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Radiation Poisoning

J M Hagel, P J Facchini
Covering: up to 20182-Oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases (2ODOs) comprise a large enzyme superfamily in plant genomes, second in size only to the cytochromes P450 monooxygenase (CYP) superfamily. 2ODOs participate in both primary and specialized plant pathways, and their occurrence across all life kingdoms points to an ancient origin. Phylogenetic evidence supports substantial expansion and diversification of 2ODOs following the split from the common ancestor of land plants. More conserved roles for these enzymes include oxidation within hormone metabolism, such as the recently described capacity of Dioxygenase for Auxin Oxidation (DAO) for governing auxin homeostasis...
February 28, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Alexandra J Lin, Sarah J Karinja, Jaime L Bernstein, Julia Jin, Yoshiko Toyoda, Andrew J Miller, Pat B Zanzonico, Jason A Spector
INTRODUCTION: Capsular contracture after breast reconstruction is a morbid complication, occurring in 30.0% to 47.5% of patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy. Although it is well known that radiation increases rate of capsular contracture, there are few well-established animal models that faithfully replicate standard-of-care clinical practice, that is, prosthesis placement at the time of mastectomy followed by delayed radiotherapy. To better recapitulate current clinical practice, we developed a murine model in which the implant sites were irradiated 10 days postoperatively, rather than at time of surgery...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Gururaj M Neelgund, Aderemi Oki
Herein, we report the modulation of ZnO for enhancement of its ability toward plasmonic absorption of near-infrared (NIR) photons through coupling of graphene (GR). The reported modification led GR-ZnO to be a promising photocatalyst by the complete removal of poisonous and nonvolatile potassium cyanide from water. The photocatalytic degradation of cyanide was revealed by exposing it to NIR laser and comparing with the rate of UV, visible, and sunlight using their apparent reaction rate constants derived from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Alexandre B Roland, Juan C Santos, Bella C Carriker, Stephanie N Caty, Elicio E Tapia, Luis A Coloma, Lauren A O'Connell
Some South American poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are chemically defended and use bright aposematic colors to warn potential predators of their unpalatability. Aposematic signals are often frequency-dependent where individuals deviating from a local model are at a higher risk of predation. However, extreme diversity in the aposematic signal has been documented in poison frogs, especially in Oophaga . Here, we explore the phylogeographic pattern among color-divergent populations of the Little Devil poison frog Oophaga sylvatica by analyzing population structure and genetic differentiation to evaluate which processes could account for color diversity within and among populations...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jeffrey W Streicher, Elizabeth C Miller, Pablo C Guerrero, Claudio Correa, Juan C Ortiz, Andrew J Crawford, Marcio R Pie, John J Wiens
Phylogenomic approaches offer a wealth of data, but a bewildering diversity of methodological choices. These choices can strongly affect the resulting topologies. Here, we explore two controversial approaches (binning genes into "supergenes" and inclusion of only rapidly evolving sites), using new data from hyloid frogs. Hyloid frogs encompass ∼53% of frog species, including true toads (Bufonidae), glassfrogs (Centrolenidae), poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), and treefrogs (Hylidae). Many hyloid families are well-established, but relationships among these families have remained difficult to resolve...
February 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yifei Jiang, Yajing Chang, Yong Liu, Meng Zhang, Heng Luo, Cui Hao, Pengjiao Zeng, Yue Sun, Hua Wang, Lijuan Zhang
Ganoderma sinense or "Chinese Lingzhi" is a well-known medicinal fungus in China for more than 2000 years. Polysaccharide is the main immunomodulatory and antitumor component in G. sinense. In 2010, G. sinense polysaccharide (GSP) tablet is approved as an adjunctive therapeutic drug in China for treating leukopenia and hematopoietic injury caused by concurrent chemo/radiation therapy during cancer treatment by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). β-glucan, an established immunostimulant, is one of the components in GSP...
October 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jing Li, Matthew Summerlin, Karin C Nitiss, John L Nitiss, Leslyn A Hanakahi
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) can remove a wide variety of 3' and 5' terminal DNA adducts. Genetic studies in yeast identified TDP1 as a regulator of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) fidelity in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) lacking terminal adducts. In this communication, we show that TDP1 plays an important role in joining cohesive DSBs in human cells. To investigate the role of TDP1 in NHEJ in live human cells we used CRISPR/cas9 to produce TDP1-knockout (TDP1-KO) HEK-293 cells. As expected, human TDP1-KO cells were highly sensitive to topoisomerase poisons and ionizing radiation...
December 2017: DNA Repair
Vinod Kumar Gupta, Ali Fakhri, Mona Azad, Shilpi Agarwal
In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of Strychnine was investigated by ZnS quantum dots and doped with silver in UV systems. ZnS and Ag-ZnS quantum dots were synthesized by chemical method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectra and photoluminescence. The charge transfer process on the semicon-ductor/electrolyte interface was investigated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and time-resolved photoluminescence. The average diameters of ZnS and Ag doped ZnS QDs were 3...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Gilmer Valdes, Maria F Chan, Seng Boh Lim, Ryan Scheuermann, Joseph O Deasy, Timothy D Solberg
PURPOSE: To validate a machine learning approach to Virtual intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for accurately predicting gamma passing rates using different measurement approaches at different institutions. METHODS: A Virtual IMRT QA framework was previously developed using a machine learning algorithm based on 498 IMRT plans, in which QA measurements were performed using diode-array detectors and a 3%local/3 mm with 10% threshold at Institution 1...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Elizabeth Davlantes, Samuel Shartar, Jennifer Venero, Alaina Steck, Amelia Langston, Ziad N Kazzi
OBJECTIVES: The Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) comprises >50 centers across the United States that are poised to care for victims of a radiation emergency. The network is organized around bone marrow transplant centers because these facilities excel in both radiation medicine and the care of patients with severe bone marrow depression. A radiation emergency may cause not only irradiation from an external source but also internal contamination with radioactive material. Because medical toxicologists are trained in radiation injury management and have expertise in the management of internal contamination, RITN centers may benefit from partnerships with medical toxicology resources, which may be located at academic medical centers, hospital inpatient clinical services, outpatient clinics, or poison control centers...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
William E Brandenburg, William Levandowski, Tom Califf, Cory Manly, Cecilia Blair Levandowski
Mountains are home to numerous organisms known to cause skin disease. Bites, stings, poisons, chemicals, toxins, trauma, and infections all contribute to this end. Numerous plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa are responsible. This paper aims to review skin illness and injury sustained from organisms in the mountains of North America. Other factors such as increased ultraviolet radiation, temperature extremes, and decreasing atmospheric pressure along with human physiologic parameters, which contribute to disease severity, will also be discussed...
June 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
K Uday Bhanu, Niranjan Khandelwal, Sameer Vyas, Paramjeet Singh, Anuj Prabhakar, B R Mittal, Ashish Bhalla
AIM: Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many imaging modalities, such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain, have been used for quantitative assessment of the acute brain insult caused by acute OP poisoning. Perfusion defects on SPECT in acutely poisoned patients with OPs have been described, however, MR perfusion abnormalities have not been described in the literature...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
F Yang, P Xiong, X L Yuan, C R Liu, L J Ran, Y Yang, J Y Li
Objective: To explore the effects of X-ray repair cross complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) polymorphism and low dose ionizing radiation exposure on radiology professionals' peripheral blood lymphocyte micronucleus. Methods: A matched case-control study was designed. From 2013 to 2015, 1 102 radiology professionals with micronucleus test rusults, and 45 cases with present micronucleus were enroled into case group. 180 diagnostic radiology technicians detecting no micronucleus were chosen as control group, cases and controls were 1∶4 mached on gender, age ≤40 or >40 years old...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Tatiana Vieira Souza Chaves, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Manoel Odoríco de Moraes, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Débora Cássia Vieira Gomes, Rodrigo Mendes de Carvalho, Sharbel Weider Maluf, Fabrício Pires de Moura do Amaral, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Maria Elisabete Amaral de Moraes
Pesticides are a complex mixture of chemicals used to protect crops from a number of pests and diseases. They have been considered as potential mutagenic agents. This study aims at evaluation of the mutagenic effect of pesticide exposure to agricultural workers through chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosal cells, respectively. The exposed group was consisted with 97 farmers, while the control (un-exposed) group consisted of 55. The results showed a significant (p < 0...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stephen Finnis, Nikolas Krstic, Lorraine McIntyre, Trisalyn A Nelson, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables...
July 2017: Environmental Research
Rebecca D Tarvin, Emily A Powell, Juan C Santos, Santiago R Ron, David C Cannatella
Rapid radiation coupled with low genetic divergence often hinders species delimitation and phylogeny estimation even if putative species are phenotypically distinct. Some aposematic species, such as poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), have high levels of intraspecific color polymorphism, which can lead to overestimation of species when phenotypic divergence primarily guides species delimitation. We explored this possibility in the youngest origin of aposematism (3-7 MYA) in poison frogs, Epipedobates, by comparing genetic divergence with color and acoustic divergence...
April 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
D D Yang, J N Xu, B L Zhu
Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Paulo Vale
Laboratory cultures of the paralytic shellfish poisoning producing microalga Gymnodinium catenatum were subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock and changes in cell concentration were observed in two separate experiments of 8 and 24 hours duration, respectively. The increase in geomagnetic activity (GMA), radio and X-ray fluxes and solar X-ray flares were negatively correlated with cell numbers. Cell losses were observed in the short experiment, but not in the longest one. GMA action was related to the course of the experimental period, while electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was only significantly related when the previous hours before the experiments were considered...
January 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
Zhenzhen Xu, Boguang Zhen, Yongsoek Park, Bin Zhu
Arming the immune system against cancer has emerged as a powerful tool in oncology during recent years. Instead of poisoning a tumor or destroying it with radiation, therapeutic cancer vaccine, a type of cancer immunotherapy, unleashes the immune system to combat cancer. This indirect mechanism-of-action of vaccines poses the possibility of a delayed onset of clinical effect, which results in a delayed separation of survival curves between the experimental and control groups in therapeutic cancer vaccine trials with time-to-event endpoints...
February 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Angelo Manoel G Carstens, Elizabeth Milla Tambara, Daniel Colman, Márcio G Carstens, Jorge Eduardo Fouto Matias
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the thermographic predictive value of local anesthetic poisoning in rats that indicates the early recognition of thermal signs of intoxication and enable the immediate start of advanced life support. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of saline and ropivacaine; they were allocated into pairs, and experiments performed at baseline and experimental times. For thermography, central and peripheral compartment were analyzed, checking the maximum and average differences of temperatures between groups...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
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