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("Child" OR "Pediatric") AND "Head Trauma"

Coralie Jacquet, Sergio Boetto, Annick Sevely, Jean-Christophe Sol, Yves Chaix, Emmanuel Cheuret
Head injury is the most common cause of child traumatology. However, there exist no treatment guidelines in children having intracranial lesions due to minor or moderate head trauma. There is little knowledge about monitoring, clinical exacerbation risk factors, or optimal duration of hospitalization. The aim of this retrospective study is to find predictive factors in the clinical course of non-severe head trauma in children, and thus to determine an optimal management strategy. Poor clinical progress was observed in only 4 out of 113 children...
September 17, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Qingxiu Yao, Qiang Song, Hui Wang, Haibo Shi, Dongzhen Yu
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in children. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Six children diagnosed with BPPV between March 2014 and March 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. BPPV was diagnosed using the Dix-Hallpike and supine roll test and treated with either the modified Epley particle repositioning procedure or Lempert or Gufoni maneuver. Follow-up was performed at 1-week intervals until vertigo and nystagmus disappeared during positional testing...
September 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Laura Carone, Rohan Ardley, Patrick Davies
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in children after infancy. Almost 25% of all cyclists killed in the UK are children, and two thirds of these will die because of their head injuries. We compared the population of young people wearing helmets whilst cycling, to those admitted with serious post cycling head injuries to our paediatric critical care unit. METHOD: All children aged 0-18 years admitted to our intensive care following a bicycle accident between the years January 2011-June 2018 were identified and information on the mechanism of injury, and both immediate and long term clinical data were collected...
August 20, 2018: Injury
Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, Ingrid S Lan, Cindy W Christian, Brittany Coats, Susan S Margulies
Skull fractures are common injuries in young children, typically caused by accidental falls and child abuse. The paucity of detailed biomechanical data from real-world trauma in children has hampered development of biomechanical thresholds for skull fracture in infants. The objectives of this study were to identify biomechanical metrics to predict skull fracture, determine threshold values associated with fracture, and develop skull fracture risk curves for low-height falls in infants. To achieve these objectives, we utilized an integrated approach consisting of case evaluation, anthropomorphic reconstruction, and finite element simulation...
September 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Abigail Kleinschmidt
Child maltreatment is a serious public health concern in the United States. Young infants and children younger than 3 years are at the highest risk of being abused and can experience both acute injuries and long-term developmental, behavioral, and mental health problems. Health care providers are mandated reporters of suspected abuse but may misdiagnose potentially abusive injuries because of lack of knowledge in recognizing maltreatment. Premobile infants rarely have bruising or intraoral injuries without a reported accident or underlying systemic disease and should raise concern for abuse...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Meghann M Ronning, Patrick L Carolan, Gretchen J Cutler, Richard J Patterson
BACKGROUND: Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the most common cause of subdural hemorrhage (SDH) in infants younger than 12 months old. Clot formation in the parasagittal vertex seen on imaging has been associated with SDH due to AHT. There have been very few studies regarding these findings; to our knowledge, no studies including controls have been performed. OBJECTIVE: To describe parasagittal vertex clots on head computed tomography (CT) in infants with SDH and AHT compared to patients with SDH and accidental trauma, and to evaluate for parasagittal vertex clots in the absence of SDH in the setting of known accidental head trauma...
September 5, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ruth M Masterson Creber, Peter S Dayan, Nathan Kuppermann, Dustin W Ballard, Leah Tzimenatos, Evaline Alessandrini, Rakesh D Mistry, Jeffrey Hoffman, David R Vinson, Suzanne Bakken
BACKGROUND:  The overuse of cranial computed tomography (CT) to diagnose potential traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) exposes children with minor blunt head trauma to unnecessary ionizing radiation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and the Clinical Research on Emergency Services and Treatments Network implemented TBI prediction rules via electronic health record (EHR) clinical decision support (CDS) to decrease use of CTs in children with minor blunt head trauma. OBJECTIVE:  This article aims to facilitate implementation and dissemination of a CDS alert into emergency departments around the country...
July 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Brett Burstein, Julia E M Upton, Heloisa Fuzaro Terra, Mark I Neuman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: International efforts have been focused on identifying children at low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury in whom computed tomography (CT) neuroimaging can be avoided. We sought to determine if CT use for pediatric head trauma has decreased among US emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Care Medical Survey database of nationally representative ED visits from 2007 to 2015...
September 4, 2018: Pediatrics
Anne Laurent-Vannier, Catherine Adamsbaum, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Caroline Rey-Salmon, Caroline Rambaud
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major public health risk of concern to healthcare, social services, the justice system and education. Diagnosing AHT is the first step in the clinical process that ensures that children are adequately looked after and that other children are protected. It is crucial to diagnose AHT as soon as possible. 2016 saw the publication of a literature search by Lynoe et, on behalf of the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment of Social Services, entitled Traumatic shaking, the role of the triad in medical investigations of suspected traumatic shaking (1)...
September 3, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Linda A Morgan, Samiksha Fouzdar Jain, Austin Svec, Claire Svec, Suzanne B Haney, Sandra Allbery, Robin High, Donny W Suh
Purpose: Child abuse is a leading cause of death in infants, which is often associated with abusive head trauma (AHT). The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify ocular and systemic findings in confirmed cases of AHT and compare them to a group of non-abusive head trauma (NAHT) patients. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review of 165 patients with accidental and non-accidental trauma admitted between 2013 and 2015 to Children's Hospital and Medical Center in Omaha, NE, USA, was performed...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Binod Balakrishnan, Katherine T Flynn-O'Brien, Pippa M Simpson, Mahua Dasgupta, Sheila J Hanson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and long-term disability among injured children. Early feeding has been shown to improve outcomes in adults, with some similar evidence in children with severe TBI. We aimed to examine the current practice of initiation of enteral nutrition in children with TBI and to evaluate the risk factors associated with delayed initiation of enteral nutrition. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter study used the Pediatric Trauma Assessment and Management Database including all children with head trauma discharged from five pediatric intensive care units (PICU) at pediatric trauma centers between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013...
August 31, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Corey Heitz, Justin Morgenstern, Christopher Bond, William K Milne
This is a validation of a pre-planned secondary analysis of the NEXUS II Head CT Decision Instrument, focusing on the pediatric population. 1,018 patients less than 18 years old, who underwent head CT imaging for blunt head trauma, were included. The decision instrument correctly identified all patient (27/27) who required neurosurgical intervention, and 48 of 49 patients who had clinically significant head injury on CT imaging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 13, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Sarah Spénard, Sarah Gouin, Marianne Beaudin, Jocelyn Gravel
The Sainte-Justine Head Trauma Pathway helps physicians' decision-making in the evaluation of head trauma in young children. We evaluated the pathway to identify clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) among children younger than two years who presented to a pediatric emergency department for a head trauma. The primary outcome was ciTBI, defined as a TBI complicated by death, neurosurgery, intubation or hospitalization for more than one night. Among 2258 children, we reviewed the charts of all hospitalized children ( n = 100) and a random sample of nonhospitalized children ( n = 101) and found a ciTBI in 26 patients...
August 2018: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Waleed Abed Alnabi, Garland J Tang, Ralph C Eagle, Sam Gulino, Avrey Thau, Alex V Levin
PURPOSE: To demonstrate vitreoretinal traction as a mechanism for perimacular folds in abusive head trauma. METHODS: We performed gross and histopathologic examination of eyes of children with suspected abusive head trauma and identified those with typical perimacular folds. Information was collected regarding the incident that led to the child's death and systemic manifestations noted at autopsy. Eyes were prepared in a fashion that allowed for demonstration of the vitreoretinal interface...
July 25, 2018: Retina
Michael J Ellis, Patrick J McDonald, Ashley Olson, James Koenig, Kelly Russell
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of cervical spine injuries among children and adolescents referred with suspected and diagnosed sports-related concussion (SRC); and evaluate the effect of cervical spine dysfunction (CSD) on physician-documented clinical recovery following SRC. SETTING: A multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 266 patients (6-19 years) referred with suspected SRC. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Cindy W Christian, Alex V Levin
Child abuse can cause injury to any part of the eye. The most common manifestations are retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children with abusive head trauma (AHT). Although RHs are an important indicator of possible AHT, they are also found in other conditions. Distinguishing the number, type, location, and pattern of RHs is important in evaluating a differential diagnosis. Eye trauma can be seen in cases of physical abuse or AHT and may prompt referral for ophthalmologic assessment. Physicians have a responsibility to consider abuse in the differential diagnosis of pediatric eye trauma...
August 2018: Pediatrics
Elora Hussain
Head trauma is a leading cause of brain injury in children, and it can have profound lifelong physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. Optimal acute care of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires rapid stabilization and early neurosurgical evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. Meticulous attention is required to limit secondary brain injury after the initial trauma. This review discusses pathophysiology, acute stabilization, and monitoring, as well as supportive and therapeutic measures to help minimize ongoing brain injury and optimize recovery in children with TBI...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Martin H Osmond, Terry P Klassen, George A Wells, Jennifer Davidson, Rhonda Correll, Kathy Boutis, Gary Joubert, Serge Gouin, Simi Khangura, Troy Turner, Francois Belanger, Norm Silver, Brett Taylor, Janet Curran, Ian G Stiell
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about which children with minor head injury need to undergo computed tomography (CT). We sought to prospectively validate the accuracy and potential for refinement of a previously derived decision rule, Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head injury (CATCH), to guide CT use in children with minor head injury. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study in 9 Canadian pediatric emergency departments prospectively enrolled children with blunt head trauma presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and loss of consciousness, amnesia, disorientation, persistent vomiting or irritability...
July 9, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
James F Holmes, Peter S Dayan, Nathan Kuppermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Nazik Yener, Muhammed Şükrü Paksu, Özlem Köksoy
Introduction: Brain death is currently defined as the loss of full brain function including the brainstem. The diagnosis and its subsequent management in the pediatric population are still controversial. The aim of this study was to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of patients with brain death and determine the incidence of brain death, donation rates and occurrence of central diabetes insipidus accompanying brain death in children. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a twelve-bed tertiary-care combined medical and surgical pediatric intensive care unit of the Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey...
January 2018: Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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