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Cranial vault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333820/osteomyelitis-in-burn-children-ten-years-of-experience
#1
María T Rosanova, Carla Voto, Susana Carnovale, Nidia Tramonti, Jimena Lema, José L Pinheiro, Adela Isasmendi, Verónica Alvarez, Rosa M Villasboas, Santiago Laborde, Hugo Basílico
INTRODUCTION: Osteomyelitis is uncommon among burn patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, microbiological, and evolutionary characteristics of burn children with osteomyelitis hospitalized in a tertiary care facility. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive study conducted between January 2007 and January 2017. RESULTS: Out of 600 burn children, 12 developed osteomyelitis (incidence: 2%). Eleven patients had a burn caused by direct fire...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285586/intracranial-ewing-sarcoma-four-pediatric-examples
#2
Michael J Yang, Ros Whelan, Jennifer Madden, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Todd C Hankinson, Nicholas K Foreman, Michael H Handler
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma typically arises in bone and is unrelated to intraparenchymal small blue cell embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors previously designated primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). When the CNS is impacted, it is usually secondary to local extension from either the epidural space, skull, or intracranial or spinal metastases. Primary examples within the cranial vault are rare, usually dural-based, and are largely case reports in the literature. We detail four pediatric patients with solitary, primary intracranial Ewing sarcoma, all manifesting the archetypal EWRS1 gene rearrangement that confirms diagnosis...
December 28, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279399/developmental-origins-of-mosaic-evolution-in-the-avian-cranium
#3
Ryan N Felice, Anjali Goswami
Mosaic evolution, which results from multiple influences shaping morphological traits and can lead to the presence of a mixture of ancestral and derived characteristics, has been frequently invoked in describing evolutionary patterns in birds. Mosaicism implies the hierarchical organization of organismal traits into semiautonomous subsets, or modules, which reflect differential genetic and developmental origins. Here, we analyze mosaic evolution in the avian skull using high-dimensional 3D surface morphometric data across a broad phylogenetic sample encompassing nearly all extant families...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227405/osseous-convexity-at-the-anterior-fontanelle-a-presentation-of-metopic-fusion
#4
Alexander Haosi Sun, John A Persing
BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis, or a premature fusion of 1 or more cranial vault sutures, results in characteristic head shape deformities. In previous reports, an osseous prominence at the anterior fontanelle has been suggestive of adjacent suture fusion and local elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP). This prominence has been termed the "volcano" sign, and has been described in the anterior fusion of the sagittal suture and serves as an indication for surgery. METHODS: Two patients presented for head shape evaluation with mild metopic ridging and anterior fontanellar osseous convexities consistent with the volcano sign...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225392/a-computational-analysis-of-bone-formation-in-the-cranial-vault-using-a-coupled-reaction-diffusion-strain-model
#5
Chanyoung Lee, Joan T Richtsmeier, Reuben H Kraft
Bones of the murine cranial vault are formed by differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, a process that is primarily understood to be controlled by a cascade of reactions between extracellular molecules and cells. We assume that the process can be modeled using Turing's reaction-diffusion equations, a mathematical model describing the pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In addition to the processes modeled by reaction-diffusion equations, we hypothesize that mechanical stimuli of the cells due to growth of the underlying brain contribute significantly to the process of cell differentiation in cranial vault development...
June 2017: Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198392/reprint-of-differential-diagnosis-trepanation
#6
REVIEW
John W Verano
Trepanation is the scraping, cutting, or drilling of an opening (or openings) into the neurocranium. World surveys reveal that a number of ancient cultures experimented with cranial surgery, and that in some areas these practices continued into modern times. Archaeological discoveries of possible trepanations continue to be made, often from geographic areas or time periods from which the practice was not previously known. Unfortunately, most of these reports describe single crania with healed defects interpreted as trepanations...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194259/a-clinical-photographic-method-to-evaluate-the-need-for-helmet-therapy-in-deformational-plagiocephaly
#7
In Kook Cho, Jeung Ryeol Eom, Jeong Woo Lee, Jung Dug Yang, Ho Yun Chung, Byung Chae Cho, Kang Young Choi
PURPOSE: With an increase in positional plagiocephaly patients, various therapy methods have been researched and helmet therapy is the most widely used and effective treatment method. To devise a method that would allow medical professionals and patients' parents to more easily identify the shape and outcomes before and after the therapy. METHODS: This study included 399 patients who had helmet therapy from November 2014 to February 2016. Patients wore a cast helmet for more than 20 hours per day...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176416/is-postoperative-intensive-care-unit-care-necessary-following-cranial-vault-remodeling-for-sagittal-synostosis
#8
Erik M Wolfswinkel, Lori K Howell, Artur Fahradyan, Beina Azadgoli, J Gordon McComb, Mark M Urata
BACKGROUND: Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital...
December 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175906/traumatic-pneumocephaly-trapped-air-from-where
#9
Azam Basheer, Mohamed Macki, Asim Mahmood
Traumatic pneumocephaly is literally defined as 'air in the head' after trauma. While this phenomenon has been well described in the literature, our case report is unique in describing diffuse pneumocephalus in the subaponeurotic space, subdural space, subarachnoid space, brain and ventricles without a break in the cranial vault: a 26-year-old man fell from a =9 meter scaffolding in a water tower. Following an arduous and delayed extrication, the patient was unresponsive with loss of pulse requiring intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and release of tension pneumothorax with bilateral thoracostomy tubes...
November 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167840/intracranial-volume-quantification-from-3d-photography
#10
Liyun Tu, Antonio R Porras, Scott Ensel, Deki Tsering, Beatriz Paniagua, Andinet Enquobahrie, Albert Oh, Robert Keating, Gary F Rogers, Marius George Linguraru
3D photography offers non-invasive, radiation-free, and anesthetic-free evaluation of craniofacial morphology. However, intracranial volume (ICV) quantification is not possible with current non-invasive imaging systems in order to evaluate brain development in children with cranial pathology. The aim of this study is to develop an automated, radiation-free framework to estimate ICV. Pairs of computed tomography (CT) images and 3D photographs were aligned using registration. We used the real ICV calculated from the CTs and the head volumes from their corresponding 3D photographs to create a regression model...
2017: Computer Assisted and Robotic Endoscopy and Clinical Image-Based Procedures: 4th International Workshop, CARE 2017, and 6th International Workshop, CLIP 2017, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2017, Québec City, QC, Canada, September 14, 2017, Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#11
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125038/melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumour-of-infancy-a-case-report-and-differential-diagnosis
#12
A P Tan, Thomas S Jacques, Kshitij Mankad, Gregory James, Owase Jeelani, Olga Slater, Felice D'Arco
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy is an uncommon pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin. It was first described in 1918 by Krompecher, known as congenital melanocarcinoma at that time. Although it is generally agreed upon that it is a benign entity, it is locally aggressive and has a significant recurrent risk, reported to be between 10-15%. There have also been prior reports of malignant behaviour in these tumours, although extremely rare. The majority of cases of this tumour (about 70%) arise from the maxilla and its occurrence in the cranial vault represents approximately 15...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115678/moderate-climate-signature-in-cranial-anatomy-of-late-holocene-human-populations-from-southern-south-america
#13
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110198/surgical-management-of-craniosynostosis-in-the-setting-of-a%C3%A2-ventricular-shunt-a-case-series-and-treatment-algorithm
#14
Michael S Golinko, Danielle N Atwood, Eylem Ocal
PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventricular shunt is a common treatment for hydrocephalus. Change in cranial morphology associated with a sutural fusion has been termed shunt-related or induced craniosynostosis (SRC) or craniocerebral disproportion (CCD). We present a series of patients with SRC who underwent cranial vault remodeling (CVR) and our treatment algorithm. METHODS: Thirteen patients were retrospectively reviewed who had SRC and CVR; 92% of patients had a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placed for largely intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity (69% of patients) at a mean age of 2...
November 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084117/a-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-cleft-and-craniofacial-surgery
#15
Jonathan M Bekisz, Elise Fryml, Roberto L Flores
This study presents a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cleft and craniofacial surgery. All studies reporting on RCTs in cleft and craniofacial surgery were identified on PubMed using the search terms "cleft," "velopharyngeal insufficiency," "velopharyngeal dysfunction," "nasoalveolar molding," "gingivoperiosteoplasty," "Pierre Robin sequence," "craniofacial," "craniosynostosis," "craniofacial microsomia," "hemifacial microsomia," "hypertelorism," "Le Fort," "monobloc," "distraction osteogenesis," "Treacher Collins," and "Goldenhar...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080945/planning-of-skull-reconstruction-based-on-a-statistical-shape-model-combined-with-geometric-morphometrics
#16
Marc Anton Fuessinger, Steffen Schwarz, Carl-Peter Cornelius, Marc Christian Metzger, Edward Ellis, Florian Probst, Wiebke Semper-Hogg, Mathieu Gass, Stefan Schlager
PURPOSE: Virtual reconstruction of large cranial defects is still a challenging task. The current reconstruction procedures depend on the surgeon's experience and skills in planning the reconstruction based on mirroring and manual adaptation. The aim of this study is to propose and evaluate a computer-based approach employing a statistical shape model (SSM) of the cranial vault. METHODS: An SSM was created based on 131 CT scans of pathologically unaffected adult crania...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070804/digital-reconstruction-of-the-ceprano-calvarium-italy-and-implications-for-its-interpretation
#17
Fabio Di Vincenzo, Antonio Profico, Federico Bernardini, Vittorio Cerroni, Diego Dreossi, Stefan Schlager, Paola Zaio, Stefano Benazzi, Italo Biddittu, Mauro Rubini, Claudio Tuniz, Giorgio Manzi
The Ceprano calvarium was discovered in fragments on March 1994 near the town of Ceprano in southern Latium (Italy), embedded in Middle Pleistocene layers. After reconstruction, its morphological features suggests that the specimen belongs to an archaic variant of H. heidelbergensis, representing a proxy for the last common ancestor of the diverging clades that respectively led to H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Unfortunately, the calvarium was taphonomically damaged. The postero-lateral vault, in particular, appears deformed and this postmortem damage may have influenced previous interpretations...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068968/isolated-intraorbital-frontosphenoidal-synostosis
#18
Paul A Mittermiller, Kristen W Yeom, Robert M Menard
Unilateral anterior plagiocephaly is most commonly the result of deformational plagiocephaly or unilateral coronal synostosis, a premature fusion of the frontoparietal suture. However, other sutures within the coronal ring have been implicated in producing anterior cranial asymmetries. These fusions can occur in isolation or in concert with adjacent sutures. The frontosphenoidal suture is one such suture within the coronal ring that has been involved both concomitantly with and independently of frontoparietal suture fusion...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068967/surgical-hypercorrection-of-trigonocephaly-evaluation-of-surgical-outcomes
#19
Katelyn G Bennett, Fan Liang, Kavitha Ranganathan, Karin M Muraszko, Christian J Vercler, Steven R Buchman
BACKGROUND: A lasting correction of trigonocephaly is difficult to achieve, as a durable correction requires significant expansion to overcome galeal restriction and soft tissue recoil of the scalp. High rates of relapse have been reported throughout the literature. The specific aim of this study was to determine if the senior author's method of "hypercorrection" decreases relapse and the need for subsequent revisional surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent operative correction of metopic craniosynostosis between 1988 and 2011 were reviewed...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067505/length-of-synostosis-and-segmented-intracranial-volume-correlate-with-age-in-patients-with-non-syndromic-sagittal-synostosis
#20
Arja Heliövaara, Junnu Leikola, Virve Koljonen, Pia Vuola, Mika Koivikko
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the length of synostosis and segmented intracranial volume (SIV) with age in children with non-syndromic sagittal synostosis. METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive patients (22 boys) who had been operated by cranial vault remodeling because of sagittal synostosis were compared retrospectively from 3D-CT imaging data sets obtained from volumetric CT. The mean age of the patients at preoperative CT imaging was 0.49 (range 0...
October 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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