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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149179/postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-and-risk-of-stroke-a-pooled-analysis-of-data-from-population-based-cohort-studies
#1
Germán D Carrasquilla, Paolo Frumento, Anita Berglund, Christer Borgfeldt, Matteo Bottai, Chiara Chiavenna, Mats Eliasson, Gunnar Engström, Göran Hallmans, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Patrik K Magnusson, Peter M Nilsson, Nancy L Pedersen, Alicja Wolk, Karin Leander
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates a favourable influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) if initiated early, but not late, on subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the clinical relevance of timing of HT initiation for hard end points such as stroke remains to be determined. Further, no previous research has considered the timing of initiation of HT in relation to haemorrhagic stroke risk. The importance of the route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT for stroke risk is also unclear...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146097/descriptive-study-of-current-therapeutic-practices-clinical-reproductive-findings-and-incidence-of-pregnancy-loss-in-intensively-managed-thoroughbred-mares
#2
B V Rose, M Firth, B Morris, J M Roach, D C Wathes, K L P Verheyen, A M de Mestre
Therapeutic practices in equine reproductive medicine have dramatically evolved over the last 20 years but current usage is not described. The aims of this study were to provide a description of medication use and clinical findings of reproductive examinations alongside measures of reproductive efficiency in thoroughbreds. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons. Mare and stallion details, information on veterinary interventions and findings of reproductive ultrasound scans were collected using questionnaires and entered into a custom-designed Microsoft Access database...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115950/the-prevalence-of-ocular-diseases-in-polish-arabian-horses
#3
Katarzyna Paschalis-Trela, Anna Cywińska, Jan Trela, Michał Czopowicz, Jerzy Kita, Lucjan Witkowski
BACKGROUND: Equine ocular diseases pose a medical challenge due to long-lasting and cost-consuming therapies as well as economic issues associated with potential decrease in value of affected horses. The scale of the problem is significant but difficult to precisely define because epidemiological data is limited and lacks consistency in presentation. To date, no retrospective studies specifically investigating Arabian horses have been published. RESULTS: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of ocular lesions and define the ocular diseases present in Arabian horses from breeding farms in Poland...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114027/an-alphavirus-e2-membrane-proximal-domain-promotes-envelope-protein-lateral-interactions-and-virus-budding
#4
Emily A Byrd, Margaret Kielian
Alphaviruses are members of a group of small enveloped RNA viruses that includes important human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and the equine encephalitis viruses. The virus membrane is covered by a lattice composed of 80 spikes, each a trimer of heterodimers of the E2 and E1 transmembrane proteins. During virus endocytic entry, the E1 glycoprotein mediates the low-pH-dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the endosome membrane, thus initiating virus infection. While much is known about E1 structural rearrangements during membrane fusion, it is unclear how the E1/E2 dimer dissociates, a step required for the fusion reaction...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103560/equine-glaucoma
#5
REVIEW
Tammy Miller Michau
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097962/translational-research-for-occupational-therapy-using-spre-in-hippotherapy-for-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#6
Deborah Weissman-Miller, Rosalie J Miller, Mary P Shotwell
Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2-19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes...
2017: Occupational Therapy International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064321/metabolic-syndrome-in-menopause-and-associated-factors-a-meta-analysis
#7
D Pu, R Tan, Q Yu, J Wu
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Menopause is associated with an increased risk for MetS. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to better understand the relationship between MetS and menopause. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for all the associated articles on (1) MetS components in postmenopausal women vs. premenopausal women, (2) comparison of MetS incidence between surgical menopause and natural menopause, (3) the effect of hormone therapy (HT) with 17β-estradiol (E2) compared to conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on MetS components among postmenopausal women...
October 24, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063737/allogeneic-stem-cells-alter-gene-expression-and-improve-healing-of-distal-limb-wounds-in-horses
#8
Jamie A Textor, Kaitlin C Clark, Naomi J Walker, Fabio A Aristizobal, Amir Kol, Sarah S LeJeune, Andrea Bledsoe, Arik Davidyan, Sarah N Gray, Laurie K Bohannon-Worsley, Kevin D Woolard, Dori L Borjesson
Distal extremity wounds are a significant clinical problem in horses and humans and may benefit from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. This study evaluated the effects of direct wound treatment with allogeneic stem cells, in terms of gross, histologic, and transcriptional features of healing. Three full-thickness cutaneous wounds were created on each distal forelimb in six healthy horses, for a total of six wounds per horse. Umbilical cord-blood derived equine MSCs were applied to each wound 1 day after wound creation, in one of four forms: (a) normoxic- or (b) hypoxic-preconditioned cells injected into wound margins, or (c) normoxic- or (d) hypoxic-preconditioned cells embedded in an autologous fibrin gel and applied topically to the wound bed...
October 24, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050919/anthelmintic-therapy-of-equine-cyathostomin-nematodes-larvicidal-efficacy-egg-reappearance-period-and-drug-resistance
#9
Jennifer L Bellaw, Kristen Krebs, Craig R Reinemeyer, Jamie K Norris, Jessica A Scare, Stefanie Pagano, Martin K Nielsen
Cyathostomins are ubiquitous in grazing horses across the world, and anthelmintic resistance has been reported with increasing levels over past decades. The aims of the present study were (i) to investigate the efficacy against encysted larval stages of moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg) and fenbendazole (10 mg/kg daily for five consecutive days) and compare these regimens at 2 and 5 weeks post-treatment, (ii) to investigate individual cyathostomin species associated with shortened egg reappearance periods, and (iii) to document species exhibiting decreased susceptibility to the evaluated compounds...
October 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044680/effects-of-three-blood-derived-products-on-equine-corneal-cells-an-in-vitro-study
#10
J O Rushton, E Kammergruber, A Tichy, M Egerbacher, B Nell, S Gabner
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in therapy of corneal ulcerative diseases in horses, a vast number of cases require surgical intervention, due to poor response to treatment. Topical application of serum has been used for many years, based on its anti-collagenolytic properties and the presence of growth factors promoting corneal wound healing. However, although other blood derived products i.e. platelet rich plasma (PRP), plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) have been widely used in equine orthopaedics and in human ophthalmology, no reports of the effects of these blood derived products exist in equine ophthalmology...
October 16, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039146/estrogen-based-hormone-therapy-in-women-with-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-a-systematic-review
#11
Nydia Burgos, Dahima Cintron, Paula Latortue-Albino, Valentina Serrano, Rene Rodriguez Gutierrez, Stephanie Faubion, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Patricia J Erwin, Mohammad Hassan Murad
PURPOSE: Sex hormones play a role in bone density, cardiovascular health, and wellbeing throughout reproductive lifespan. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) have lower estrogen levels requiring hormone therapy (HT) to manage symptoms and to protect against adverse long-term health outcomes. Yet, the effectiveness of HT in preventing adverse outcomes has not been systematically assessed. We summarize the evidence regarding effects of HT on bone and cardiovascular health in women with POI...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034501/influence-of-dental-materials-on-cells-of-the-equine-periodontium
#12
H Ringeisen, A Pöschke, B Krähling, C Schröck, M Stoll, J Vogelsberg, K Failing, C Staszyk
BACKGROUND: Therapy for equine periodontal disease can include filling of the periodontal pockets and widened interproximal spaces. Recommended dental materials are generally adopted from human dentistry. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the biocompatibility of dental materials for equine periodontal fillings in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experiments. METHODS: Four different dental materials (PeriCare(®) , Provicol(®) , Calxyl(®) and Honigum) were tested on equine periodontal fibroblasts...
October 16, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034249/misoprostol-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-by-equine-leukocytes
#13
Emily Medlin Martin, Kristen M Messenger, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP) receptors 2 and 4...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034248/misoprostol-inhibits-equine-neutrophil-adhesion-migration-and-respiratory-burst-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-inflammation
#14
Emily Medlin Martin, Rebecca Louise Till, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
In many equine inflammatory disease states, neutrophil activities, such as adhesion, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production become dysregulated. Dysregulated neutrophil activation causes tissue damage in horses with asthma, colitis, laminitis, and gastric glandular disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not adequately inhibit neutrophil inflammatory functions and can lead to dangerous adverse effects. Therefore, novel therapies that target mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated tissue damage are needed...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021888/a-good-short-term-outcome-in-delayed-decompression-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-spinal-epidural-abscess-a-case-report
#15
J Hanifah, J Joehaimey, M I Yusof
Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression...
July 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019941/the-contribution-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-platelet-rich-plasma-to-the-treatment-of-chronic-equine-laminitis-a-proof-of-concept
#16
Mario Angelone, Virna Conti, Cristiano Biacca, Beatrice Battaglia, Laura Pecorari, Francesco Piana, Giacomo Gnudi, Fabio Leonardi, Roberto Ramoni, Giuseppina Basini, Silvia Dotti, Sabrina Renzi, Maura Ferrari, Stefano Grolli
Laminitis, a highly debilitating disease of the foot in ungulates, is characterized by pathological changes of the complex lamellar structures that maintain the appendicular skeleton within the hoof. Laminitis is a multifactorial disease that involves perturbation of the vascular, hematological, and inflammatory homeostasis of the foot. Interestingly, the pathogenesis of the disease resembles what is observed in metabolic syndromes and sepsis-induced organ failure in humans and animals. We hypothesized that local administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might contribute to establishing an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic environment, and could stimulate the injured tissue in order to restore its functional integrity...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976834/managing-real-world-venous-leg-ulcers-with-fetal-bovine-acellular-dermal-matrix-a-single-centre-retrospective-study
#17
J A Paredes, S Bhagwandin, Polanco T, J C Lantis
OBJECTIVE: As compression treatment offers moderate improvement, especially to recurrent venous leg ulcers (VLUs), several alternative therapies using cellular based and/or tissue-derived products (CTPs) have emerged from bovine, porcine, and equine sources. Our aim was to look at the effect of a CTP in 'real-life' VLUs. METHODS: This study looked at complex patients with chronic, large wounds in a single-centre retrospective review. All patients were treated with fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix (FBADM) for VLUs at our outpatient urban wound care programme...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970274/a-model-of-equine-endometritis-involving-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm
#18
Ryan A Ferris, Patrick M McCue, Grace I Borlee, Kristina E Glapa, Kevin H Martin, Mihnea R Mangalea, Margo L Hennet, Lisa M Wolfe, Corey D Broeckling, Bradley R Borlee
Bacteria in a biofilm community have increased tolerance to antimicrobial therapy. To characterize the role of biofilms in equine endometritis, six mares were inoculated with lux-engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from equine uterine infections. Following establishment of infection, the horses were euthanized and the endometrial surfaces were imaged for luminescence to localize adherent lux-labeled bacteria. Samples from the endometrium were collected for cytology, histopathology, carbohydrate analysis, and expression of inflammatory cytokine genes...
October 2, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958862/antifungal-therapy-in-equine-ocular-mycotic-infections
#19
REVIEW
Eric C Ledbetter
Fungi are clinically important causes of ocular infections in the horse. Keratomycosis is the most common; however, a diverse range of mycotic infections, affecting numerous ocular tissues, may be encountered. Many equine mycoses are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Prompt and appropriate treatment is essential to minimize morbidity and reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Knowledge of the characteristics and properties of equine ophthalmology antifungal medications is essential to selecting an optimal treatment strategy, including selection of appropriate medication and effective administration route...
September 25, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955183/a-brief-account-of-the-discovery-of-the-fetal-placental-unit-for-estrogen-production-in-equine-and-human-pregnancies-relation-to-human-medicine
#20
REVIEW
James I Raeside
The role of steroids in human medicine is well recognized, but the major contributions made by the large domestic animals as a source of material in the discovery, isolation, and determination of the structure of the steroid hormones is less well appreciated. After a brief reminder of the early efforts to obtain a reliable source of steroids for clinical use, the narrative here is to outline one example where success was ultimately achieved for estrogen replacement therapy. Whereas knowledge of the high concentrations of estrogens in urine of pregnant women and mares dates from the late 1920s, it was not until the 1940s that the latter was shown to be a practical source...
September 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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