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Wyatt E Lanik, Lily Xu, Cliff J Luke, Elise Z Hu, Pranjal Agrawal, Victoria S Liu, Rajesh Kumar, Alexa M Bolock, Congrong Ma, Misty Good
Human small intestinal enteroids are derived from the crypts and when grown in a stem cell niche contain all of the epithelial cell types. The ability to establish human enteroid ex vivo culture systems are important to model intestinal pathophysiology and to study the particular cellular responses involved. In recent years, enteroids from mice and humans are being cultured, passaged, and banked away for future use in several laboratories across the world. This enteroid platform can be used to test the effects of various treatments and drugs and what effects are exerted on different cell types in the intestine...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Aisha Nazli, Sara Dizzell, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Victor H Ferreira, Jessica Kafka, Matthew William Woods, Michel Ouellet, Ali A Ashkar, Michel J Tremblay, Dawn Me Bowdish, Charu Kaushic
More than 40% of HIV infections occur via female reproductive tract (FRT) through heterosexual transmission. Epithelial cells that line the female genital mucosa are the first line of defense against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens. These sentient cells recognize and respond to external stimuli by induction of a range of carefully balanced innate immune responses. Previously, we have shown that in response to HIV-1 gp120, the genital epithelial cells (GECs) from upper reproductive tract induce an inflammatory response that may facilitate HIV-1 translocation and infection...
March 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Zhihong Yang, Lixia Ji, Guohui Jiang, Ranran Liu, Zhantao Liu, Yuecheng Yang, Qingxia Ma, Hongqin Zhao
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of FL118, a novel camptothecin analogue, on migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms of those effects. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and a plate clone formation assay were used to examine inhibition of the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by FL118. Cell cycle distribution was detected using flow cytometry. A wound healing assay and a transwell assay were performed to detect the effects of FL118 on migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Christopher J Schwartz, Cynthia A Schandl, Jennifer Morse, Jonathan Ralston, Amy Rapkiewicz, Farbod Darvishian
Myxoid lesions of the breast can be diagnostically challenging entities. We report 4 cases of CD34+ fibromyxoid lesion that have been previously diagnosed as "benign myxoid lesion," "nodular mucinosis," or "mammary myofibroblastoma, myxoid type" on the basis of CD34-positivity. The lesions were microscopically well circumscribed and composed of a paucicellular spindle cell proliferation in a background of myxoid stroma. No epithelial component was identified. The spindle cells showed immunohistochemical reactivity for CD34 and smooth muscle actin...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
A Porzia, C Cavaliere, E Begvarfaj, S Masieri, F Mainiero
The mucosal immune system located in correspondence to the olfactory organs in adult humans is not well identifiable but has proven important in establishing an effective immune response against inhaled antigens, including the generation of Helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells. It is constituted by a diffused network of cells of epithelial and immune origin, as well as organized lymphoid tissue, where each component has a role in the initiation and maintenance of a long-lasting immune response, which is evoked not only in the oral and nasal cavities but also in the respiratory, intestinal and genito-urinary tracts...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Ge Shi, Wei Wu, Yi-Gang Wan, He Wei-Ming Hex, Yue Tu, Wen-Bei Han, Bu-Hui Liu, Ying-Lu Liu, Zi-Yue Wan
To explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of triptolide(TP)on improving podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT)induced by high dose of D-glucose(HG), the immortalized podocytes of mice in vitro were divided into the normal group(N), the high dose of D-glucose group(HG), the low dose of TP group(L-TP), the high dose of TP group(H-TP)and the mannitol group(MNT), and treated by the different measures respectively. More specifically, the podocytes in each group were separately treated by D-glucose(DG, 5 mmol·L⁻¹)or HG(25 mmol·L⁻¹)or HG(25 mmol·L⁻¹)+ TP(3 μg·L⁻¹)or HG(25 mmol·L⁻¹)+ TP(10 μg·L⁻¹)or DG(5 mmol·L⁻¹)+ MNT(24...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Zhihong Liu, Youfu Zhang, Zhidan Xu
PURPOSE: It has been reported that UNC119 is significantly up-regulated in liver cancer cells. However, the role of UNC119 in liver cancer and the clinical significance of reducing its expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of UNC119 in HCC and its connection with the progression of HCC. METHODS: UNC119 expression in HCC cell lines and tissues was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Zhihong Liu, Youfu Zhang, Zhidan Xu
PURPOSE: It has been reported that UNC119 is significantly up-regulated in liver cancer cells. However, the role of UNC119 in liver cancer and the clinical significance of reducing its expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of UNC119 in HCC and its connection with the progression of HCC. METHODS: UNC119 expression in HCC cell lines and tissues was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Aikaterini D Lianou, Vasileios Ragos, Panagiotis P Fotiades, Evangelos Tsiambas, Anna Batistatou, Ioannis Kastanioudakis
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis represents a well analyzed model of viral implication in epithelial malignant transformation. Mechanisms of high risk (HR) HPV-related infection seem to demonstrate a similar action regarding its implication in head and neck (HN) carcinomas, predominantly in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histological type. The prevalence of HR HPV subtypes - mainly HPV16 - is characterized by a broad geographic heterogeneity. Furthermore, HPV-associated HNSCCs demonstrate differences regarding sexual, molecular, epidemiological, and prognostic features compared to alcohol and tobacco dependent ones...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yuta Kasagi, Prasanna M Chandramouleeswaran, Kelly A Whelan, Koji Tanaka, Veronique Giroux, Medha Sharma, Joshua Wang, Alain J Benitez, Maureen DeMarshall, John W Tobias, Kathryn E Hamilton, Gary W Falk, Jonathan M Spergel, Andres J Klein-Szanto, Anil K Rustgi, Amanda B Muir, Hiroshi Nakagawa
Background & Aims: Aberrations in the esophageal proliferation-differentiation gradient are histologic hallmarks in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. A reliable protocol to grow 3-dimensional (3D) esophageal organoids is needed to study esophageal epithelial homeostasis under physiological and pathologic conditions. Methods: We modified keratinocyte-serum free medium to grow 3D organoids from endoscopic esophageal biopsies, immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, and murine esophagi...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Hope Cottrill, Stephanie Cason, Scott Caroen, Bryan Oronsky, Elvis Donaldson
This case report describes the clinical course of a heavily pretreated patient enrolled on the Phase II QUADRUPLE THREAT clinical trial (NCT02489903) with recurrent metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer that was previously treated with a platinum doublet and that benefited from another reintroduction of a platinum doublet after a brief priming period with RRx-001. Platinum-taxane combination is the initial treatment of choice in ovarian cancer and the "go-to regimen" for patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive disease...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Viacheslav Mazlin, Peng Xiao, Eugénie Dalimier, Kate Grieve, Kristina Irsch, José-Alain Sahel, Mathias Fink, A Claude Boccara
We present the first full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) device capable of in vivo imaging of the human cornea. We obtained images of the epithelial structures, Bowman's layer, sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP), anterior and posterior stromal keratocytes, stromal nerves, Descemet's membrane and endothelial cells with visible nuclei. Images were acquired with a high lateral resolution of 1.7 µm and relatively large field-of-view of 1.26 mm x 1.26 mm - a combination, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been possible with other in vivo human eye imaging methods...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Roland Thuenauer, Simon Nicklaus, Marco Frensch, Kevin Troendle, Josef Madl, Winfried Römer
A key factor determining the fate of individual cells within an epithelium is the unique microenvironment that surrounds each cell. It regulates location-dependent differentiation into specific cellular sub-types, but, on the other hand, a disturbed microenvironment can promote malignant transformation of epithelial cells leading to cancer formation. Here, we present a tool based on a microfluidic biochip that enables novel research approaches by providing a means to control the basolateral microenvironment of a confined number of neighbouring cells within an epithelial monolayer...
February 19, 2018: RSC Advances
Fangfang Tao, Xinxin Tian, Zhiqian Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be of great importance in the formation and progression of a wide range of human carcinomas including prostate cancer (PCa). Among them, PCAT3 and PCAT9 have been identified as two prostate tissue-specific lncRNAs and are up-regulated in PCa. However, their roles in the biological characteristics of PCa have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, our data revealed that knockdown of PCAT3 and PCAT9 suppressed cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and stemness in androgen-dependent LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Michelle Faria, Samaneh Karami, Sergio Granados-Principal, Prasenjit Dey, Akanksha Verma, Dong S Choi, Olivier Elemento, Tasneem Bawa-Khalfe, Jenny C Chang, Anders M Strom, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) still remains a challenge to treat in the clinic due to a lack of good targets for treatment. Although TNBC lacks expression of ERα, the expression of ERβ and its variants are detected quite frequently in this cancer type and can represent an avenue for treatment. We show that two of the variants of ERβ, namely ERβ2 and ERβ5, control aggressiveness of TNBC by regulating hypoxic signaling through stabilization of HIF-1α. RNA-seq of patient derived xenografts (PDX) from TNBC shows expression of ERβ2, ERβ4 and ERβ5 variants in more than half of the samples...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Tong Shen, Shi Li, Ling-Dong Cai, Jing-Lin Liu, Chu-Yi Wang, Wen-Juan Gan, Xiu-Ming Li, Jing-Ru Wang, Li-Na Sun, Min Deng, Yu-Hong Liu, Jian-Ming Li
The pathogenesis and key functional molecules involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unclear. Here, we reported that Erbin, a protein required for the polarity of epithelial cells, is conserved across species and highly expressed in the intestinal mucosa in mice and zebrafish. Pathologically, Erbin expression in the intestinal mucosa was significantly decreased in DSS induced acute colitis mice, IL-10 deficient mice and clinical biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Xiao-Long Zhang, Gang Xu, Yi Zhou, Jia-Jun Yan
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is insensitive to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and its prognosis remains poor. Targeted therapy is a novel technique for the treatment of RCC. The present study aimed to determine the precise effects of microRNA-183 (miR-183) on RCC. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted in order to analyze the expression level of miR-183 in RCC cell lines. Cell transfection, viability assays and invasion assays were also performed, followed by western blot analysis and a luciferase reporter assay, in order to examine the effects of miR-183...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yuanyuan Wang, Jiaojiao Gu, Xiangde Lin, Wei Yan, Wenchao Yang, Guoyang Wu
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the endocrine system. Among all types of thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) BRAF-activated non-protein-coding RNA (BANCR) is a 688-bp-long nucleotide transcript, which was first identified in melanoma. The function of BANCR in thyroid cancer remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether BANCR is involved in the development of thyroid cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jie Peng, Fang Hou, Jun Feng, Shui-Xian Xu, Xiao-Yan Meng
Cervical cancer is one of the most malignant types of tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in females worldwide. High expression of brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BCYRN1) has been detected in various tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of BCYRN1 in the viability and motility of cervical cancer, and the relevant mechanism. The results demonstrated that BCYRN1 was upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. Elevated levels of BCYRN1 were also detected in three human cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa and CaSki) compared with non-cancerous ectocervical epithelial cell line (Ect1/E6E7)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
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