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Mark C Noort, Tom W Reader, Steven Shorrock, Barry Kirwan
: In this article, we examine the relationship between safety culture and national culture, and the implications of this relationship for international safety culture assessments. Focussing on Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance (UA) index, a survey study of 13,616 Air Traffic Management employees in 21 European countries found a negative association between safety culture and national norm data for UA. This is theorized to reflect the influence of national tendencies for UA upon attitudes and practices for managing safety (e...
September 2016: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Hemalata Ramesh, Torsten Mayr, Mathias Hobisch, Sergey Borisov, Ingo Klimant, Ulrich Krühne, John M Woodley
BACKGROUND: The use of non-aqueous organic media is becoming increasingly important in many biotechnological applications in order to achieve process intensification. Such media can be used, for example, to directly extract poorly water-soluble toxic products from fermentations. Likewise many biological reactions require the supply of oxygen, most normally from air. However, reliable online measurements of oxygen concentration in organic solvents (and hence oxygen transfer rates from air to the solvent) has to date proven impossible due to limitations in the current analytical methods...
March 2016: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
Yingdi Yan, Emil Chibowski, Aleksandra Szcześ
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State)...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
M Elnaghy, S E Elsaka
AIM: To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA) and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) reciprocating instruments during immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and saline solutions at body temperature. METHODOLOGY: A total of 180 new WaveOne Gold primary size 25, .07 taper, and Reciproc size 25, .08 taper were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: no immersion (control, air); Group 2: immersion in saline at 37°C ± 1°C; and Group 3: immersion in 5% NaOCl at 37°C ± 1°C...
October 21, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Joong Kon Park, Mazhar Ul-Islam, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Shaukat Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Salman Ul-Islam, Nasrullah Shah
BACKGROUND: Cellulose being the most abundant polymer has been widely utilized in multiple applications. Its impressive nanofibril arrangement has provoked its applications in numerous fields. Recent trends have been shifted to produce composites of nanocellulose for numerous applications among which the most important ones are its use in medical and environmental prospective. This review has basically focused the development of nanocellulose composites and its applications in resolving environmental hazards...
October 18, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Benny Feng, Patricia Tang, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Jayesh Dhanani, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients commonly suffer from ventilator-associated pneumonia, hypoxemia, and other lower respiratory tract infection as a result of pathogen colonization and poor sputum clearance. Consequently, there is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Dry powder mannitol increases sputum clearance, and therefore, we developed a system to administer it to mechanically ventilated patients without disconnection from the ventilator. METHODS: The inspiratory line from a ventilator was split by using a three-way valve into two parallel lines where one contains a humidifier for normal breathing cycle and the other line contains a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Robert Marshall Beresford, Joy Lorraine Tyson, Warwick Ralph Henshall
A weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as Psa; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. Bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the M index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. Rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection sites and the daily risk indicator, the R index, is the 3-day accumulation of the M index, output on days with total rainfall > 1 mm; otherwise R is zero...
October 17, 2016: Phytopathology
Eon Kim, Ravi C Bakaraju, Klaus Ehrmann
PURPOSE: To evaluate the optical power profiles of commercially available soft multifocal contact lenses and compare their optical designs. METHODS: The power profiles of 38 types of multifocal contact lenses-three lenses each-were measured in powers +6D, +3D, +1D, -1D, -3D, and -6D using NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X, Belgium). All lenses were measured in phosphate buffered saline across 8 mm optic zone diameter. Refractive index of each lens material was measured using CLR 12-70 (Index Instruments, UK), which was used for converting measured power in the medium to in-air radial power profiles...
September 29, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Kathryn E Myhre, Bryant J Webber, Thomas L Cropper, Juste N Tchandja, Dale M Ahrendt, Christopher A Dillon, Roy W Haas, Samantha L Guy, Mary T Pawlak, Susan P Federinko
BACKGROUND: Anemia has been implicated in adverse health outcomes of athletes and military trainees, ranging from overuse injuries to degraded physical and cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate prevalence of anemia among US Air Force (USAF) basic trainees, to compare physical performance and discharge rates between anemic and non-anemic trainees, and to determine the risks and relative risks of being discharged for anemic versus non-anemic women and men. METHODS: All USAF basic trainees were screened for anemia between July 2013 and January 2014, during an 8-week basic training course at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Filiz Karakas, Ipek Imamoglu, Kadir Gedik
Receptor models were typically used in air pollution studies and few publications are available for Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) that consider the details of parameters and procedures in evaluating the trace organic pollutants in sediments. In this study, environmental fate and source composition of Lake Eymir sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were explored by applying two PMF models, Paatero's PMF2 and United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) EPA-PMF3. PMF2 and EPA-PMF3 rely on different algorithms; Paatero's algorithm and multilinear engine algorithm, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Fernanda Campos, Rodrigo Oa Souza, Marco A Bottino, Mutlu Özcan
The required connector dimension for zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) may be a clinical limitation due to limited space in the occlusogingival direction. Using no veneering in the gingival regions of the pontics and connectors may solve this problem. This study evaluated the mechanical durability of zirconia FDPs with and without veneering in the gingival area of the connectors and pontics and subsequent air abrasion of this region with different protocols. Models were made of resin abutments (diameter = 6 or 8 mm, height = 6 mm, 6 degrees convergence) and embedded in polyurethane resin (distance = 11 mm)...
November 2016: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Jae Ho Jeon, Sahng-Kyoon Jerng, Kamran Akbar, Seung-Hyun Chun
The deposition of thin and uniform dielectric film on graphene is an important step for electronic applications. Here, we tackled this problem by combining a simple chemical treatment of graphene surface and a modification of standard atomic layer deposition (ALD). Instead of common approaches trying to convert hydrophobic graphene surface into hydrophilic one, we took the opposite way by applying a self-assembled-monolayer, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to make defect-independent, more hydrophobic surface condition...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chun-Sheng Liang, Huan Liu, Ke-Bin He, Yong-Liang Ma
Although air quality monitoring networks have been greatly improved, interpreting their expanding data in both simple and efficient ways remains challenging. Therefore, needed are new analytical methods. We developed such a method based on the comparison of pollutant concentrations between target and circum areas (circum comparison for short), and tested its applications by assessing the air pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Cheng-Yu, China during 2015. We found the circum comparison can instantly judge whether a city is a pollution permeation donor or a pollution permeation receptor by a Pollution Permeation Index (PPI)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Isabel Malico, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Maria João Costa
Since black carbon concentrations are useful to reveal changes in anthropogenic activities, measurements taken from 2007 to 2015 in a Portuguese city are used to assess to which extent the ambient air was impacted by the economic crisis. The average black carbon concentrations are representative of an urban area of small size (1.3 ± 1.3 μg m(-3)). The highest concentrations are observed in the heating season, being biomass combustion one of the causes for the high values. The daily cycle of black carbon concentrations presents both morning and evening peaks, mainly due to road traffic and, in the heating season, to domestic heating as well...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Micaela A R Soares, Margarida J Quina, Marco S Reis, Rosa Quinta-Ferreira
This study aims to investigate the co-composting of an inorganic industrial waste (eggshell - ES) in very high levels (up to 60% w/w). Since composting is a process in which solid, liquid and gaseous phases interact in a very complex way, there is a need to shed light on statistical tools that can unravel the main relationships structuring the variability associated to this process. In this study, PCA and data visualisation were used with that purpose. The co-composting tests were designed with increasing quantities of ES (0, 10, 20, 30 and 60%ES w/w) mixed with industrial potato peel and rice husks...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management
Divesh K Baxani, Alex J L Morgan, William D Jamieson, Christopher J Allender, David A Barrow, Oliver K Castell
The ability to make artificial lipid bilayers compatible with a wide range of environments, and with sufficient structural rigidity for manual handling, would open up a wealth of opportunities for their more routine use in real-world applications. Although droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have been demonstrated in a host of laboratory applications, from chemical logic to biosynthesis reaction vessels, their wider use is hampered by a lack of mechanical stability and the largely manual methods employed in their production...
October 11, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Mariana Matera Veras, Nilmara de Oliveira Alves, Lais Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva
Various environmental contaminants are known to impair the growth trajectories of major organs, indirectly (gestational exposure) or directly (postnatal exposure). Evidence associates pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes (e.g., low birth weight, prematurity) and with a wide range of diseases in childhood and later in life. In this review, we explore the way that pre-gestational and gestational exposure to air pollution affects lung development. We present results in topics underlining epidemiological and toxicological evidence...
October 10, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Carolina Shene, Yusuf Chisti, Daniela Vergara, César Burgos-Díaz, Mónica Rubilar, Mariela Bustamante
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO2...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Deborah J Lomax, Pallav Kant, Aled T Williams, Hollie V Patten, Yuqin Zou, Anne Juel, Robert A W Dryfe
The control of wetting behaviour underpins a variety of important applications from lubrication to microdroplet manipulation. Electrowetting is a powerful method to achieve external wetting control, by exploiting the potential-dependence of the liquid contact angle with respect to a solid substrate. Addition of a dielectric film to the surface of the substrate, which insulates the electrode from the liquid thereby suppressing electrolysis, has led to technological advances such as variable focal-length liquid lenses, electronic paper and the actuation of droplets in lab-on-a-chip devices...
October 5, 2016: Soft Matter
Stephan Gollob, Georg Karl Kocur, Thomas Schumacher, Lassaad Mhamdi, Thomas Vogel
In acoustic emission analysis, common source location algorithms assume, independently of the nature of the propagation medium, a straight (shortest) wave path between the source and the sensors. For heterogeneous media such as concrete, the wave travels in complex paths due to the interaction with the dissimilar material contents and with the possible geometrical and material irregularities present in these media. For instance, cracks and large air voids present in concrete influence significantly the way the wave travels, by causing wave path deviations...
October 4, 2016: Ultrasonics
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