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Xiaoxiao Zhu, Chunyan Li, Jianfa Li, Bin Xie, Jinhong Lü, Yimin Li
For the purpose of producing carbons with developed mesoporosity, a wood biochar was thermally treated at 600-800 °C in the air/nitrogen atmosphere. The mesopore development was observed when the air flux increased to 50-90 mL/min, and the carbon product having high mesopore surface area (316 m2 /g) and mesopore pore volume (0.284 cm3 /g) was produced at the treatment temperature of 700 °C. The mesopores were developed mainly in the temperature holding stage of thermal treatment, with size mainly ranged from 20 to 60 Å...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
M F Overholt, J E Lowell, G D Kim, D D Boler, B J Kerr, A C Dilger
Objectives were to evaluate effects of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on fresh belly characteristics, processing yields, and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon stored under food-service style conditions. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Tuan Anh Huu Nguyen, Simon R Biggs, Anh V Nguyen
Current analytical models for sessile droplet evaporation do not consider the non-uniform temperature field within the droplet and can over-predict the evaporation by 20%. This deviation can be attributed to a significant temperature drop due to the release of the latent heat of evaporation along the air-liquid interface. We report, for the first time, an analytical solution of the sessile droplet evaporation coupled with this interfacial cooling effect. The two-way coupling model of the quasi-steady thermal diffusion within the droplet and the quasi-steady diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation is conveniently solved in the toroidal coordinate system by applying the method of separation of variables...
May 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Weiwei Pu, Xuefeng Shi, Lili Wang, Jing Xu, Zhiqiang Ma
Understanding the potential source regions of air pollutants and their relative contribution from surrounding areas are of great importance for air pollution control strategies in Northern China. Six years of measurement of air pollutants was conducted from 2005 to 2010 in Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide and ozone (Ox ), and fine particle matter less than or equal to 2.5μm (PM2...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Seyed Milad Vahabi, Mostean Bahreinipour, Mojtaba Shamsaie Zafarghandi
The SAVI has gained widespread use for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) brachytherapy. Treatments with SAVI produce inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to proximity to the tissue-air interface and variable cavity contents, causing inaccuracy in the dose calculation. In this study, a model of SAVI with sources of 169 Yb developed recently was defined and simulations with MCNP4C code of Monte Carlo were performed through different scenarios to assess the effects of these heterogeneities on the dose distribution...
May 13, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Pradnya D Rao, Husile Nanding, Andrew A Strasser, Paul M Wise
Introduction: The US Food and Drug Administration banned most "sweet" flavorants for use in cigarettes due to the concern that sweet flavors appeal to young, beginning smokers. However, many of the same flavors, including fruity and confection-associated aromas (e.g. vanilla) are still used in e-cigarettes. Sweet flavors may have a number of effects, including enhancement of the taste of other ingredients. The current work focused on the impact of model flavorants on the taste of a mixture of propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine, solvents used in most e-cigarettes and related products...
April 2018: Chemosensory Perception
Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Claudia Iveth Astudillo-García, Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar, Víctor Alfonso Florez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that air pollution could be associated with suicide. However, other studies have criticized these results for being analytically weak and not taking into account potential confounding factors. As such, further studies examining the relationship under diverse contexts are necessary to help clarify this issue. This study explored the association between specific air pollutants (NO2 , SO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 , CO and O3 ) and suicide incidence in four Colombian cities after adjusting for climatic variables and holidays...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Alejandra Folco, Sandra Benítez-Rogé, Diana Calabrese, Marina Iglesias, María Lumi, Pedro Hetch, María E Mateu
Knowledge of the best way to evaluate changes in transverse dimension produced by orthodontic treatment enables the estimation of potential space that may be generated and optimizes planning. The aim of this study was to compare two methods for measuring changes in transverse dimension following tooth alignment by passive self-ligating system: Method 1 (M1) considering palatal landmarks and Method 2 (M2) considering dental landmarks. Subjects were 12 patients of both sexes, aged 15 to 24 years old, with moderate crowding (Nance discrepancy -4 to -6 mm), who were treated with the Damon System at the Department of Orthodontics of the School of Dentistry, Buenos Aires University...
December 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Sachin Kumar Tomar, Saswati Chakraborty
The impact of air flow rate on aerobic granulation was evaluated for treating toxic multiple pollutants; phenol (400 mg L-1 ), thiocyanate (100 mg L-1 ) and ammonia nitrogen (100 mg L-1 ) by using three lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) (R1, R2 and R3). Larger granules (2938.67 ± 64.91 μm) with higher biomass concentration (volatile solids of 4.17 ± 0.09 g L-1 ), higher granule settling velocity (55.56 ± 1.36 m h-1 ) and lower sludge volume index (35.25 ± 1...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mickaël Mateos, Rita Meunier-Prest, Olivier Heintz, Frederic Herbst, Jean-Moïse Suisse, Marcel Bouvet
In this work, we report for the first time on a comprehensive study of poly(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroaniline (PTFANI). Contrary to the non fluorinated polyaniline or its analogues bearing one fluorine atom, PTFANI is a poorly conductive material. We present a comprehensive study of the electrosynthesized PTFANI from its monomer in acidic aqueous medium. PTFANI was fully characterized by a potential-pH diagram, spectroelectrochemistry, and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements, as well as by a morphological study...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guangyu Cao, Madeleine C A Storås, Amar Aganovic, Liv-Inger Stenstad, Jan Gunnar Skogås
BACKGROUND: Airflow distribution in the operating room plays an important role in ensuring a clean operating microenvironment and preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) caused by airborne contaminations. The objective of this study was to characterize the airflow distribution in proximity to a patient in an orthopedic operating room. METHODS: Experimental measurements were conducted in a real operating room at St. Olav's Hospital, Norway, with a laminar airflow system...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Jessie Madrazo, Alain Clappier, Luis Carlos Belalcazar, Osvaldo Cuesta, Heydi Contreras, François Golay
In the vast majority of Latin American and South American countries, global emission inventories (EIs) are often used for modelling air quality. In particular the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research EDGAR is widely deployed but several studies have pointed to some gaps in comparison with national/regional inventories which incur errors in interpreting results. In Cuba, due to scarcity of a spatially distributed national inventory, EDGAR has been used as entry for air quality modelling without verifying their reliability over the region...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A García Rellán, C Vázquez Brea, P M Bello Bugallo
Fishing is one of the most important marine activities. It contributes to both overfishing and marine pollution, the two main threats to the ocean environment. In this context, the aim of this work is to investigate and validate methodologies for the identification of more sustainable operating configurations for a tuna purse seiner. The proposed methodology is based on a previous one applied to secondary industrial systems, taking into account the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control focus, developed for the most potentially industrial polluting sources...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Wang, Liang Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Jiang-Shan Li, Tiffany L Y Yeung, Shiming Ding, Chi Sun Poon
Navigational dredging is an excavation of marine/freshwater sediment to maintain channels of sufficient depth for shipping safety. Due to historical inputs of anthropogenic contaminants, sediments are often contaminated by metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other contaminants. Its disposal can present significant environmental and financial burdens. This study developed a novel and green remediation method for contaminated sediment using stabilization/solidification with calcium-rich/low-calcium industrial by-products and CO2 utilization...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fu Yang, Muhammad Akmal Kamarudin, PuTao Zhang, Gaurav Kapil, Tingli Ma, Shuzi Hayase
Perovskite solar cells have attracted considerable attention owing to easy and low-cost solution manufacturing process with high power conversion efficiency. However, the fabrication process is usually performed inside glovebox to avoid the moisture, as organometallic halide perovskite is easily dissolved in water. In this study, we propose one-step fabrication of high-quality MAPbI3 perovskite films in 50 % RH humid ambient air by using diethyl ether as an anti-solvent and methanol as an additive into this anti-solvent...
May 4, 2018: ChemSusChem
Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal Silva, Victor Talarico Leal Vieira, Tanize Theresinha Gonçalves Gabina, Henrique Dos Santos Antunes, Hélio Pereira Lopes, Gustavo De-Deus
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc M-Wire R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) and Reciproc R25 Blue instruments (VDW) driven by Direct® (VDW) contra-angle connected to an ordinary an air-driven motor or an electric motor and compare the results with those obtained by the Reciproc M-Wire R25 or Reciproc Blue R25 instruments driven by an electric torque-controlled motor using "RECIPROC ALL" preset program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty Reciproc M-Wire R25 (25/0...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Libuše Váchová, Zdena Palková
Yeasts, like other microorganisms, create numerous types of multicellular communities, which differ in their complexity, cell differentiation and in the occupation of different niches. Some of the communities, such as colonies and some types of biofilms, develop by division and subsequent differentiation of cells growing on semisolid or solid surfaces to which they are attached or which they can penetrate. Aggregation of individual cells is important for formation of other community types, such as multicellular flocs, which sediment to the bottom or float to the surface of liquid cultures forming flor biofilms, organized at the border between liquid and air under specific circumstances...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
W W Li, D N Wang, Z K Wang, Ben Xu
A fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of femtosecond laser inscribed short sections of waveguide is presented. One short waveguide directs part of the propagating light from the fiber core to the cladding-air interface, and experiences multiple total internal reflections before taking back to the fiber core by the other short waveguide. The device is robust in structure, can be fabricated in a fast way and with a flexible manner, and has the capability of ambient refractive index sensing, which makes it highly desirable for many "lab-in-fiber" applications...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Jia Li, Gordon Martinez-Piedra, Olga Korotkova
The average intensity, as well as the intensity-intensity correlation at one and two points of the He-Ne laser beam passing in the monostatic double-passage (21 meter long in single pass) atmospheric channel with a retro-reflector are measured experimentally. The non-classic turbulence is generated in two different ways: by means of a 1.8-meter long turbulent chamber with 3D distributed non-classic turbulence and a localized hot air jet-stream applied to the beam in a transverse direction. The Enhanced Back Scatterer (EBS) effects produced by the two types of turbulence are compared as turbulence is placed at various locations along the channel...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Helong Li, Hongwei Zang, Qiulan Huang, Chang Liu, Yue Su, Yao Fu, Mengyao Hou, Aiwu Li, Hong Chen, See-Leang Chin, Huailiang Xu
We demonstrate the generation of filament array with orthogonal polarizations in air by using specifically designed wedge-type birefringent quartz plates. Experimental results show that the number of the generated filaments can be expressed as N = 2n wherenis the number of quartz plates inserted in the laser propagation path. By manipulating the optic axis of the quartz plates with respect to the polarization direction of the input laser pulse, the generated filaments can be separated into two parts with the polarization directions perpendicular with each other...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
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