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Radiation Poisoning

Paulo Vale
Laboratory cultures of the paralytic shellfish poisoning producing microalga Gymnodinium catenatum were subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock and changes in cell concentration were observed in two separate experiments of 8 and 24 hours duration, respectively. The increase in geomagnetic activity (GMA), radio and X-ray fluxes and solar X-ray flares were negatively correlated with cell numbers. Cell losses were observed in the short experiment, but not in the longest one. GMA action was related to the course of the experimental period, while electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was only significantly related when the previous hours before the experiments were considered...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Zhenzhen Xu, Boguang Zhen, Yongsoek Park, Bin Zhu
Arming the immune system against cancer has emerged as a powerful tool in oncology during recent years. Instead of poisoning a tumor or destroying it with radiation, therapeutic cancer vaccine, a type of cancer immunotherapy, unleashes the immune system to combat cancer. This indirect mechanism-of-action of vaccines poses the possibility of a delayed onset of clinical effect, which results in a delayed separation of survival curves between the experimental and control groups in therapeutic cancer vaccine trials with time-to-event endpoints...
November 2, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Angelo Manoel G Carstens, Elizabeth Milla Tambara, Daniel Colman, Márcio G Carstens, Jorge Eduardo Fouto Matias
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the thermographic predictive value of local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were allocated into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Taku Tanaka, Takeshi Kashimura, Marii Ise, Brandon D Lohman, Yasuhiko Taira
BACKGROUND: Because treatment modalities for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, have limited effects and hyperbaric oxygen is not available at the scene where treatment is most needed, we conducted a study to determine and compare rates of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) dissociation achieved in human in vitro blood samples under light radiation emitted at three levels of illuminance. This was done with a view toward eventual on-site application...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Amit C Nathwani, James F Down, John Goldstone, James Yassin, Paul I Dargan, Andres Virchis, Nick Gent, David Lloyd, John D Harrison
BACKGROUND: Polonium-210 ((210)Po) gained widespread notoriety after the poisoning and subsequent death of Mr Alexander Litvinenko in London, UK, in 2006. Exposure to (210)Po resulted initially in a clinical course that was indistinguishable from infection or exposure to chemical toxins, such as thallium. METHODS: A 43-year-old man presented to his local hospital with acute abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting, and was admitted to the hospital because of dehydration and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Jalal Arabloo, Pejman Hamouzadeh, Seyedeh Maryam Mousavinezhad, Mohammadreza Mobinizadeh, Alireza Olyaeemanesh, Morvarid Pooyandjoo
BACKGROUND: Image-guided radiotherapy used multiple imaging during the radiation therapy course to improve the precision and accuracy of health care provider's treatment. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the safety, effectiveness and economic aspects of image-guided radiation therapy for decision-making about this technology in Iran. METHODS: In this study, the most important medical databases such as PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched until November 2014...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
F X Gallmeier, W Lu, B W Riemer, J K Zhao, K W Herwig, J L Robertson
Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2...
June 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
G Sondh, S Noble, R I Docking, P Doherty, A Davidson, A Mackay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Prashanth Gokare, Arunasalam Navaraj, Shengliang Zhang, Noboru Motoyama, Shen-Shu Sung, Niklas K Finnberg
The DNA damage response (DDR) gene cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) triggers programmed cell death and lethal radiation-induced toxicity in mice in vivo. However, it is not well established to what extent targeting of Chk2 may protect from dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) inflicted by mainstay cancer chemotherapy. We screened different classes of chemotherapy in wild type and Chk2-deficient cells. Here we show that loss of Chk2 protect from cell death in vitro and lethal toxicity in vivo following treatment with topoisomerase II (TOP2)-inhibitors whereas no such protection was observed following treatment with topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitors...
May 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Julio Castaño, Ana B Herrero, Aldeheid Bursen, Federico González, Rolf Marschalek, Norma C Gutiérrez, Pablo Menendez
The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Doris Illner, Alexander Lorenz, Harry Scherthan
The formation of healthy gametes requires pairing of homologous chromosomes (homologs) as a prerequisite for their correct segregation during meiosis. Initially, homolog alignment is promoted by meiotic chromosome movements feeding into intimate homolog pairing by homologous recombination and/or synaptonemal complex formation. Meiotic chromosome movements in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, depend on astral microtubule dynamics that drag the nucleus through the zygote; known as horsetail movement...
2016: Scientific Reports
Serena Testi, Alessia Azzarà, Caterina Giovannini, Sara Lombardi, Simona Piaggi, Maria Sole Facioni, Roberto Scarpato
Bystander effect is a known radiobiological effect, widely described using ionizing radiations and which, more recently, has also been related to chemical mutagens. In this study, we aimed to assess whether or not a bystander response can be induced in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes by vincristine, a chemotherapeutic mutagen acting as spindle poison, and by mitomycin-C, an alkylating agent already known to induce this response in human lymphoblastoid cells. Designing a modified ad hoc protocol for the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay, we detected the presence of a dose-dependent bystander response in untreated cultures receiving the conditioned medium (CM) from mitomycin-C (MMC) or vincristine (VCR) treated cultures...
July 2016: Mutation Research
Angelo Manoel G Carstens, Elizabeth Milla Tambara, Daniel Colman, Márcio G Carstens, Jorge Eduardo Fouto Matias
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assess the thermographic predictive value in local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were divided into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups...
March 22, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Michelle Vazquez, Audrey Z Paul, Ee Tein Tay, James W Tsung
A well-appearing 3-year-old boy presented to the pediatric emergency department 2 hours after a presumed hydrocarbon ingestion. He was referred to the emergency department by his pediatrician after consultation with the local poison control center after possibly ingesting ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) fragrance oil. The child was asymptomatic with a normal physical examination. Point-of-care lung ultrasound identified focal hydrocarbon pneumonitis in the right lung and demonstrated resolution of these findings...
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Evan Twomey, Jacob S Vestergaard, Pablo J Venegas, Kyle Summers
While divergent ecological adaptation can drive speciation, understanding the factors that facilitate or constrain this process remains a major goal in speciation research. Here, we study two mimetic transition zones in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a Müllerian mimetic radiation to establish four morphs in Peru. We find that mimetic morphs are strongly phenotypically differentiated, producing geographic clines with varying widths. However, distinct morphs show little neutral genetic divergence, and landscape genetic analyses implicate isolation by distance as the primary determinant of among-population genetic differentiation...
February 2016: American Naturalist
Ryo Sakasai, Kuniyoshi Iwabuchi
Camptothecin (CPT) inhibits DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) through a non-catalytic mechanism that stabilizes the Top1-DNA cleavage complex (Top1cc) and blocks the DNA re-ligation step, resulting in the accumulation in the genome of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), which are converted to secondary strand breaks when they collide with the DNA replication and RNA transcription machinery. DNA strand breaks mediated by replication, which have one DNA end, are distinct in repair from the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that have two ends and are caused by ionizing radiation and other agents...
2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
Rohini Athavale, Ilga Kokorite, Christian Dinkel, Eric Bakker, Bernhard Wehrli, Gastón A Crespo, Andreas Brand
A promising profiling setup for in situ measurements in lakes with potentiometric solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) and a data processing method for sensor calibration and drift correction are presented. The profiling setup consists of a logging system, which is equipped with a syringe sampler and sensors for the measurement of standard parameters including temperature, conductivity, oxygen and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The setup was expanded with SC-ISEs in galvanically separated amplifiers...
December 15, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Chang-Mo Kang, Jin Seong Hyeon, So Ra Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Hyun Jin Yun, Sun Young Kim, Young Kee Chae
We employed the primary cell model system as a first step toward establishing a method to assess the influence of ionizing radiation by using a combination of common and abundant metabolites. We applied X-ray irradiation amounts of 0, 1, and 5 Gy to the cells that were harvested 24, 48, or 72 h later, and profiled metabolites by 2D-NMR spectroscopy to sort out candidate molecules that could be used to distinguish the samples under different irradiation conditions. We traced metabolites stemming from the input ¹³C-glucose, identified twelve of them from the cell extracts, and applied statistical analysis to find out that all the metabolites, including glycine, alanine, and gluatamic acid, increased upon irradiation...
November 2015: Chemistry & Biodiversity
P Mosesso, G Pepe, A Ottavianelli, A Schinoppi, S Cinelli
ICRF-187 (Cardioxane™, Chiron) is a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), proposed to act by blocking Topo II-mediated DNA cleavage without stabilizing DNA-Topo II-"cleavable complexes". In this study ICRF-187 was used to evaluate the potential involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in the formation of the radiation-induced chromosome-type aberrations in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in human lymphocytes from three healthy male donors. This is based on many evidences that DNA topoisomerases are involved in DNA recombination, mainly of illegitimate type (non-homologous) both in vitro and in vivo...
November 2015: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Olivier Lambert, Alberto Collareta, Walter Landini, Klaas Post, Benjamin Ramassamy, Claudio Di Celma, Mario Urbina, Giovanni Bianucci
Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid-fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator-prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius was discovered together with numerous skeletons of a clupeiform fish closely related to the epipelagic extant Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax)...
September 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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