excellent results but often with high comorbidity. Therefore, minimal invasive craniosynostosis surgery has been explored in the last few decades. The main goal of minimal invasive craniosynostosis surgery is to reduce the morbidity and invasiveness of classical surgical procedures, with equal long-term results, both functional as well as cosmetic...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617743/head-orthosis-therapy-in-positional-plagiocephaly-longitudinal-3d-investigation-of-long-term-outcomes-compared-with-untreated-infants-and-with-a-control-group
#17
Felix Kunz, Tilmann Schweitzer, Stephan Große, Nina Waßmuth, Angelika Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Hartmut Böhm, Philipp Meyer-Marcotty, Christian Linz
Background: As there are very few long-term studies on the effects of head orthosis on deformational plagiocephaly (DP), we investigated the outcomes of patients, including facial symmetry and dental occlusion. Methods: Forty-five infants with DP [cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) > 3.5 per cent] were divided into two groups: one treated with head orthosis (32 infants) and another without (13 infants). Another group without head asymmetry (CVAI ≤ 3.5 per cent) served as control...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611183/maternal-environment-and-craniofacial-growth-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-mandibular-shape-changes-with-in-utero-thyroxine-overexposure-in-mice
#18
Matthew J Kesterke, Margaret A Judd, Mark P Mooney, Michael I Siegel, Mohammed Elsalanty, R Nicole Howie, Seth M Weinberg, James J Cray
An estimated 3% of US pregnancies are affected by maternal thyroid dysfunction, with between one and three of every 1000 pregnancies being complicated by overactive maternal thyroid levels. Excess thyroid hormones are linked to neurological impairment and excessive craniofacial variation, affecting both endochondral and intramembranous bone. Using a geometric morphometric approach, this study evaluates the role of in utero thyroxine overexposure on the growth of offspring mandibles in a sample of 241 mice. Canonical variate analysis utilized 16 unilateral mandibular landmarks obtained from 3D micro-computed tomography to assess shape changes between unexposed controls (n = 63) and exposed mice (n = 178)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595734/incidence-of-cranial-base-suture-fusion-in-infants-with-craniosynostosis
#19
Daniel M Mazzaferro, Sanjay Naran, Ari M Wes, Christopher M Runyan, Arastoo Vossough, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cranial base sutures are important drivers of both facial and cranial growth. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and location of cranial base suture fusion among three groups: nonaffected controls, patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, and patients with syndromic craniosynostosis. METHODS: Patients and computed tomographic scans were accrued from the authors' prospective craniofacial database. Computed tomographic scans were graded on the frequency of cranial vault and cranial base suture/synchondrosis fusion (0, open; 1, partially/completely fused) by an attending craniofacial surgeon and neuroradiologist...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543324/changes-in-intracranial-volume-and-cranial-shape-in-modern-koreans-over-four-decades
#20
Ye Sel Kim, In Sung Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Dasom Kim, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether there was any secular change in cranial vault morphology among Koreans born between the 1930s and 1970s, a period of dramatic shift in Korea's socioeconomic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using three-dimensional MRI volumetry, we obtained the intracranial volume (ICV) and craniometric measurements of 115 healthy Koreans: 58 individuals (32 males and 26 females) born in the 1930s (1926-1936) and 57 (28 males and 29 females) born in the 1970s (1972-1979)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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