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Cancer early detection

Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Antonio Fadda, Davide Gentilini, Loredana Moi, Ludovic Barault, Vera Piera Leoni, Pia Sulas, Luigi Zorcolo, Angelo Restivo, Francesco Cabras, Federica Fortunato, Cesare Zavattari, Liliana Varesco, Viviana Gismondi, Maria Rosaria De Miglio, Antonio Mario Scanu, Federica Colombi, Pasquale Lombardi, Ivana Sarotto, Eleonora Loi, Francesco Leone, Silvia Giordano, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Amedeo Columbano, Patrizia Zavattari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, while the former are already used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, the latter are less well characterized. Here, performing global methylation analysis on both CRCs and adenomas by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chips, we identified a panel of 74 altered CpG islands, demonstrating that the earliest methylation alterations affect genes coding for proteins involved in the crosstalk between cell and surrounding environment...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Ben Lariviere, Katherine S Garman, N Lynn Ferguson, Deborah A Fisher, Nan M Jokerst
Early detection and surveillance of disease progression in epithelial tissue is key to improving long term patient outcomes for colon and esophageal cancers, which account for nearly a quarter of cancer related mortalities worldwide. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) is a non-invasive optical technique to sense biological changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level that occur when normal tissue becomes diseased, and has the potential to significantly improve the current standard of care for endoscopic gastrointestinal (GI) screening...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yangming Gong, Peng Peng, Pingping Bao, Weijian Zhong, Yan Shi, Kai Gu, Ying Zheng, Chunxiao Wu, Sanjun Cai, Ye Xu, Jun Sheng, Fan Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) have increased dramatically over the past 3 decades in China due to changes in lifestyle factors. Early detection and treatment guidelines for asymptomatic cases have shown to improve CRC control in developed countries. In response to these challenges, the Shanghai Municipal Government launched a community-based CRC screening program in 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free initial screening, inclusive of immunochemical fecal occult blood and risk assessment (questionnaire), was provided by community health centers in Shanghai...
March 14, 2018: Oncologist
Dimitrios Schizas, Ioannis I Lazaridis, Demetrios Moris, Aikaterini Mastoraki, Lazaros-Dimitrios Lazaridis, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Nikolaos Charalampakis, Theodore Liakakos
BACKGROUND: Despite the improvements in the early detection and treatment of non-metastatic esophageal cancer, more than half of patients undergoing a curative treatment for esophageal cancer will develop recurrence within three years. The prognosis of these patients is poor. However, a wide range in overall survival has been reported, depending on the pattern of recurrence, and no optimal treatment strategy following recurrence has yet been uniformly accepted. AIM: In this article, we aimed to systematically review the literature for the role of surgical resection of metachronous distant metastasis following primary treatment of esophageal cancer...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Tonje S Steigedal, Jimita Toraskar, Richard P Redvers, Marit Valla, Synnøve N Magnussen, Anna M Bofin, Signe Opdahl, Steinar Lundgren, Bedrich L Eckhardt, John M Lamar, Judy Doherty, Richard O Hynes, Robin L Anderson, Gunbjørg Svineng
Most cancer patients with solid tumors who succumb to their illness die of metastatic disease. While early detection and improved treatment have led to reduced mortality, even for those with metastatic cancer, some patients still respond poorly to treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of metastasis is important to improve prognostication, to stratify patients for treatment, and to identify new targets for therapy. We have shown previously that expression of nephronectin (NPNT) is correlated with metastatic propensity in breast cancer cell lines...
March 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Catherine M Olsen, Nirmala Pandeya, Bridie S Thompson, Jean Claude Dusingize, Penelope M Webb, Adele C Green, Rachel E Neale, David C Whiteman
Background: Risk stratification can improve the efficacy and cost-efficiency of screening programs for early detection of cancer. We sought to derive a risk stratification tool for melanoma that was suitable for the general population using only self-reported information. Methods: We used melanoma risk factor information collected at baseline from QSKIN, a prospective cohort study of Queensland adults age 40 to 69 years at recruitment (n = 41 954). We examined two separate outcomes: 1) invasive melanomas and 2) all melanomas (invasive + in situ) obtained through data linkage to the cancer registry...
March 11, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Xiaohan Chen, Golbarg M Roozbahani, Zijing Ye, Youwen Zhang, Rui Ma, Jialing Xiang, Xiyun Guan
Cancers are caused by mutations to genes that regulate cell normal functions. The capability to rapid and reliable detection of specific target gene variations can facilitate early disease detection and diagnosis, and also enables personalized treatment of cancer. Most of the currently available methods for DNA mutation detection are time-consuming and/or require the use of labels or sophisticated instruments. In this work, we reported a label-free enzymatic reaction-based nanopore sensing strategy to detect DNA mutations, including base substitution, deletion, and insertion...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paramita Saha, Kasturi Datta
Cancer is a complex, multi-factorial, multi-stage disease and a global threat to human health. Early detection of nature and stage of cancer is highly crucial for disease management. Recent studies have proved beyond any doubt about the involvement of the ubiquitous, myriad ligand binding, multi-functional human protein, hyaluronan-binding protein 1 (HABP1), which is identical to the splicing factor associated protein (p32) and the receptor of the globular head of the complement component (gC1qR) in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Takahiro Nakagomi, Taichiro Goto, Yosuke Hirotsu, Daichi Shikata, Yujiro Yokoyama, Rumi Higuchi, Kenji Amemiya, Kenichiro Okimoto, Toshio Oyama, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Masao Omata
Objectives: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are rare and generally aggressive tumors composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components; however, the evolution of sarcomatoid cancer has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to evaluate the mutational profiles and phylogeny of sarcomatoid carcinomas using next generation sequencing and in-silico analysis to facilitate the development of novel therapies. Methods: Four patients who underwent surgery for sarcomatoid cancer were enrolled...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Tsung-Hsing Chen, Chieh Lee, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Yin-Yi Chu, Hao-Tsai Cheng, Jun-Te Hsu, Yung-Kuan Tsou, Ren-Chin Wu, Tse-Ching Chen, Nien-Chen Chang, Ta-Sen Yeh, Kwang-Huei Lin
MicroRNA-196a (miRNA-196a) is associated with the development of gastric cancer and metastasis. Intestinal metaplasia and low- or high-grade dysplasia are considered to be precursors of intestinal type gastric cancer. Accordingly, we investigated the expression of plasma miRNA-196a as an early detection biomarker in precancerous gastric lesions and early cancer (pT1a/b), which is otherwise treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection. Our data showed that levels of circulating (plasma) miRNA-196a were higher in patients with precancerous lesions/early gastric adenocarcinoma than in healthy controls...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Louise Rasmussen, Ib Jarle Christensen, Marielle Herzog, Jake Micallef, Hans Jørgen Nielsen
The aim was to evaluate serum levels of circulating cell-free nucleosomes (ccfn) containing a variety of epigenetic signals including 5-methylcytosine DNA, histone modifications H3K9Me3, H3K9Ac, H3S10PO4, H3K36Me3, H4K20Me3, H4PanAc and pH2AX, nucleosome variant H2AZ and nucleosome adducts with HMGB1 and EZH2 as well as ccfn per se, in addition to develop and evaluate predictor models based on the above mentioned ccfn and including serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Akram Norouzi, Hadi Ravan, Abbas Mohammadi, Elyas Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh Norouzi, Tahereh Fozooni
The development of powerful techniques to detect cancer cells at early stages plays a notable role in diagnosing and prognosing cancer patients and reducing mortality. This paper reports on a novel functional DNA nanoassembly capable of detecting cancer cells based on structural DNA nanotechnology. DNA nanoassemblies were constructed by the self-assembly of a DNA concatemer to a plenty of sticky-ended three-way junctions. While an aptamer moiety guided the nanoassembly to the target cancer cell, the peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes embedded in the nanoassemblies were used as the sensing element to produce colorimetric signals...
August 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
M Salakova, E Koslabova, M Grega, J Smahelova, J Klozar, O Vencalek, R Tachezy
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with tonsillar cancer (TC) whose incidence in humans is increasing. Tonsillar tumours are not ordinarily preceded by clinically apparent precancerous lesions, and no markers of the early stage disease are available. Therefore, we evaluated the presence of an active HPV infection also in tumour-free tonsillar tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tonsillar specimens from 114 patients with TC and 114 age and gender matched controls were screened for the presence of HPV DNA, expression of HR-HPV E6 mRNA, and p16 overexpression...
2018: Neoplasma
Roslyn Dillon, Lisa J Croner, John Bucci, Stefanie N Kairs, Jia You, Sharon Beasley, Mark Blimline, Rochele B Carino, Vicky C Chan, Danissa Cuevas, Jeff Diggs, Megan Jennings, Jacob Levy, Ginger Mina, Alvin Yee, Bruce Wilcox
Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is key to reducing associated mortality. Despite the importance of early detection, approximately 40% of individuals in the United States between the ages of 50-75 have never been screened for CRC. The low compliance with colonoscopy and fecal-based screening may be addressed with a non-invasive alternative such as a blood-based test. We describe here the analytical validation of a multiplexed blood-based assay that measures the plasma concentrations of 15 proteins to assess advanced adenoma (AA) and CRC risk in symptomatic patients...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Melissa Henry, Zeev Rosberger, Lola E Ianovski, Michael Hier, Anthony Zeitouni, Karen Kost, Alex Mlynarek, Martin Black, Christina MacDonald, Keith Richardson, Fabienne Fuhrmann, Gabrielle Chartier, Saul Frenkiel
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to identify predictors of Major Depressive Disorder in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in the immediate post-treatment period (i.e., at three months post-diagnosis), with a focus on previously unexamined historical and contextual factors. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study of 223 consecutive adults (72% participation) newly diagnosed with a first occurrence of primary HNC, including validated psychometric measures, Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM Disorders, and medical chart reviews...
March 13, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Anja Kammesheidt, Theresa R Tonozzi, Stephen W Lim, Glenn D Braunstein
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) with a nine gene, 96 mutation panel among subjects at increased risk for cancer with no previous cancer diagnosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA from 1059 asymptomatic subjects was analyzed for detection of low levels ctDNA using a blood plasma liquid biopsy assay. Subjects with detectable copies of ctDNA were asked to provide additional blood samples and relevant medical records throughout their one-year of participation...
2018: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Martin Filipits, Urania Dafni, Michael Gnant, Varvara Polydoropoulou, Margaret Hills, Astrid Kiermaier, Evandro De Azambuja, Denis P Larsimont, Federico Rojo, Giuseppe Viale, Masakazu Toi, Nadia Harbeck, Kathleen I Pritchard, Richard D Gelber, Phuong Dinh, Dimitrios Zardavas, Brian Leyland-Jones, Martine Piccart-Gebhart, Mitch Dowsett
PURPOSE: To assess the prognostic and predictive value of selected biomarkers involved in cell cycle regulation or proliferation in HER2-positive early breast cancer patients. METHODS: Protein expression of TOP2A, Ki67, cyclin D1 and p27 was immunohistochemically determined in tissue microarrays of surgical specimens from 862 patients randomized to trastuzumab (1 or 2 year; N=561) and observation (N=301) arms of the HERA trial. The primary analysis endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS)...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Alex C Herskovic, Xian Wu, Paul J Christos, Himanshu Nagar
PURPOSE: We used the National Cancer Data Base to analyze practice patterns of adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) in elderly patients to see if a difference in overall survival (OS) could be detected. Additionally, we investigated factors that affected OS in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women aged ≥ 65 years with hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative pathologic T1-T2N0M0 invasive breast cancer measuring up to 3 cm who were treated with breast conservation and adjuvant endocrine therapy without adjuvant chemotherapy were identified and stratified by use of adjuvant RT...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
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