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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922536/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-attention-in-primary-school-children-short-term-association
#1
Jordi Sunyer, Elisabet Suades-González, Raquel García-Esteban, Ioar Rivas, Jesús Pujol, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Xavier Querol, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution's short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children's attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT)...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921999/lift-calculations-based-on-accepted-wake-models-for-animal-flight-are-inconsistent-and-sensitive-to-vortex-dynamics
#2
Eric Gutierrez, Daniel B Quinn, Diana D Chin, David Lentink
There are three common methods for calculating the lift generated by a flying animal based on the measured airflow in the wake. However, these methods might not be accurate according to computational and robot-based studies of flapping wings. Here we test this hypothesis for the first time for a slowly flying Pacific parrotlet in still air using stereo particle image velocimetry recorded at 1000 Hz. The bird was trained to fly between two perches through a laser sheet wearing laser safety goggles. We found that the wingtip vortices generated during mid-downstroke advected down and broke up quickly, contradicting the frozen turbulence hypothesis typically assumed in animal flight experiments...
December 6, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918473/motion-of-adsorbed-nano-particles-on-azobenzene-containing-polymer-films
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Loebner, Joachim Jelken, Nataraja Sekhar Yadavalli, Elena Sava, Nicolae Hurduc, Svetlana Santer
We demonstrate in situ recorded motion of nano-objects adsorbed on a photosensitive polymer film. The motion is induced by a mass transport of the underlying photoresponsive polymer material occurring during irradiation with interference pattern. The polymer film contains azobenzene molecules that undergo reversible photoisomerization reaction from trans- to cis-conformation. Through a multi-scale chain of physico-chemical processes, this finally results in the macro-deformations of the film due to the changing elastic properties of polymer...
December 3, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914645/comparison-of-diverse-estimation-methods-for-personal-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-associations-with-allergic-symptoms-the-allergy-gene-environment-link-angel-study
#4
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Inbo Oh, Gwi-Nam Bae, Jae Young Lee, Chang-Heok Kim, SungChul Seo, Su Ryeon Noh, Kangmo Ahn
We estimated the exposure to ambient air pollutants and analyzed the associations with allergic diseases. We enrolled 177 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 70 asthmatic adults living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and followed for 17months between August 2013 and December 2014. Parents or patients recorded symptom scores on a daily basis. Exposure to particulate matter with a diameter <10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated in four different ways in each individual, using the AQ1 (measurements from the nearest air quality monitoring station to residential houses), AQ2 (measurements modified from AQ1 with the indoor level of air pollutants and time activity of each individual), AQ1-DI, and AQ2-DI (measurements modified from AQ1 and AQ2, respectively, with daily inhalation intakes of air pollutants)...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#5
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882425/assessment-of-regional-emphysema-air-trapping-and-xenon-ventilation-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#6
Sang Min Lee, Joon Beom Seo, Hye Jeon Hwang, Namkug Kim, Sang Young Oh, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Tae Hoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: To compare the parenchymal attenuation change between inspiration/expiration CTs with dynamic ventilation change between xenon wash-in (WI) inspiration and wash-out (WO) expiration CTs. METHODS: 52 prospectively enrolled COPD patients underwent xenon ventilation dual-energy CT during WI and WO periods and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The parenchymal attenuation parameters (emphysema index (EI), gas-trapping index (GTI) and air-trapping index (ATI)) and xenon ventilation parameters (xenon in WI (Xe-WI), xenon in WO (Xe-WO) and xenon dynamic (Xe-Dyna)) of whole lung and three divided areas (emphysema, hyperinflation and normal) were calculated on virtual non-contrast images and ventilation images...
November 23, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880032/zeolite-based-dry-formulations-for-conservation-and-practical-application-of-paraburkholderia-phytofirmans-psjn
#7
Teresa Berninger, Birgit Mitter, Claudia Preininger
AIM: Producing dry, zeolite-based granular and powder inoculants of the Gram negative, plant growth-promoting bacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Key aspects were maintenance of cell viability during desiccation and throughout storage at ambient conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20 additives and exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by PsJN were screened for conserving cell viability of PsJN in air drying and lyophilization. Suitable combinations (e.g. skimmed milk + air drying) increased survival of PsJN up to 100,000-fold and maintained it for > seven months...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878196/self-propelled-round-trip-motion-of-janus-particles-in-static-line-optical-tweezers
#8
Jing Liu, Hong-Lian Guo, Zhi-Yuan Li
Controlled propulsion of microparticles and micromachines in fluids could revolutionize many aspects of technology, such as biomedicine, microfluidics, micro-mechanics, optomechanics, and cell biology. We report the self-propelled cyclic round-trip motion of metallo-dielectric Janus particles in static line optical tweezers (LOT). The Janus particle is a 5 μm-diameter polystyrene sphere half-coated with 3 nanometer thick gold film. Both experiment and theory show that this cyclic translational and rotational motion is a consequence of the collective and fine action of the gold-face orientation dependent propulsion optical force, the gradient optical force, and the spontaneous symmetry breaking induced optical torque in different regions of the LOT...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876761/early-infant-adipose-deposition-is-positively-associated-with-the-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio-in-human-milk-independent-of-maternal-bmi
#9
M C Rudolph, B E Young, D J Lemas, C E Palmer, T L Hernandez, L A Barbour, J E Friedman, N F Krebs, P S MacLean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-months of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FA) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased 3-fold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBC) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2-weeks and 4-months postpartum...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869911/controlled-production-of-sub-millimeter-liquid-core-hydrogel-capsules-for-parallelized-3d-cell-culture
#10
Hugo Doméjean, Mathieu de la Motte Saint Pierre, Anette Funfak, Nicolas Atrux-Tallau, Kevin Alessandri, Pierre Nassoy, Jérôme Bibette, Nicolas Bremond
Liquid core capsules having a hydrogel membrane are becoming a versatile tool for three-dimensional culture of micro-organisms and mammalian cells. Making sub-millimeter capsules at a high rate, via the breakup of a compound jet in air, opens the way to high-throughput screening applications. However, control of the capsule size monodispersity, especially required for quantitative bioassays, was still lacking. Here, we report how the understanding of the underlying hydrodynamic instabilities that occur during the process can lead to calibrated core-shell bioreactors...
November 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867426/fragranced-consumer-products-exposures-and-effects-from-emissions
#11
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, are a primary source of indoor air pollutants and personal exposure. Previous research indicates that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects, with implications for workplaces and public places. This is the first study to examine the multiple dimensions of exposures related to fragranced products and effects in the US population. The study investigated the prevalence and types of fragranced product exposures, associated health effects, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and environments...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863103/the-use-of-molecular-oxygen-in-pharmaceutical-manufacturing-is-flow-the-way-to-go
#12
Christopher A Hone, Dominique M Roberge, C Oliver Kappe
Molecular oxygen is arguably the greenest reagent available to the organic chemist. Most commonly, a diluted form of oxygen gas, consisting of less than 10 % O2 in N2 ("synthetic air"), is used in pharmaceutical and fine chemical batch manufacturing to effectively address safety concerns when handling molecular oxygen. Concentrations of O2 in N2 below 10 % are generally required to prevent the risk of combustions in the presence of flammable organic solvents ("limiting oxygen concentration"). Nonetheless, the use of pure oxygen is more efficient than using O2 diluted with N2 and can often provide enhanced reaction rates, resulting in significant improvements in product quality and process efficiency...
November 16, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862472/-ag-oh2-2-ag-so4-2-the-first-hydrate-of-an-ag-ii-salt
#13
Wojciech Grochala, Tomasz E Gilewski, Jakub Gawraczyński, Mariana Derzsi, Zvonko Jagličić, Zoran Mazej, Piotr Połczyński, Rafal Jurczakowski, Piotr J Leszczyński
When exposed to air at ambient conditions, AgSO4 slowly reacts with moisture yielding AgSO4 x H2O. Its crystal structure determination (powder data) shows that it may be described as [Ag(OH2)2][Ag(SO4)2], with some sulfate groups being shared between different Ag2+ cations, resembling in that way its Cu2+ analogue. [Ag(OH2)2][Ag(SO4)2], the first hydrate of a compound of Ag2+, has been extensively characterized using many physicochemical methods.
November 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861967/drone-transportation-of-blood-products
#14
Timothy Amukele, Paul M Ness, Aaron A R Tobian, Joan Boyd, Jeff Street
BACKGROUND: Small civilian unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) are a novel way to transport small goods. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies examining the impact of drone transport on blood products, describing approaches to maintaining temperature control, or component physical characteristics during drone transport. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) and six apheresis platelet (PLT) units were split using sterile techniques...
November 11, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860457/design-and-fabrication-of-dual-photoelectrode-fuel-cell-towards-cost-effective-electricity-production-from-biomass-derivatives
#15
Can Li, Bingqing Zhang, Wenjun Fan, Tingting Yao, Shichao Liao, Deng Li, Jingying Shi, Shijun Liao, Ailong Li, Mingyao Liu
Photo fuel cell (PFC) offers an attractive way to simultaneously convert solar and biomass energy into electricity. Photocatalytic oxidation biomass oxidation on a semiconductor photoanode together with a dark electrochemical reduction of oxygen molecules on a metal cathode (usually Platinum) in separated compartment are the common configuration for a PFC. Herein, we report a membrane-free PFC based on dual-electrode of W-doped BiVO4 photoanode and polyterthiophene photocathode for solar stimulated biomass derivatives-to-electricity conversion...
November 18, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857067/one-volt-driven-superfast-polymer-actuators-based-on-single-ion-conductors
#16
Onnuri Kim, Hoon Kim, U Hyeok Choi, Moon Jeong Park
The key challenges in the advancement of actuator technologies related to artificial muscles include fast-response time, low operation voltages and durability. Although several researchers have tackled these challenges over the last few decades, no breakthrough has been made. Here we describe a platform for the development of soft actuators that moves a few millimetres under 1 V in air, with a superfast response time of tens of milliseconds. An essential component of this actuator is the single-ion-conducting polymers that contain well-defined ionic domains through the introduction of zwitterions; this achieved an exceptionally high dielectric constant of 76 and a 300-fold enhancement in ionic conductivity...
November 18, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853036/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-misdiagnosed-as-sputum-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#17
Muhammad Danasabe Isah, Aminu Abbas, Abdullahi A Abba, Mohammed Umar
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), also known as cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, is one of a spectrum of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is an increasingly common condition which poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges leading to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We presented a 55-year-old male textile trader who was initially managed as sputum-negative pulmonary tuberculosis before histology report. He presented to our clinic with Breathlessness and cough of 3 years and 2.5 years, respectively...
October 2016: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847748/effects-of-radiant-exposure-and-wavelength-spectrum-of-light-curing-units-on-chemical-and-physical-properties-of-resin-cements
#18
Adriano Fonseca Lima, Stephanie Ellen Ferreira Formaggio, Lígia França Aires Zambelli, Alan Rodrigo Muniz Palialol, Giselle Maria Marchi, Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni, Marcelo Tavares de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs) on the degree of conversion (DC) and the mechanical properties of resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG), according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm(2)) and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave)...
November 2016: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847327/solid-cellulose-nanofiber-based-foams-towards-facile-design-of-sustained-drug-delivery-systems
#19
Anna J Svagan, Jan-Willem Benjamins, Zeinab Al-Ansari, Daniel Bar Shalom, Anette Müllertz, Lars Wågberg, Korbinian Löbmann
Control of drug action through formulation is a vital and very challenging topic within pharmaceutical sciences. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are an excipient candidate in pharmaceutical formulations that could be used to easily optimize drug delivery rates. CNF has interesting physico-chemical properties that, when combined with surfactants, can be used to create very stable air bubbles and dry foams. Utilizing this inherent property, it is possible to modify the release kinetics of the model drug riboflavin in a facile way...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842934/surface-properties-and-morphology-of-mixed-poss-dppc-monolayers-at-the-air-water-interface
#20
Monika Rojewska, Marta Skrzypiec, Krystyna Prochaska
From the point of view of the possible medical applications of POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes), it is crucial to analyse interactions occurring between POSS and model biological membrane at molecular level. Knowledge of the interaction between POSS and DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) allows prediction of the impact of POSS contained in biomaterials or cosmetics on a living organism. In the study presented, the surface properties and morphology of Langmuir monolayers formed by mixtures of POSS and the phospholipid (DPPC) at the air/water surface are examined...
October 29, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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