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Northern Ontario

Ryan R Auld, Nadia C S Mykytczuk, Leo G Leduc, Thomas J S Merritt
Environmental oxidation and microbial metabolism drive production of acid mine drainage (AMD). Understanding changes in the microbial community, due to geochemical and seasonal characteristics, is fundamental to AMD monitoring and remediation. Using direct sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes to identify bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic members of the microbial community at an AMD site in Northern Ontario, Canada, we found a dynamic community varying significantly across winter and summer sampling times...
September 27, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Sarah Galvis, Josh Arnold, Erin Mannen, Benjamin Wong, Hadley Sis, Eileen Cadel, John Anderson, Dennis Anderson, Paul Arnold, Elizabeth Friis
BACKGROUND: Distraction-type rods mechanically stabilize the thorax and improve lung growth and function by applying distraction forces at the rib, spine, pelvis, or a combination of locations. However, the amount of stability the rods provide and the amount the thorax needs is unknown. METHODS: Five freshly frozen and thawed cadaveric thoracic spine specimens were tested for lateral bending, flexion/extension, and axial rotation in displacement control (1°/sec) to a load limit of ±5 Nm for five cycles after which a growth-friendly unilateral rod was placed in a simulated rib-to-lumbar attachment along the right side...
January 2017: Spine Deformity
Marie LeBel
This paper presents the way we try to track the history of mental health services offered to residents of official language minority communities throughout Northern and Eastern Ontario. The study also holds an interest in the post-deinstitutionalization paths of patients suffering from mental health conditions. Our research strand concerns Northern Ontario, its patient associations, its services, its specialists and its institutions and the access to hospitals archives.
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
S A Watmough, T Rabinowitz, S Baker
Emissions of pollutants from highways can exert multiple stresses on adjacent ecosystems. In this study air concentrations of NO2 and throughfall deposition of inorganic N (NO3(-) and NH4(+)), SO4(2-), Cl(-), base cations and several metals were measured in all four seasons along a 1.5km hardwood forest gradient extending away from a major highway (Highway 401) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil and lichen chemistry and herbaceous plant and epiphytic lichen species composition were measured within the hardwood forest to evaluate impacts of these pollutants...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cayley Russell, Michelle Firestone, Len Kelly, Christopher Mushquash, Benedikt Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Prescription opioid (PO) misuse and related harms are high in Canada, and a major public health challenge. In Canada, 1.4 million individuals (4.3% of the total population) self-identify as Aboriginal, among whom substance use and related harms are elevated. While there are reports of PO use and associated problems among Aboriginal groups, no comprehensive data review currently exists. METHODS: A review of available data sources (ie journal publications, public reports and 'grey' literature) was conducted following principles of a scoping review...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Christopher Edge, Njal Rollinson, Ronald Brooks, Justin Congdon, John Iverson, Fred Janzen, Jacqueline Litzgus
Life-histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before winter. We used data collected over several decades to compare air temperature - nest date plasticity in populations of painted turtles and snapping turtles from a relatively warm environment (southeastern Michigan) near the southern extent of the last glacial maximum, to a relatively cool environment (central Ontario) near the northern extent of post-glacial recolonization...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
Andrew M Rous, Jonathon D Midwood, Lee F G Gutowsky, Nicolas W R Lapointe, Rick Portiss, Thomas Sciscione, Mathew G Wells, Susan E Doka, Steven J Cooke
Widespread human development has led to impairment of freshwater coastal wetlands and embayments, which provide critical and unique habitat for many freshwater fish species. This is particularly evident in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where such habitats have been severely altered over the last century as a result of industrial activities, urbanization, dredging and infilling. In Toronto Harbour, extensive restoration efforts have been directed towards improving the amount and quality of aquatic habitat, especially for fishes...
January 2017: Environmental Management
Dominik Florian Stangler, Andreas Hamann, Hans-Peter Kahle, Heinrich Spiecker
A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
George A Heckman, Alexander M Crizzle, Jonathen Chen, Tamara Pringsheim, Nathalie Jette, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Leslie Eckel, John P Hirdes
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and/or Parkinsonism are affected by a complex burden of comorbidity. Many ultimately require institutional care, where they may be subject to the application of physical restraints or the prescription of antipsychotic medications, making them more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this paper are to: 1) describe the clinical complexity of older institutionalized persons with PD; and 2) examine patterns and predictors of restraint use and prescription of antipsychotics in this population...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Rose-Marie Doyon Dolinar, Bemice A Pleta, Alan W Salmoni, Andrew M Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) normal cutoff score of 26 may not be appropriate for all populations and ages. We sought to determine an appropriate MoCA cutoff score for community-dwelling seniors living in a rural Canadian community. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at a health centre in rural northern Ontario. The sample included community-dwelling seniors presenting between Dec. 1, 2013, and July 31, 2015...
2016: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
Nam-Soo Kim, Min-Ji Im, Kabwe Nkongolo
Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
A O Lukina, C Boutin, O Rowland, D J Carpenter
Elevated chromium levels in soil from mining can impact the environment, including plants. Mining of chromium is concentrated in South Africa, several Asian countries, and potentially in Northern Ontario, Canada, raising concerns since chromium toxicity to wild plants is poorly understood. In the first experiment, concentration-response tests were conducted to evaluate effects of chromium on terrestrial and wetland plants. Following established guidelines using artificial soil, seeds of 32 species were exposed to chromium (Cr(3+)) at concentrations simulating contamination (0-1000 mg kg(-1))...
November 2016: Chemosphere
J M Caswell
OBJECTIVES: To explore the presence of spatial trends among rates of hospitalization due to myocardial infarction across health regions of Canada and the associated role of additional health determinants. STUDY DESIGN: An ecological study was conducted using aggregate data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information for age-standardized rates of myocardial infarction hospitalizations by health region in 2013. METHODS: Exploratory spatial data analyses were applied to myocardial infarction hospitalization rates including Moran's I for detecting global spatial autocorrelation...
November 2016: Public Health
John C Hogenbirk, Patrick E Timony, Margaret G French, Roger Strasser, Raymond W Pong, Catherine Cervin, Lisa Graves
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different levels of exposure to the Northern Ontario School of Medicine's (NOSM's) distributed medical education programs in northern Ontario on FPs' practice locations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design using longitudinal survey and administrative data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 131 Canadian medical graduates who completed FP training in 2011 to 2013 and who completed their undergraduate (UG) medical degree or postgraduate (PG) residency training or both at NOSM...
March 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Sarah Coke, Ayelet Kuper, Lisa Richardson, Anita Cameron
BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. METHODS: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada...
April 2016: CMAJ Open
Brendan Wiltse, Andrew M Paterson, David L Findlay, Brian F Cumming
A recent rise in the relative abundance of Discostella species (D. stelligera and D. pseudostelligera) has been well documented from sedimentary diatom assemblages across the Northern Hemisphere. This unprecedented change over the last ~150 years has been linked to rises in atmospheric temperatures, changes in ice cover, and/or increases in thermal stability, among other factors. The bi-weekly monitoring data from two boreal lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in northwestern Ontario were analyzed across seasons (spring, summer, and fall) and decades (1970s-2000s)...
October 2016: Journal of Phycology
Patrick E Timony, Alain P Gauthier, Suzanne Serresse, Natalie Goodale, Jason Prpic
INTRODUCTION: Rural and Northern Ontario francophones face many health-related challenges including poor health status, a poor supply of French-speaking physicians, and the potential for an inability or reduced ability to effectively communicate with anglophone healthcare providers. As such, it can reasonably be expected that rural and Northern Ontario francophones experience barriers when receiving care. However, the experience of physicians working in areas densely populated by francophones is largely unexplored...
April 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Kyle R Wright
The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity...
2016: PeerJ
Jennifer M Arnold, Donald J Tyerman, Doug Crump, Kim L Williams, Stephen A Oswald
In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL) among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167), and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities...
2016: PeerJ
John P Hart, Termeh Shafie, Jennifer Birch, Susan Dermarkar, Ronald F Williamson
Pottery is a mainstay of archaeological analysis worldwide. Often, high proportions of the pottery recovered from a given site are decorated in some manner. In northern Iroquoia, late pre-contact pottery and early contact decoration commonly occur on collars-thick bands of clay that encircle a pot and extend several centimeters down from the lip. These decorations constitute signals that conveyed information about a pot's user(s). In southern Ontario the period A.D. 1350 to 1650 witnessed substantial changes in socio-political and settlement systems that included population movement, coalescence of formerly separate communities into large villages and towns, waxing and waning of regional strife, the formation of nations, and finally the development of three confederacies that each occupied distinct, constricted areas...
2016: PloS One
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