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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922008/defining-functional-interactions-during-biogenesis-of-epithelial-junctions
#1
J C Erasmus, S Bruche, L Pizarro, N Maimari, T Pogglioli, C Tomlinson, J Lees, I Zalivina, A Wheeler, A Alberts, A Russo, V M M Braga
In spite of extensive recent progress, a comprehensive understanding of how actin cytoskeleton remodelling supports stable junctions remains to be established. Here we design a platform that integrates actin functions with optimized phenotypic clustering and identify new cytoskeletal proteins, their functional hierarchy and pathways that modulate E-cadherin adhesion. Depletion of EEF1A, an actin bundling protein, increases E-cadherin levels at junctions without a corresponding reinforcement of cell-cell contacts...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921408/evaluation-of-apoptosis-in-the-lung-tissue-of-sulfur-mustard-exposed-individuals
#2
Marjan Mosayebzadeh, Tooba Ghazanfari, Alireza Delshad, Hassan Akbari
Lung exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) results in pulmonary complications, which is the main cause of long-term disability and morbidity. Up to now, the precise mechanisms of SM-induced lung complications has not been identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis in the lung tissue of SM-exposed individuals. The study was performed on archived lung paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of21 patients suffering from pulmonary complications due to previous SM exposure and 9 unexposed patients who had undergone lung resections for another lung disease...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921407/trefoil-factor-family-1-is-involved-in-airway-remodeling-of-mustard-lung
#3
Mohammad Reza Nourani, Zahra Farajpour, Ali Najafi, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Human airway is generally destructed by inhaled factors and is the barrier to the external environment and has a crucial role in protection of the internal homeostasis of the lung. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare that capable of producing severe chemical injuries primarily in the lungs. Trefoil factor family (TFFs) plays major roles in epithelial repair and homeostasis, particularly in the lung. This study attempted to verify the role of TFFs in airway that induced by sulfur mustard. Fifteen patients exposed to SM and 10 non-exposed subjects were enrolled in this study...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921366/masked-trichothecene-and-zearalenone-mycotoxins-withstand-digestion-and-absorption-in-the-upper-gi-tract-but-are-efficiently-hydrolyzed-by-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#4
Silvia W Gratz, Reshma Dinesh, Tomoya Yoshinari, Grietje Holtrop, Anthony J Richardson, Gary Duncan, Susan MacDonald, Antony Lloyd, Jonathan Tarbin
SCOPE: Cereal grains are commonly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their plant-derived masked metabolites. The fate of masked mycotoxins in the human gut is poorly understood. Here we assess the metabolism and transport of glucoside metabolites of common trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin) and zearalenone compounds (zearalenone, α- and β-zearalenol) in the human gut in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Masked mycotoxins were incubated with artificial digestive juices and absorption was assessed in differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921235/transplantation-of-collagen-scaffold-with-autologous-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells-promotes-functional-endometrium-reconstruction-via-downregulating-%C3%AE-np63-expression-in-asherman-s-syndrome
#6
Guangfeng Zhao, Yun Cao, Xianghong Zhu, Xiaoqiu Tang, Lijun Ding, Haixiang Sun, Juan Li, Xinan Li, Chenyan Dai, Tong Ru, Hui Zhu, Jingjie Lu, Caimei Lin, Jingmei Wang, Guijun Yan, Huiyan Wang, Lei Wang, Yimin Dai, Bin Wang, Ruotian Li, Jianwu Dai, Yan Zhou, Yali Hu
Asherman's syndrome (AS) is a common disease that presents endometrial regeneration disorder. However, little is known about its molecular features of this aregenerative endometrium in AS and how to reconstruct the functioning endometrium for the patients with AS. Here, we report that ΔNp63 is significantly upregulated in residual epithelial cells of the impaired endometrium in AS; the upregulated-ΔNp63 induces endometrial quiescence and alteration of stemness. Importantly, we demonstrate that engrafting high density of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) loaded in collagen scaffold onto the uterine lining of patients with AS downregulates ΔNp63 expression, reverses ΔNp63-induced pathological changes, normalizes the stemness alterations and restores endometrial regeneration...
December 1, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921086/ovarian-and-uterine-alterations-following-forced-swimming-an-immunohistochemical-study
#8
Seyedeh Nazanin Seyed Saadat, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Hannan Ebrahimi, Hanieh Rafati Sajedi, Gelayol Chatrnour
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is known to be a stressor stimulus that leads to reproductive disruption. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forced swimming on the uterus and ovaries in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult mice (N=24) were divided into the following three groups: A, control; B, swimming in water (10(o)C); and C, swimming in water (23(o)C). Swimmers swam for 5 min daily for 5 consecutive days/ wk during 2 wks...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#9
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921031/amniotic-epithelial-cells-a-new-tool-to-combat-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#10
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Barbara Barboni
The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921012/expression-of-the-gene-for-autotransporter-autb-of-neisseria-meningitidis-affects-biofilm-formation-and-epithelial-transmigration
#11
Jesús Arenas, Fernanda L Paganelli, Patricia Rodríguez-Castaño, Sara Cano-Crespo, Arie van der Ende, Jos P M van Putten, Jan Tommassen
Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative bacterium that resides as a commensal in the upper respiratory tract of humans, but occasionally, it invades the host and causes sepsis and/or meningitis. The bacterium can produce eight autotransporters, seven of which have been studied to some detail. The remaining one, AutB, has not been characterized yet. Here, we show that the autB gene is broadly distributed among pathogenic Neisseria spp. The gene is intact in most meningococcal strains. However, its expression is prone to phase variation due to slipped-strand mispairing at AAGC repeats located within the DNA encoding the signal sequence and is switched off in the vast majority of these strains...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921009/adhesion-and-invasion-of-gastric-mucosa-epithelial-cells-by-helicobacter-pylori
#12
REVIEW
Ying Huang, Qi-Long Wang, Dan-Dan Cheng, Wen-Ting Xu, Nong-Hua Lu
Helicobacter pylori is the main pathogenic bacterium involved in chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and a class 1 carcinogen in gastric cancer. Current research focuses on the pathogenicity of H. pylori and the mechanism by which it colonizes the gastric mucosa. An increasing number of in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that H. pylori can invade and proliferate in epithelial cells, suggesting that this process might play an important role in disease induction, immune escape and chronic infection. Therefore, to explore the process and mechanism of adhesion and invasion of gastric mucosa epithelial cells by H...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920954/drosophila-chem-mutations-disrupt-epithelial-polarity-in-drosophila-embryos
#13
José M Zamudio-Arroyo, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
Drosophila embryogenesis has proven to be an extremely powerful system for developmental gene discovery and characterization. We isolated five new EMS-induced alleles that do not complement the l(3R)5G83 lethal line isolated in the Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screens. We have named this locus chem. Lethality of the new alleles as homozygous zygotic mutants is not completely penetrant, and they have an extended phenocritical period. Like the original allele, a fraction of mutant embryos die with cuticular defects, notably head involution and dorsal closure defects...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920842/utility-of-electrocardiography-ecg-gated-computed-tomography-ct-for-preoperative-evaluations-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#14
Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Masaki Hara, Motoo Nakagawa, Yuta Shibamoto
BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation of invasion to the adjacent organs is important for the thymic epithelial tumors on CT. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CT for assessing thymic epithelial tumors with regard to the motion artifacts produced and the preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the technique. MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty thymic epithelial tumors (36 thymomas and 4 thymic carcinomas) were examined with ECG-gated contrast-enhanced CT using a dual source scanner...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920769/transcriptional-profiling-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-genes-of-helicobacter-pylori-under-different-environmental-conditions-identification-of-hp0967-hp0968-system
#15
María G Cárdenas-Mondragón, Miguel A Ares, Leonardo G Panunzi, Sabino Pacheco, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Jorge A Girón, Javier Torres, Miguel A De la Cruz
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is responsible for causing peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. The expression of virulence factors allows the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, which results in a chronic, sometimes uncontrolled inflammatory response. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have emerged as important virulence factors in many pathogenic bacteria. Three type II TA systems have previously been identified in the genome of H. pylori 26695: HP0315-HP0316, HP0892-HP0893, and HP0894-HP0895...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920570/formation-of-tight-junctions-between-neighboring-podocytes-is-an-early-ultrastructural-feature-in-experimental-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#16
Lena Succar, Ross A Boadle, David C Harris, Gopala K Rangan
PURPOSE: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920558/monitoring-the-effects-of-doxorubicin-on-3d-spheroid-tumor-cells-in-real-time
#17
NamHuk Baek, Ok Won Seo, MinSung Kim, John Hulme, Seong Soo A An
Recently, increasing numbers of cell culture experiments with 3D spheroids presented better correlating results in vivo than traditional 2D cell culture systems. 3D spheroids could offer a simple and highly reproducible model that would exhibit many characteristics of natural tissue, such as the production of extracellular matrix. In this paper numerous cell lines were screened and selected depending on their ability to form and maintain a spherical shape. The effects of increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (DXR) on the integrity and viability of the selected spheroids were then measured at regular intervals and in real-time...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920526/in-vitro-inflammatory-effects-of-hard-metal-wc-co-nanoparticle-exposure
#18
Andrea L Armstead, Bingyun Li
Identifying the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important area of research as the number of nanomaterial-based consumer and industrial products continually rises. In addition, the potential inflammatory effects resulting from pulmonary NP exposure are emerging as an important aspect of nanotoxicity. In this study, the toxicity and inflammatory state resulting from tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) NP exposure in macrophages and a coculture (CC) of lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and macrophages (THP-1) at a 3:1 ratio were examined...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920494/presence-or-absence-of-ocular-surface-inflammation-directs-clinical-and-therapeutic-management-of-dry-eye
#19
Robert Sambursky
BACKGROUND: The presence of clinically significant inflammation has been confirmed in the tears of 40%-65% of patients with symptoms of dry eye. Ocular surface inflammation may lead to tear film instability, epithelial cell irregularities, and permeability, resulting in chronic symptomatic pain and fluctuating vision as well as negative surgical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective single center medical chart review of 100 patients was conducted. All patients were tested with the InflammaDry test to determine if patients exhibited elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920257/pkr-mediates-inflammatory-response-induced-by-hyperosmotic-stress
#20
Kenneth T Farabaugh, Mithu Majumder, Bo-Jhih Guan, Raul Jobava, Jing Wu, Dawid Krokowski, Xing-Huang Gao, Andrew Schuster, Michelle Longworth, Edward D Chan, Massimiliano Bianchi, Madhusudan Dey, Antonis E Koromilas, Parameswaran Ramakrishnan, Maria Hatzoglou
High extracellular osmolarity results in a switch from an adaptive to an inflammatory gene expression program. We show that hyperosmotic stress activates the protein kinase R (PKR) independently of its RNA binding domain. In turn, PKR stimulated nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 species phosphorylated at serine-536, which was paralleled by the induction of a subset of inflammatory NF-κB p65- responsive genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, and IL-1β. The PKR mediated-hyperinduction of iNOS decreased cell survival in mouse embryonic fibroblasts via mechanisms involving nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and post-translational modification of proteins...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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