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Nerea Abrego, Veera Norros, Panu Halme, Panu Somervuo, Heini Ali-Kovero, Otso Ovaskainen
Fungi are a megadiverse group of organisms, they play major roles in ecosystem functioning, and are important for human health, food production, and nature conservation. Our knowledge on fungal diversity and fungal ecology is however still very limited, in part because surveying and identifying fungi is time demanding and requires expert knowledge. We present a method that allows anyone to generate a list of fungal species likely to occur in a region of interest, with minimal effort and without requiring taxonomical expertise...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Hatice Özdemir, Nuran Dinçkal Yanikoglu
Background: Porcelain fracture is the most important problem in fixed prosthetic restorations. The replacement of fractured restoraions isn't often prefer by patients and dentists. Intraoral repair of fractured porcelain is a big alternative for patient and dentist. For this reason, dentists try to improve different surface treatments to increase the bond strength between porcelain and repair materials such as composite resins. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of nano-hybrid (Nh...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Sung-Joo Kwon, Tae-Hee Han, Young-Hoon Kim, Towfiq Ahmed, Hong-Kyu Seo, Hobeom Kim, Dong Jin Kim, Wentao Xu, Byung Hee Hong, Jian-Xin Zhu, Tae-Woo Lee
n-Type doping with (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl) dimethylamine (N-DMBI) reduces a work function (WF) of graphene by ~0.45 eV without significant reduction of optical transmittance. Solution process of N-DMBI on graphene provides effective n-type doping effect and air-stability at the same time. Although neutral N-DMBI act as an electron receptor leaving the graphene p-doped, radical N-DMBI acts as an electron donator leaving the graphene n-doped, which is demonstrated by density functional theory...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michaela Fels, Franziska Lüthje, Alice Faux-Nightingale, Nicole Kemper
In this study, the possibility of introducing an elevated platform to a piglet pen was explored as a way of increasing available space and creating functional areas. On the platform, nine different manipulable materials were offered. In four batches, 40 weaned piglets were kept for five weeks in the two-level pen. Video recordings were taken two days per week. In the afternoon, more piglets were on the platform than in the morning or at night (7.2 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/5 minutes; p < ...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Xin Tang, Hairui Xiong, Tiantian Kong, Ye Tian, Wen-Di Li, Liqiu Wang
The maneuver of small bubbles in a programmed way will advance numerous processes, including gas evolution reaction and aeration. Unlike in-air droplets, rapidly rising bubbles in liquid medium can hardly be steered through interaction with solid substrates, causing difficulties in maneuvering bubbles. We pattern and lubricate nanoporous substrates with regions of contrasting wettability that is similar to the back of Namib desert beetles and subsequently immerse the lubricated surface underwater to spontaneously form spatially patterned Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces after the dewetting of lubricants...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sung-Wook Min, Minho Yoon, Sung Jin Yang, Kyeong Rok Ko, Seongil Im
Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductor (TMD), MoS2 has received extensive attention for decades due to their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties for next generation devices. One weakness of MoS2, however, is that it only shows n-type conduction revealing its limitations for homogeneous PN diodes and complementary inverters. Here, we introduce a charge-transfer method to modify the conduction property of MoS2 from n- to p-type. We initially deposited n-type InGaZnO (IGZO) film on top of MoS2 flake, so that electron charges might be transferred from MoS2 to IGZO during air ambient annealing...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sherman Jun Rong Tan, Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Leiqiang Chu, Sock Mui Poh, Yanpeng Liu, Jiong Lu, Wei Chen, Kian Ping Loh
Black phosphorus (BP) exhibits thickness-dependent band gap and high electronic mobility. The chemical intercalation of BP with alkali metal has attracted attention recently due to the generation of universal superconductivity regardless of the type of alkali metals. However, both ultrathin BP, as well as alkali metal-intercalated BP, are highly unstable and corrode rapidly under ambient conditions. This study demonstrates that alkali metal hydride intercalation decouples monolayer to few layers BP from the bulk BP, allowing an optical gap of ≈1...
January 3, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jiuping Xu, Rui Qiu, Zhimiao Tao, Heping Xie
Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andreia Amaral, Giacomo Bellandi, Usman Rehman, Ramiro Neves, Youri Amerlinck, Ingmar Nopens
Aeration is the largest energy consumer in most water and resource recovery facilities, which is why oxygen transfer optimization is fundamental to improve energy efficiency. Although oxygen transfer is strongly influenced by the bubble size distribution dynamics, most aeration efficiency models currently do not include this influence explicitly. In few cases, they assume a single average bubble size. The motivation of this work is to investigate this knowledge gap, i.e. a more accurate calculation of the impact of bubble size distribution dynamics on oxygen transfer...
November 3, 2017: Water Research
Margaret Olivia Little, Marisha N Wickremsinhe
Despite a global need for the use of medication during pregnancy, the medical research community lacks robust evidence for safety and efficacy of treatments and preventives often taken by pregnant women. Given the biological differences between pregnant women and the rest of the population, the need to gather data on the ways in which medications behave in the pregnant body is critical to the health of pregnant women and their offspring. Three ethical reasons are central to this need: 1. Pregnant women deserve access to effective treatment, 2...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
Pouran Samimi, Masoud Ghodrati, Farinaz Shirban, Maryam Khoroushi
Objectives: It has been reported that the water, solvents, or the primer incorporated into adhesive resins decrease the polymerization, compromise the mechanical properties, reduce the bond strength, and lead to a poor bonding performance of self-etch adhesives. This article evaluated the effect of air-drying and light-curing duration of self-etch adhesives on the micro-shear bond strength between composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 extracted sound human third molars were randomly divided into twelve groups (n=10)...
September 2017: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Nicolas A O Morin, Patrik L Andersson, Sarah E Hale, Hans Peter H Arp
Flame retardants in commercial products eventually make their way into the waste stream. Herein the presence of flame retardants in Norwegian landfills, incineration facilities and recycling sorting/defragmenting facilities is investigated. These facilities handled waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), vehicles, digestate, glass, combustibles, bottom ash and fly ash. The flame retardants considered included polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑BDE-10) as well as dechlorane plus, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene and pentabromoethylbenzene (collectively referred to as ∑FR-7)...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Mirco Milletarì, Manuel Offidani, Aires Ferreira, Roberto Raimondi
We present a theoretical analysis of two-dimensional Dirac-Rashba systems in the presence of disorder and external perturbations. We unveil a set of exact symmetry relations (Ward identities) that impose strong constraints on the spin dynamics of Dirac fermions subject to proximity-induced interactions. This allows us to demonstrate that an arbitrary dilute concentration of scalar impurities results in the total suppression of nonequilibrium spin Hall currents when only Rashba spin-orbit coupling is present...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Prashant Natteru, Chintan Rupareliya, Xiangping Zhou, Pradeep C Bollu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an increasingly prevalent sleep disorder, has been extensively studied in both clinical and scientific settings. In most cases, the diagnosis of sleep apnea is straightforward with patients having symptoms of snoring, choking or gasping for air while asleep and witnessed apneas. However, sleep apnea is known to present in some unusual ways. We present a case of a 61-year-old male, with recently diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (currently not on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) and a history of seizure-like events since the age of 18 years, who came to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for spell characterization of his frequent seizure-like episodes...
October 24, 2017: Curēus
Zaid A Al Jeaidi, Mohammed A Alqahtani, Mohamed M Awad, Flávia P Rodrigues, Ali A Alrahlah
The bond strength of universal adhesives to air-abraded zirconia ceramic was evaluated. Overall, 40 zirconia ceramic blocks with dimensions of 6 × 6 × 4 mm were cut from pre-sintered blanks. The sintered blocks were embedded in self-cured acrylic resin. The zirconia blocks were then randomly allocated to four groups (n = 10) in which different universal adhesives were used, except for the control group in which no universal adhesive was used. A silicon mold was used to build the resin cement. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C and mounted on a universal testing machine...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
M Z Liu, J J Wang, Z H Fu, Y C Li, Z Y Jiang, W Sun, G H Guo, F Zhu
Objective: To investigate the effects of non-muscle myosin ⅡA (NMⅡA) silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the lung damage of rats at early stage of smoke inhalation injury. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, simple injury, NMⅡA-BMSCs, and BMSCs groups according to the completely random method, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in control group inhaled air normally, while rats in the latter 3 groups inhaled smoke to reproduce model of smoke inhalation injury...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
J Prud'homme
BACKGROUND: In Paris, air pollution is now a persistent environmental problem, especially linked to diesel cars in circulation. Exposure of children to air pollution during the journey from home to school, which takes place during peak hours of traffic, is poorly documented. METHODS: The purpose of this work was to identify spaces less exposed to PM10 pollution. We identified spatial recurrences in the relative distribution of air pollution levels using PM10 geolocated measures taken along a fixed circuit, crossing, among others, a speed regulation zone (<30km/h)...
December 13, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Tomaz Langenbach, Luiz Querino Caldas
Brazil is currently one of the largest pesticide consumers worldwide. However, a lack of scientific information regarding airborne pollution is still an issue, with tragic consequences to human health and the environment. To reduce pollution of the lower air layers, where pesticide spraying occurs, green barriers that filter the air could be an effective mitigation procedure. Modifying pulverization habits, by pulverizing in the late afternoon instead of in the morning could also reduce pesticide volatilization, while other recommendations with the purpose of lowering the pesticide amounts currently applied are likewise pursued...
December 14, 2017: Ambio
Mei Guo, Nahum Masó, Yang Liu, Anthony R West
Ba1-xSrxTiO3 solid solutions prepared by a solid-state reaction in air at 1200-1400 °C, followed by slow cooling to room temperature at the end of the reaction, were essentially oxygen-stoichiometric and p-type. Their conductivity increased reversibly when either p(O2) in the surrounding atmosphere was increased or a dc bias as small as 1 V was applied across the samples. The enhanced p-type conductivity is attributed to the creation of mobile holes on underbonded oxide ions. The same samples quenched from >∼1400 °C were increasingly oxygen deficient and n-type...
December 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Jin Woo Jang, Oh Hyeon Kwon, Jun Sik Kim, Yuri Kim, Yong Soo Cho
A novel way of roughening the surface of a glass substrate using a carbon nanotube-driven template is introduced to enhance the white luminescence characteristics of a printed (Ba,Sr,Ca)2SiO4:Eu2+ yellow silicate phosphor layer. The distribution of closed pores in the template layer induces selective etching and micro-scale roughening. As a result, a substantial improvement of ∼22.5% in the luminous efficacy was achieved when both sides of the substrate were roughened. This is attributed to the reductions of both the total internal reflection of rays at the glass-air interface and the specular reflection at the phosphor-glass interface...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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