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Cranial vault

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886813/cranial-vault-thickness-in-non-human-primates-allometric-and-geometric-analyses-of-the-vault-and-its-component-layers
#1
Lynn E Copes
Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its variation within extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the relationship of its layers to other morphological variables is unknown. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually, as well as the ratio between diploë and total thickness, were calculated from 258 female individuals from 47 species of non-human primate...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867761/hyainailourine-and-teratodontine-cranial-material-from-the-late-eocene-of-egypt-and-the-application-of-parsimony-and-bayesian-methods-to-the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-hyaenodonta-placentalia-mammalia
#2
Matthew R Borths, Patricia A Holroyd, Erik R Seiffert
Hyaenodonta is a diverse, extinct group of carnivorous mammals that included weasel- to rhinoceros-sized species. The oldest-known hyaenodont fossils are from the middle Paleocene of North Africa and the antiquity of the group in Afro-Arabia led to the hypothesis that it originated there and dispersed to Asia, Europe, and North America. Here we describe two new hyaenodont species based on the oldest hyaenodont cranial specimens known from Afro-Arabia. The material was collected from the latest Eocene Locality 41 (L-41, ∼34 Ma) in the Fayum Depression, Egypt...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866267/luminol-testing-in-detecting-modern-human-skeletal-remains-a-test-on-different-types-of-bone-tissue-and-a-caveat-for-pmi-interpretation
#3
Giorgio Caudullo, Valentina Caruso, Annalisa Cappella, Emanuela Sguazza, Debora Mazzarelli, Alberto Amadasi, Cristina Cattaneo
When forensic pathologists and anthropologists have to deal with the evaluation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in skeletal remains, luminol testing is frequently performed as a preliminary screening method. However, the repeatability of this test on the same bone, as well as comparative studies on different bones of the same individual, has never been performed. Therefore, with the aim of investigating the influence that different types of bones may exert on the response to the luminol test, the present study analysed three different skeletal elements (femoral diaphysis, vertebra and cranial vault), gathered from ten recent exhumed skeletons (all with a 20-year PMI)...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857793/newborn-with-meroanencephaly-surviving-all-odds
#4
Iraj Alam Khan, Uzma Firdaus, Syed Manazir Ali, Imran Asghar
Neural tube defects are a group of congenital anomalies of brain development that carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Anencephaly is a serious form of this defect with a very poor prognosis. It can present in three forms - meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, and craniorachischisis. Meroanencephaly is considered to be the classic form of anencephaly. It manifests as a lack of cranial vault bones and exposed dorsal neural tissue resulting from defective neural tube closure in the very early period of gestation...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853617/homology-of-the-cranial-vault-in-birds-new-insights-based-on-embryonic-fate-mapping-and-character-analysis
#5
Hillary C Maddin, Nadine Piekarski, Elizabeth M Sefton, James Hanken
Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848003/positional-plagiocephaly-following-ventriculoperitoneal-shunting-in-neonates-and-infancy-how-serious-is-it
#6
Stuart A G Roberts, Joseph D Symonds, Reema Chawla, Emma Toman, Jonathan Bishop, Guirish A Solanki
PURPOSE: We test the hypothesis that ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion significantly increases contralateral positional plagiocephaly. METHODS: We reviewed 339 children who had a VP shunt inserted at Birmingham Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2013, noting laterality of shunt insertion and frontal or occipital position. We ascertained the presence of post-operative positional plagiocephaly using the cranial vault asymmetry index. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to examine relationships between plagiocephaly, shunt position, gender and age...
November 15, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831975/long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-cranial-reconstruction-using-resorbable-plating-systems-for-the-treatment-of-craniosynostosis
#7
Leslie G Branch, Clayton Crantford, Teresa Cunningham, Gaurav Bharti, James Thompson, Dan Couture, Lisa R David
BACKGROUND: Resorbable plating in cranial reconstruction for craniosynostosis has fewer reported complications than rigid hardware. Few long-term outcome studies exist for pediatric patients treated with this technology for cranial vault reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on pediatric patients undergoing cranial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis by 3 surgeons over a 15-year period. MacroPore (Cytori Therapeutics, San Diego, CA) or Lactosorb (Walter Lorenz Surgical Inc, Jacksonville, FL), composed of polyglycolic and polylactic acids, was used for resorbable plate fixation...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829009/the-morphogenesis-of-cranial-sutures-in-zebrafish
#8
Jolanta M Topczewska, Ramy A Shoela, Joanna P Tomaszewski, Rupa B Mirmira, Arun K Gosain
Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826677/torcular-pseudomass-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall-in-infants-and-young-children
#9
Luísa Sampaio, Giovanni Morana, Mariasavina Severino, Domenico Tortora, Miguel Leão, Andrea Rossi
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on brain MRI may constitute a diagnostic pitfall. We observed an incidental extra-axial midline rounded pseudomass between the torcular Herophili and the occipital squama, with spontaneous resolution, which we called "torcular pseudomass." OBJECTIVE: We investigated the frequency, imaging features, natural history and developmental background of this finding in a large group of infants and young children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study by reviewing all brain MRIs performed in children younger than 3 years between 2007 and 2013 in a specialized pediatric hospital...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819403/-treatment-of-syringomyelia-in-patients-with-chiari-malformation-and-craniosynostosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
A Aransay-Garcia, F J Villarejo-Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Patients with multisutural or single craniosynostosis, often suffer from Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. The surgical management of syringomyelia in these patients is controversial. CASE REPORT: A 3-year-old girl was referred with complex craniosynostosis that had not been corrected surgically. She was asymptomatic despite the cranial MRI showed a Chiari malformation and one year later she developed a cervico-dorso-lumbar syringomyelia. She underwent a decompressive suboccipital craniectomy but subsequently suffered a worsening of syringomyelia...
November 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805731/cranioplasty-using-titanium-mesh-after-skull-tumor-resection-in-five-dogs
#11
Desiree D Rosselli, Simon R Platt, Courtenay Freeman, Jeremy O'Neill, Marc Kent, Shannon P Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical details, surgery, postoperative imaging, and short to mid-term outcome after cranioplasty with titanium mesh in dogs with large skull tumors. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with skull tumors (n=5). METHODS: All tumors were removed via craniectomy and a sheet of titanium mesh was contoured to reconstruct the calvarial defect and sutured to surrounding musculature...
November 2, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791703/reconstruction-of-a-large-calvarial-traumatic-defect-using-a-custom-made-porous-hydroxyapatite-implant-covered-by-a-free-latissimus-dorsi-muscle-flap-in-an-11-year-old-patient
#12
Anne Morice, Frédéric Kolb, Arnaud Picard, Natacha Kadlub, Stéphanie Puget
Reconstruction of complex skull defects requires collaboration between neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons to choose the most appropriate procedure, especially in growing children. The authors describe herein the reconstruction of an extensive traumatic bone and soft tissue defect of the cranial vault in an 11-year-old boy. The size of the defect, quality of the tissues, and patient's initial condition required a 2-stage approach. Ten months after an initial emergency procedure in which lacerated bone and soft tissue were excised, reconstruction was performed...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778211/resection-of-falx-and-parasagittal-meningioma-complication-avoidance
#13
Stephen T Magill, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael W McDermott
Falx and parasagittal meningiomas are common locations for meningiomas of the cranial vault. Many of these tumors are now discovered incidentally during cranial imaging for other reasons. Therefore, in the calculation of the risks and benefits of surgery it behooves the surgeon to do all he/she can to avoid surgical complications. This is a heavily experience based article based off the senior author's experience with over 1200 intracranial meningiomas. We present three cases to illustrate some of the decision-making and techniques used to reduce complications in the management of these cases treated with an open operation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767903/neurosurgical-sequelae-of-domestic-dog-attacks-in-children
#14
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756665/non-synostotic-posterior-brachycephaly-with-hindbrain-herniation
#15
Omar N Pathmanaban, Kerry A Burke, Paul Leach, John Thorne, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
BACKGROUND: Positional plagiocephaly is the most common cause of cranial asymmetry. The underlying cause of Chiari-1 malformation has many possible theories, and anecdotally some pediatric neurosurgeons have had experience of severe cases of positional brachycephaly with Chiari-1. However, to date there have been no published cases linking non-synostotic plagiocephaly with Chiari-1 malformation. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-month-old boy presented with a head injury...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737581/craniofacial-secular-change-in-recent-mexican-migrants
#16
Katherine Spradley, Kyra E Stull, Joseph T Hefner
Research by economists suggests that recent Mexican migrants are better educated and have higher socioeconomic status (SES) than previous migrants. Because factors associated with higher SES and improved education can lead to positive secular changes in overall body form, secular changes in the craniofacial complex were analyzed within a recent migrant group from Mexico. The Mexican group represents individuals in the act of migration, not yet influenced by the American environment, and thus can serve as a starting point for future studies of secular change in this population group...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737575/the-remarkable-change-in-euro-american-cranial-shape-and-size
#17
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz
Secular changes in stature, weight, or other components of the body that can be obtained from historical records have been extensively studied. Cranial change has been central to anthropology for more than a century, but the focus has normally been on change measured in centuries or millennia. Cranial change measured in decades, normally considered to result from plastic response to the environment, has been less studied. This article reports on change in cranial vault dimensions in white Americans. Variables were glabello-occipital length (GOL), basion-bregma height (BBH), basion-nasion length (BNL), maximum cranial breadth (XCB), and biauricular breadth (AUB)...
January 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722022/self-inflicted-hammer-blows-to-the-cranial-vault-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#18
Seong Woong Kim, Michael Putzke, Eberhard Uhl, Kartik G Krishnan
Depression is predicted to be the most common cause of disability in the coming decade. Self-inflicted hammer blow to the cranium is a rare phenomenon seen in patients with a history of attempted suicide. The resulting comminuted depressed skull fracture of the midline vertex is life threatening. Rapid interdisciplinary communication and intervention are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a case of self-inflicted hammer blows to the head, review the relevant literature on this topic, and discuss neurosurgical and psychiatric implications...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715482/calcified-cephalohematoma-as-an-unusual-cause-of-eeg-anomalies-case-report
#19
Vera Vigo, Domenica Immacolata Battaglia, Paolo Frassanito, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Massimo Caldarelli, Luca Massimi
Cephalohematoma, one of the most common neonatal head injuries, generally undergoes spontaneous resorption. When calcified, it may cause cranial vault distortion and depression of the inner skull layer, although it remains asymptomatic. Surgery, indeed, is usually performed for cosmetic purposes. For these reasons, the long-term effects of calcified cephalohematoma (CC) are widely unknown. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a persistent calcified CC causing skull deformity and delayed electroencephalography (EEG) anomalies...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712818/nonsyndromic-craniosynostosis-and-deformational-head-shape-disorders
#20
Lisa M Morris
This article provides an overview of etiology, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, including sagittal, metopic, coronal, lambdoid, and complex synostosis. Detailed discussion is presented regarding indications for surgical intervention and management options, including frontoorbital advancement, cranial vault reconstruction, endoscopic strip craniectomy, spring-assisted strip craniectomy, and cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. Deformational plagiocephaly is also presented with treatment options including repositioning, physical therapy, and helmet therapy...
November 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
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