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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329930/-commuting-mode-specific-exposure-to-pm-2-5-in-urban-area-of-guangzhou
#1
X J Lyu, Z H Li, X Li, W L Zeng, P Yang, Q X Lin, J Y Zheng, X L Du, Y Z Gu, Y Q Zhao, R S Xie, T Liu, H L Lin, W J Ma
Objective: To find the differences in PM(2.5) exposure level in the context of four commuting modes (by walk, bicycle, bus and subway) in Guangzhou. Methods: The PM(2.5) exposure assessment was carried out from January to December 2015 in Guangzhou. PM(2.5) was measured by using SidePak individual dust meter (AM510, TSI Inc. USA) with time interval of 1 minute. Our measurement was taken on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday in the second week of each month and the samples were collected in the morning (07:00-09:00), afternoon (11:00-13:00) and evening (17:00-19:00)...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327501/accurate-determination-of-the-frequency-response-function-of-submerged-and-confined-structures-by-using-pzt-patches%C3%A2
#2
Alexandre Presas, David Valentin, Eduard Egusquiza, Carme Valero, Mònica Egusquiza, Matias Bossio
To accurately determine the dynamic response of a structure is of relevant interest in many engineering applications. Particularly, it is of paramount importance to determine the Frequency Response Function (FRF) for structures subjected to dynamic loads in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems that can drastically reduce their useful life. One challenging case is the experimental determination of the FRF of submerged and confined structures, such as hydraulic turbines, which are greatly affected by dynamic problems as reported in many cases in the past...
March 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306197/pediatric-upper-airway-dimensions-using-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-imaging
#3
Tariq M Wani, Mahmood Rafiq, Salman Talpur, Lahbib Soualmi, Joseph D Tobias
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography- (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements have recently suggested that the narrowest dimension of the pediatric airway is the subglottic region. These data are contrary to the previously held tenets of a funnel- or conical-shaped airway. The current study evaluates airway volumes and shapes using three-dimensional CT images of the air way column in spontaneously breathing children. METHODS: The study included CT-based radiological images of the neck in children who required imaging unrelated to airway symptomatology...
March 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300096/biofuel-blending-reduces-particle-emissions-from-aircraft-engines-at-cruise-conditions
#4
Richard H Moore, Kenneth L Thornhill, Bernadett Weinzierl, Daniel Sauer, Eugenio D'Ascoli, Jin Kim, Michael Lichtenstern, Monika Scheibe, Brian Beaton, Andreas J Beyersdorf, John Barrick, Dan Bulzan, Chelsea A Corr, Ewan Crosbie, Tina Jurkat, Robert Martin, Dean Riddick, Michael Shook, Gregory Slover, Christiane Voigt, Robert White, Edward Winstead, Richard Yasky, Luke D Ziemba, Anthony Brown, Hans Schlager, Bruce E Anderson
Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol-cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293493/technique-to-improve-tracheostomy-speaking-valve-tolerance-after-head-and-neck-free-flap-reconstruction
#5
John T Stranix, Keri M Danziger, Veturia L Dumbrava, Ginger Mars, David L Hirsch, Jamie P Levine
Increased upper airway resistance from postoperative changes after major head and neck surgery may cause elevated transtracheal pressures and result in tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance. This may be particularly true among patients with baseline pulmonary disease. We describe a patient recovering from oral cancer resection and flap reconstruction who demonstrated prolonged ventilator dependence and tracheostomy speaking valve intolerance with abnormal tracheal manometry. We attempted to improve speaking valve tolerance through the adaptation of a valve modification intended to reduce transtracheal pressures...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290566/mesoporous-nico2o4-networks-with-enhanced-performance-as-counter-electrodes-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#6
Chenle Zhang, Libo Deng, Peixin Zhang, Xiangzhong Ren, Yongliang Li, Tingshu He
The performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is strongly influenced by the catalytic performance of its counter electrode (CE) materials. Platinum (Pt) is conventionally used as the CE for DSSCs, but it is precious and is readily corroded by the iodide/triiodide electrolyte. Herein, mesoporous NiCo2O4 networks with different types of building blocks were prepared by electrospinning of a composite solution followed by annealing in air, and their performances as CEs in DSSCs were investigated. The honeycomb-like NiCo2O4 exhibited better performance than the nanotube ones, showing a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 7...
March 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288573/hemoglobin-vesicles-prolong-the-time-to-circulatory-collapse-in-rats-during-apnea
#7
Yusuke Naito, Hiromi Sakai, Satoki Inoue, Masahiko Kawaguchi
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin vesicles (HbV) are hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers manufactured by liposome encapsulation of hemoglobin molecules. We hypothesised that the infusion of oxygenated HbV could prolong the time to circulatory collapse during apnea in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (Air, Oxy, NS and HbV). The rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane and the trachea was intubated using 14-gauge intravenous catheters...
March 14, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286602/climate-change-allergy-and-asthma-and-the-role-of-tropical-forests
#8
REVIEW
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Nelson Rosario, Herberto Josè Chong Neto, Deborah Carla Chong-Silva, Francisco Mendonça, Josè Perini, Loraine Landgraf, Dirceu Solé, Mario Sánchez-Borges, Ignacio Ansotegui, Maria D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Tropical forests cover less than 10 per cent of all land area (1.8 × 107 km(2)) and over half of the tropical-forest area (1.1 × 107 Km(2)) is represented by humid tropical forests (also called tropical rainforests). The Amazon basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth, almost 5.8 million km(2), and occupies about 40% of South America; more than 60% of the basin is located in Brazil and the rest in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286509/weed-diversity-affects-soybean-and-maize-yield-in-a-long-term-experiment-in-michigan-usa
#9
Rosana Ferrero, Mauricio Lima, Adam S Davis, Jose L Gonzalez-Andujar
Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284842/ageing-and-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-mimicking-sleep-apnea-do-not-modify-local-brain-tissue-stiffness-in-healthy-mice
#10
Ignasi Jorba, Maria José Menal, Marta Torres, David Gozal, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll, Anna Colell, Josep M Montserrat, Daniel Navajas, Ramon Farré, Isaac Almendros
Recent evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of Alzheimer´s disease (AD), with the latter promoting alterations in brain tissue stiffness, a feature of ageing. Here, we assessed the effects of age and intermittent hypoxia (IH) on brain tissue stiffness in a mouse model of OSA. Two-month-old and 18-month-old mice (N=10 each) were subjected to IH (20% O2 40s - 6% O2 20s) for 8 weeks (6h/day). Corresponding control groups for each age were kept under normoxic conditions in room air (RA)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282865/utilizing-crowdsourced-data-for-studies-of-cycling-and-air-pollution-exposure-a-case-study-using-strava-data
#11
Yeran Sun, Amin Mobasheri
With the development of information and communications technology, user-generated content and crowdsourced data are playing a large role in studies of transport and public health. Recently, Strava, a popular website and mobile app dedicated to tracking athletic activity (cycling and running), began offering a data service called Strava Metro, designed to help transportation researchers and urban planners to improve infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians. Strava Metro data has the potential to promote studies of cycling and health by indicating where commuting and non-commuting cycling activities are at a large spatial scale (street level and intersection level)...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282464/how-to-reach-haze-control-targets-by-air-pollutants-emission-reduction-in-the-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-of-china
#12
Feng Xu, Nan Xiang, Yoshiro Higano
Currently, Haze is one of the greatest environmental problems with serious impacts on human health in China, especially in capital region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region). To alleviate this problem, the Chinese government introduced a National Air Pollution Control Action Plan (NAPCAP) with air pollutants reduction targets by 2017. However, there is doubt whether these targets can be achieved once the plan is implemented. In this work, the effectiveness of NAPCAP is analyzed by developing models of the statistical relationship between PM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282178/viscoelastic-drag-forces-and-crossover-from-no-slip-to-slip-boundary-conditions-for-flow-near-air-water-interfaces
#13
A Maali, R Boisgard, H Chraibi, Z Zhang, H Kellay, A Würger
The "free" water surface is generally prone to contamination with surface impurities, be they surfactants, particles, or other surface active agents. The presence of such impurities can modify flow near such interfaces in a drastic manner. Here we show that vibrating a small sphere mounted on an atomic force microscope cantilever near a gas bubble immersed in water is an excellent probe of surface contamination. Both viscous and elastic forces are exerted by an air-water interface on the vibrating sphere even when very low doses of contaminants are present...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276677/a-readily-accessible-chiral-nnn-pincer-ligand-with-a-pyrrole-backbone-and-its-ni-ii-chemistry-syntheses-structural-chemistry-and-bond-activations
#14
Jan Wenz, Alexander Kochan, Hubert Wadepohl, Lutz H Gade
A new class of chiral C2-symmetric N-donor pincer ligands, 2,5-bis(2-oxazolinyldimethylmethyl)pyrroles (PdmBox)H, was synthesized starting from the readily available ethyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-oxobutanoate (1). The synthesis of the ligand backbone was achieved by oxidative enole coupling with CuC12 followed by Paal-Knorr-type pyrrole synthesis. The corresponding protioligands ((R)PdmBox)H (R = iPr: 5a; Ph: 5b) were obtained by condensation with amino alcohols and subsequent zinc-catalyzed cyclization. Reaction of the lithiated ligands with [NiCl2(dme)] yielded the corresponding square-planar nickel(II) complexes [((R)PdmBox)NiCl] (6a/b)...
March 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275902/pm2-5-exposure-suppresses-dendritic-maturation-in-subgranular-zone-in-aged-rats
#15
Lewis Cheng, Way K W Lau, Timothy K H Fung, Benson W M Lau, Bolton K H Chau, Yutong Liang, Zhe Wang, Kwok Fai So, Tao Wang, Chetwyn C H Chan, Tatia M C Lee
Detrimental effects of long-term inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been widely reported. Recent studies have shown that exposure to PM2.5 also causes adverse neurocognitive effects. This study investigates the effects of inhaled ammonium sulfate, which is a major compound of inorganic air pollutants in PM2.5, on adult neurogenesis in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 20 rats were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 10) and control (n = 10) conditions, wherein they were exposed to either ammonium sulfate or sham air for 2 h per day and for 28 consecutive days...
March 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272071/a-study-on-the-effect-of-prolonged-mobile-phone-use-on-pure-tone-audiometry-thresholds-of-medical-students-of-sikkim
#16
S Das, S Chakraborty, B Mahanta
INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable for daily activities, and people are exposed to them from an early age. There is, however, concern about the harmful effect of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the mobile phones. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to study the effect of mobile phone on average pure tone audiometry (PTA) threshold of the person and to study the changes in the pure tone threshold at high frequencies such as 2 kHz, 4 kHz, and 8 kHz among the students with prolonged exposure to mobile phones...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267345/high-indexed-pt3ni-alloy-tetrahexahedral-nanoframes-evolved-through-preferential-co-etching
#17
Chenyu Wang, Lihua Zhang, Hongzhou Yang, Jinfong Pan, Jingyue Liu, Charles Dotse, Yiliang Luan, Rui Gao, Cuikun Lin, Jun Zhang, James P Kilcrease, Xiaodong Wen, Shouzhong Zou, Jiye Fang
Chemically controlling crystal structures in nanoscale is challenging, yet provides an effective way to improve catalytic performances. Pt-based nanoframes are a new class of nanomaterials that have great potential as high-performance catalysts. To date, these nanoframes are formed through acid etching in aqueous solutions, which demands long reaction time and often yields ill-defined surface structures. Herein we demonstrate a robust and unprecedented protocol for facile development of high-performance nanoframe catalysts using size and crystallographic facet-controlled PtNi4 tetrahexahedral nanocrystals prepared through a colloidal synthesis approach as precursors...
March 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267226/analyzing-symptom-data-in-indoor-air-questionnaires-for-primary-schools
#18
Sari Ung-Lanki, Jussi Lampi, Juha Pekkanen
Questionnaires on symptoms and perceived quality of indoor environment are used to assess indoor environment problems, but mainly among adults. The aim of this article is to explore best ways to analyze and report such symptom data, as part of a project to develop a parent-administered indoor air questionnaire for primary school pupils. Indoor air questionnaire with 25 questions on child's symptoms in the last 4 weeks was sent to parents in 5 primary schools with indoor air problems and in 5 control schools...
March 7, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264671/lifestyles-and-socio-cultural-factors-among-children-aged-6-8-years-from-five-italian-towns-the-mapec_life-study-cohort
#19
Francesco Bagordo, Antonella De Donno, Tiziana Grassi, Marcello Guido, Gabriele Devoti, Elisabetta Ceretti, Claudia Zani, Donatella Feretti, Milena Villarini, Massimo Moretti, Tania Salvatori, Annalaura Carducci, Marco Verani, Beatrice Casini, Sara Bonetta, Elisabetta Carraro, Tiziana Schilirò, Silvia Bonizzoni, Alberto Bonetti, Umberto Gelatti
BACKGROUND: Lifestyles profoundly determine the quality of an individual's health and life since his childhood. Many diseases in adulthood are avoidable if health-risk behaviors are identified and improved at an early stage of life. The aim of the present research was to characterize a cohort of children aged 6-8 years selected in order to perform an epidemiological molecular study (the MAPEC_LIFE study), investigate lifestyles of the children that could have effect on their health status, and assess possible association between lifestyles and socio-cultural factors...
March 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259651/monolayer-crystal-streptavidin-support-films-provide-an-internal-standard-of-cryo-em-image-quality
#20
Bong-Gyoon Han, Zoe Watson, Jamie H D Cate, Robert M Glaeser
Analysis of images of biotinylated Escherichia coli 70S ribosome particles, bound to streptavidin affinity grids, demonstrates that the image-quality of particles can be predicted by the image-quality of the monolayer crystalline support film. The quality of the Thon rings is also a good predictor of the image-quality of particles, but only when images of the streptavidin crystals extend to relatively high resolution. When the estimated resolution of streptavidin was 5 Å or worse, for example, the ribosomal density map obtained from 22,697 particles went to only 9...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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