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Women hormones

Dimitra Magkou, Christine DoCao, Claire Bouvattier, Claire Douillard, Capucine de Marcellus, Laure Cazabat, Maxime Gérard, Marie-Laure Raffin-Sanson, Jacques Young
OBJECTIVE: Mitotane/o,p'DDD is used in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma and for other causes of hypercortisolism. Mitotane inhibits cortisol secretion and displays adrenolytic and antitumor actions. This compound is a metabolite of the pesticide and endocrine disruptor DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and is classified among teratogenic compounds worldwide. However, little is known about its effects on human development. DESIGN: The outcome of four children exposed to mitotane during their intrauterine life was examined...
September 17, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
María C Ysrraelit, Jorge Correale
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) affecting young people and leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration. The disease is clearly more common in women in whom incidence has been rising. Gender differences include: earlier disease onset and more frequent relapses in women; and faster progression and worse outcomes in men. Hormone-related physiological conditions in women such as puberty, pregnancy, puerperium and menopause also exert significant influence both on disease prevalence as well as on outcomes...
September 17, 2018: Immunology
Irina A Zalenskaya, Neelima Chandra, Nazita Yousefieh, Xi Fang, Oluwatosin E Adedipe, Suzanne S Jackson, Sharon M Anderson, Christine K Mauck, Jill L Schwartz, Andrea R Thurman, Gustavo F Doncel
BACKGROUND: Injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is one of the most popular contraception methods in areas of high HIV seroprevalence. Evidence is accumulating that use of DMPA might be associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women; however, mechanisms of this association are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to gain insight into mechanisms underlying the possible link between use of DMPA and risk of HIV-1 acquisition, exploring transcription profiling of ectocervical tissues...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Baillie Frizell, Julie A Dumas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Previous literature has shown inconsistent findings regarding the effects of neurosteroids on the brain in postmenopausal women. The goal of this paper is to examine how and whether advances in neuroimaging have helped elucidate the relationship between the withdrawal of and/or treatment with neurosteroids and cognition at menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging techniques such as structural and functional MRI have been used in recent studies to examine the relationship between neurosteroids and brain structure and functioning...
September 17, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Gabriel Rinnerthaler, Simon Peter Gampenrieder, Richard Greil
This article reviews the clinically most relevant presentations at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2017 on the topics lifestyle factors, hormone receptor-positive advanced disease, liquid biopsies, and prognosis. In a retrospective analysis of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a reduction in the body mass index (BMI) of at least 5% within 3 years significantly reduced the risk of breast cancer compared to women with a stable weight (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.78-0.98). In the MONALEESA-7 trial investigating ribociclib or placebo in combination with endocrine therapy as first-line treatment in pre- and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer, a significantly longer progression-free survival was shown for patients treated with ribociclib compared to the placebo group (23...
2018: Memo
Richard A Anderson, Rachel Remedios, Amy A Kirkwood, Pip Patrick, Linsey Stevens, Laura Clifton-Hadley, Tom Roberts, Chris Hatton, Nagesh Kalakonda, Don W Milligan, Pam McKay, Clare Rowntree, Fiona M Scott, Peter W M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects on reproductive function are a key concern in young women treated with chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma. We aimed to identify risk factors for the extent of ovarian damage in women with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with different chemotherapy regimens to inform accurate advice on options for fertility preservation. METHODS: We recruited female participants from the randomised phase 3 RATHL trial, aged 18-45 years, based on availability of participants at recruiting sites in the UK...
September 13, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Eiliv Lund, Lill-Tove Rasmussen Busund, Jean-Christophe Thalabard
The theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease is an inversion of the current paradigm, which considers full-term pregnancies to be a protective factor and uses nulliparous women as the reference group. Instead, the theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease says that women with the highest parity (about 20, which is the limit of human fertility) are those with the lowest risk and should be used as the reference group in risk estimations. This theory is explained biologically by converting parity from the simple value of number of children into an understanding of the long-lasting biological and immunological effects of pregnancy...
November 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Viviana Mucci, Yves Jacquemyn, Angelique Van Ombergen, Paul H Van de Heyning, Cherylea J Browne
INTRODUCTION: Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is a condition characterized by a sensation of motion in the absence of a stimulus, which presents with two subtypes depending on the onset: Motion-Triggered, and Spontaneous or Non-Motion Triggered. MdDS predominantly affects women around 40-50 years of age and a high number of patients report associated disorders, such as migraine and depression. The pathophysiology of MdDS is unclear, as is whether there are predisposing factors that make individuals more vulnerable to developing the condition...
November 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Philippa J Karoly, Daniel M Goldenholz, Dean R Freestone, Robert E Moss, David B Grayden, William H Theodore, Mark J Cook
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy has long been suspected to be governed by cyclic rhythms, with seizure rates rising and falling periodically over weeks, months, or even years. The very long scales of seizure patterns seem to defy natural explanation and have sometimes been attributed to hormonal cycles or environmental factors. This study aimed to quantify the strength and prevalence of seizure cycles at multiple temporal scales across a large cohort of people with epilepsy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the two most comprehensive databases of human seizures (SeizureTracker [USA] and NeuroVista [Melbourne, VIC, Australia]) and analytic techniques from circular statistics to analyse patients with epilepsy for the presence and frequency of multitemporal cycles of seizure activity...
September 12, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Waranya Watcharanon, Srinaree Kaewrudee, Sukree Soontrapa, Woraluk Somboonporn, Prasopsuk Srisaenpang, Ladawan Panpanit, Chatlert Pongchaiyakul
BACKGROUND: Despite the abundant sunlight in Thailand, vitamin D deficiency is common in premenopausal and postmenopausal Thai women. Sunlight exposure is a natural way to increase one's intake of vitamin D. However, limited research has been conducted regarding natural exposure to sunlight as a strategy to improve vitamin D status in postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effects of sunlight exposure compared with oral supplementation with vitamin D2 (weekly 20,000 IU) in combination with sunlight exposure on 25(OH)D levels...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Elena Labarta, Diego Marin, José Remohí, Ernesto Bosch
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is minimal ovarian stimulation (MOS) as effective as conventional ovarian stimulation (COS) in ovarian response and embryo quality in the same 46 poor-responder patients according to the Bologna criteria? DESIGN: An intra-patient comparison of patients undergoing both protocols. Ovaries were stimulated with either a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol and a combination of recombinant FSH and highly purified human menotrophin (HP-HMG) daily (COS), or with the use of clomiphene citrate 50 mg daily and 150 IU of HP-HMG or recombinant FSH every other day from simulation day 4 (MOS)...
August 23, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Manuel Toledano, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Enrique Guerado, Enrique Caso, Estrella Osorio, Raquel Osorio
BACKGROUND: The inner structure of trabecular bone is a result of structural optimization provided by remodeling processes. Changes in hormonal status related to menopause cause bone tissue loss and micro-architectural deterioration with a consequent susceptibility to fracture. Accumulation of micro-damage in bone, as a function of the rate of production and rate of repair, underlies the development of stress fractures, increasing fragility associated to age and osteoporosis, especially in transmenopausal women...
September 2018: Injury
Konstantinos Tsevis, Eftihios Trakakis, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Eleni Alhazidou, Melpomeni Peppa, Charalampos Chrelias, Nikolaos Papantoniou, Periklis Panagopoulos
Background Thyroid dysfunction, predominantly hyperthyroidism, has been previously linked to impaired bone mass density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. On the other hand, data in the field of hypothyroidism (HT) are missing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of thyroid disorders on bone density serum and urine calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) as well as serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase and urine hydroxyproline in a series of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods The study was conducted in the Reproductive Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of our hospital...
September 15, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Vilma L Johnsson, Nina G Pedersen, Katharina Worda, Elisabeth Krampl-Bettelheim, Lilian Skibsted, Stefan Hinterberger, Isolde Strobl, Maria E Bowman, Roger Smith, Ann Tabor, Line Rode
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to examine the association between plasma hormone concentrations, cervical length and preterm delivery in twin pregnancies, including the effect of progesterone treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 191 women with a twin gestation from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A baseline blood sample was collected at 18-24 weeks before treatment with vaginal progesterone (n=95) or placebo pessaries (n=96), and 167 (87.4%) women had a second sample collected after 4-8 weeks of treatment...
September 15, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Eunice Nyasani, Iqbal Munir, Mia Perez, Kimberly Payne, Salma Khan
Obesity is related to many major diseases and cancers. Women have higher rates of obesity and obesity is linked to commonly occurring cancers in women. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the unique mechanism(s) involved in each type of cancer. The objective of this review is to highlight the need for novel experimental approaches and a better understanding of the common and unique pathways to resolve controversies regarding the role of obesity in cancer. In women, there is a link between hormones and obesity-associated genes in cancer development...
September 14, 2018: Endocrine
Wei Zhao, Xinyu Li, Xinghai Xia, Zhengnan Gao, Cheng Han
Iodine is a trace element that is important for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. During pregnancy, iodine requirements are increased by approximately 50% because of physiological changes. Adequate iodine status in pregnancy is crucial for maternal health and fetal growth. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily intake of 250 μg iodine for pregnant women to maintain adequate iodine status. Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in a series of detrimental effects on maternal and fetal health including hypothyroidism, goiter, stillbirth, abortion, increased neonatal mortality, neurological damage, and intellectual impairment...
September 14, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Snigdha Shaw, Dishari Ghosh, Utkarsha Kumar, Usha Panjwani, Bhuvnesh Kumar
Imperishable research work was done on females visiting high-altitude (HA) areas for recreational activities or job purposes as well as on female HA natives. Hypoxia at HA is an unavoidable condition that affects the determinants of female reproductive functions like, the age of menarche and menopause, whole reproductive span, hormone synthesis, and fertility. This review will emphasize whether HA hypoxia is a threat to women: residents or visitors by analyzing these proximate determinants. Delayed menarcheal and advanced menopausal age was found to shorten the reproductive span in some HA populations, whereas in some cases, menstrual cycle was also reported to be irregular...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Silvia Leite Faria, Orlando Pereira Faria, Heloisa Rodrigues de Gouvêa, Angelica Amorim Amato
PURPOSE: Most patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) are fertile women whose postoperative (post-op) hormonal balance and weight loss increases fertility, frequently leading to pregnancy. This study aims to analyze supplementation adherence of pregnant women after BS and perinatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed records from women after BS who consulted nutritionists at least twice during pregnancy. Each patient received nutritional guidance about vitamin and mineral supplementation and protein intake...
September 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Ellen J Hoekman, Dan Knoester, Alexander A W Peters, Frank W Jansen, Cornelis D de Kroon, Carina G J M Hilders
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of ovarian transposition (OT) prior to radiation therapy (RT) and to evaluate the effect of age on ovarian survival (OS) after OT. METHODS: We performed a retrospective control study, with women (aged < 45 years) who underwent OT prior to pelvic radiation, versus women diagnosed with cervical cancer and treated with hysterectomy/trachelectomy and radiation therapy. All women were treated between 1989 and 2010. The 5 years OS rate was calculated, with a sub-analysis for age (25-30; 31-35 and 36-40 years)...
September 14, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Lihua Sun, Jing Ye, Yun Wang, Qiuju Chen, Renfei Cai, Yonglun Fu, Hui Tian, Qifeng Lyu, Xuefeng Lu, Yanping Kuang
The potential effects of high basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels on human reproduction were controversial. To demonstrate the effects of elevated basal LH levels on the outcome of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles, we performed a retrospective data analysis of 1011 polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients treated with human menopausal gonadotropin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (hMG + MPA) protocol at our center between Nov. 2013 and Jun...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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