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Cranial vault

Stephen T Magill, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael W McDermott
Falx and parasagittal meningiomas are common locations for meningiomas of the cranial vault. Many of these tumors are now discovered incidentally during cranial imaging for other reasons. Therefore, in the calculation of the risks and benefits of surgery it behooves the surgeon to do all he/she can to avoid surgical complications. This is a heavily experience based article based off the senior author's experience with over 1200 intracranial meningiomas. We present three cases to illustrate some of the decision-making and techniques used to reduce complications in the management of these cases treated with an open operation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Omar N Pathmanaban, Kerry A Burke, Paul Leach, John Thorne, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
BACKGROUND: Positional plagiocephaly is the most common cause of cranial asymmetry. The underlying cause of Chiari-1 malformation has many possible theories, and anecdotally some pediatric neurosurgeons have had experience of severe cases of positional brachycephaly with Chiari-1. However, to date there have been no published cases linking non-synostotic plagiocephaly with Chiari-1 malformation. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-month-old boy presented with a head injury...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Katherine Spradley, Kyra E Stull, Joseph T Hefner
Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group...
January 2016: Human Biology
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz
Secular changes in stature, weight, or other components of the body that can be obtained from historical records have been extensively studied. Cranial change has been central to anthropology for more than a century, but the focus has normally been on change measured in centuries or millennia. Cranial change measured in decades, normally considered to result from plastic response to the environment, has been less studied. This article reports on change in cranial vault dimensions in white Americans. Variables were glabello-occipital length (GOL), basion-bregma height (BBH), basion-nasion length (BNL), maximum cranial breadth (XCB), and biauricular breadth (AUB)...
January 2016: Human Biology
Seong Woong Kim, Michael Putzke, Eberhard Uhl, Kartik G Krishnan
Depression is predicted to be the most common cause of disability in the coming decade. Self-inflicted hammer blow to the cranium is a rare phenomenon seen in patients with a history of attempted suicide. The resulting comminuted depressed skull fracture of the midline vertex is life threatening. Rapid interdisciplinary communication and intervention are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a case of self-inflicted hammer blows to the head, review the relevant literature on this topic, and discuss neurosurgical and psychiatric implications...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Vera Vigo, Domenica Immacolata Battaglia, Paolo Frassanito, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Massimo Caldarelli, Luca Massimi
Cephalohematoma, one of the most common neonatal head injuries, generally undergoes spontaneous resorption. When calcified, it may cause cranial vault distortion and depression of the inner skull layer, although it remains asymptomatic. Surgery, indeed, is usually performed for cosmetic purposes. For these reasons, the long-term effects of calcified cephalohematoma (CC) are widely unknown. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a persistent calcified CC causing skull deformity and delayed electroencephalography (EEG) anomalies...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Lisa M Morris
This article provides an overview of etiology, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, including sagittal, metopic, coronal, lambdoid, and complex synostosis. Detailed discussion is presented regarding indications for surgical intervention and management options, including frontoorbital advancement, cranial vault reconstruction, endoscopic strip craniectomy, spring-assisted strip craniectomy, and cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. Deformational plagiocephaly is also presented with treatment options including repositioning, physical therapy, and helmet therapy...
November 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Manish Jaiswal, Ashok Gandhi, Devendra Purohit, Shashi Singhvi, Radhey Shyam Mittal
Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the cranium with extra- and intracranial extension without systemic or skeletal manifestation in a non-immunocompromised patient is extremely rare. These lesions are most of the time misdiagnosed because they mimic other conditions like meningioma. Here, we report a case presented with huge bulky scalp mass which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain showed involvement of scalp, cranial vault, meninges, and the brain parenchyma, mimicking a meningioma. After gross total resection, biopsy and CD marker study revealed primary non-Hodgkin's diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Tymon Skadorwa, Bogdan Ciszek
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Tumors of the cranial vault occur at every age of childhood. Although they are mostly benign lesions, their symptomatology is variable and requires extended diagnostics. The choice of therapeutic strategy strongly depends on histopathological diagnosis, and therefore surgical excision is the elective treatment in such cases. Despite several published papers, the literature still lacks reliable clinical characteristics regarding this heterogeneous group of lesions in pediatric patients...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sumito Dateki, Satoshi Watanabe, Fumiko Kinoshita, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Hiroyuki Moriuchi
We herein report a de novo hemizygous 9.2-Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 11p14.1-15.3 in a 3-year-old Japanese girl with short stature, relative macrocephaly, and delayed closure of cranial fontanelles and sutures. She did not show either any motor or mental development delay. This deletion involves 25 genes including NELL1. The loss of the Nell1 function leads to skeletal defects in the cranial vault and vertebral column, and overexpression of Nell1 causes craniosynostosis in mice. These results imply that short stature and an abnormality of membranous ossification could be explained by haploinsufficiency of NELL1 on 11p14...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: Arachnoid granulations (AGs) occasionally appear to protrude into the calvarial convexity, lying close to the bridging veins (BVs). This study aims to characterize such AGs and BVs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study. Initially, stepwise frontal craniotomy was performed in an injected cadaver head. Next, examinations with contrast MRI were performed involving the whole cranial vault. RESULTS: In cadaveric dissection, the AGs located in the parasagittal regions appeared as outward protrusions through the dura mater and in contact with the diploic veins...
September 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
C Scala, S McDonnell, F Murphy, U Leone Roberti Maggiore, A Khalil, A Bhide, B Thilaganthan, A T Papageorghiou
OBJECTIVES: To establish the diagnostic accuracy of obstetric ultrasound at a tertiary fetal medicine centre in the prenatal detection of unilateral and bilateral MCDK in fetuses where this condition was suspected; and to undertake a systematic review of the literature on this topic. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all cases with an antenatal diagnosis of either unilateral or bilateral MCDK referred to a regional tertiary fetal medicine unit between 1997 and 2015...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Anthony S Kim, Ellen Moffatt, Philip C Ursell, Orrin Devinsky, Jeffrey Olgin, Zian H Tseng
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency of and risk factors for out-of-hospital sudden neurologic deaths. METHODS: During the initial 25 months (February 1, 2011-March 1, 2013) of the San Francisco Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death Study, we captured incident WHO criteria sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) through active surveillance of consecutive out-of-hospital deaths, which must be reported to the medical examiner by law. All cases were referred for full autopsy with detailed examination of the heart and cranial vault, toxicology, and histology...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Francesco D'Antonio, Alessandra Familiari, Basky Thilaganathan, Aris T Papageorghiou, Lamberto Manzoli, Asma Khalil, Amar Bhide
The first aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic performance of first trimester ultrasound in detecting congenital anomalies in twins. The secondary aim was to explore the strength of association between different pregnancy characteristics and early detection of structural anomalies in a large unselected population of twin pregnancies. A systematic review of the published literature was also carried out MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from consecutive twin pregnancies booked for antenatal care from 1996 till 2014...
September 13, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Olivia Cheronet, John A Finarelli, Ron Pinhasi
The Neolithic transition brought about fundamental social, dietary and behavioural changes in human populations, which, in turn, impacted skeletal morphology. Crania are shaped through diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors, reflecting various elements of an individual's life. To determine the transition's effect on cranial morphology, we investigated its potential impact on the face and vault, two elements potentially responding to different influences. Three datasets from geographically distant regions (Ukraine, Iberia, and the Levant plus Anatolia) were analysed...
2016: Scientific Reports
David Yuen Chung Chan, Danny Tat Ming Chan, Wai Sang Poon, George Kwok Chu Wong
A 49-year-old woman presented to our institution with a progressive frontal scalp swelling for one year. Incisional biopsy was performed and histological examination showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The case details and management were discussed.
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Jordan W Swanson, Jacqueline A Haas, Brianne T Mitchell, Philip B Storm, Scott P Bartlett, Gregory G Heuer, Jesse A Taylor
There is no clear consensus for the optimal treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis; however, recent studies suggest that improved neurocognitive outcomes may be obtained when surgical intervention imparts active cranial expansion or remodeling and is performed before 6 months of age. The authors consider spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) to optimally address these imperatives, and this is an investigation of how helmet orthoses before or after SMC affect aesthetic outcomes.The authors retrospectively evaluated patients treated with SMC and adjunct helmeting for sagittal synostosis...
September 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Samantha D McElyea, John M Starbuck, Danika M Tumbleson-Brink, Emily Harrington, Joshua D Blazek, Ahmed Ghoneima, Katherine Kula, Randall J Roper
Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure...
September 5, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Jan-Falco Wilbrand, Hans-Peter Howaldt, Marcus Reinges, Petros Christophis
OBJECTIVE: Premature craniosynostosis of the lambdoid suture is rare. The use of differential diagnosis to rule out positional occipital plagiocephaly is crucial. Nevertheless, once diagnosed, lambdoid craniosynostosis requires corrective surgery to prevent intracranial harm and aesthetic stigma by significant dyscrania. Operative correction of the lambdoid fusion is often performed by suturectomy and helmet therapy, total occipital remodeling interventions, transposition of occipital bone flaps, or occipital advancement procedures either with or without distraction osteogenesis...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
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