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Liver replacement therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211257/renal-replacement-therapy-in-critically-ill-liver-cirrhotic-patients-outcome-and-clinical-implications
#1
Katharina Staufer, Kevin Roedl, Danijel Kivaranovic, Andreas Drolz, Thomas Horvatits, Susanne Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Christian Zauner, Michael Trauner, Valentin Fuhrmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Current guidelines discourage renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill cirrhotics in the lack of liver transplant (LT) options. This study aimed to identify patients who benefit from RRT in the short and long-term. METHODS: Critically ill cirrhotics were included over a time period of 6 years (y) and followed for at least 1y. CLIF-C ACLF, CLIF-SOFA, SOFA and MELD scores on admission, 24h prior to RRT, 24h and 48h after start of RRT were analyzed for their predictive value of ICU-mortality...
February 16, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208936/supra-hepatic-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis-surgical-challenges
#2
Senthil Muthuraman, Anand Ramamurthy, Mahesh Gopashetty, Cuddalore Sadasivam Vijayshankar, Anand Khakhar
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a chronic affliction characterized by numerous liver and kidney cysts. There is a gradual but progressive renal and liver impairment which may require combined liver-kidney transplantation. Compression of the retrohepatic Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) by an enlarged polycystic liver may impede clear visualization on pre-operative imaging and miss an underlying thrombosis or obliteration. This may result in an intra-operative surprise. Management can be challenging requiring modification of conventional surgical approach...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208022/protein-requirements-for-critically-ill-patients-with-renal-and-liver-failure
#3
Jayshil J Patel, Craig J McClain, Menaka Sarav, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Ryan T Hurt
Diseases leading to critical illness induce proteolysis resulting in muscle wasting and negative nitrogen balance. Muscle wasting has been associated with poor intensive care unit (ICU)-related outcomes, including an increased risk for mortality. Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a common organ dysfunction associated with ICU-related disorders, such as sepsis, trauma, and respiratory failure. AKI and renal replacement therapy lead to amino acid loss. Decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC) and acute liver failure (ALF) represent more severe forms of liver dysfunction leading to ICU admission...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202722/systemic-delivery-of-factor-ix-messenger-rna-for-protein-replacement-therapy
#4
Suvasini Ramaswamy, Nina Tonnu, Kiyoshi Tachikawa, Pattraranee Limphong, Jerel B Vega, Priya P Karmali, Pad Chivukula, Inder M Verma
Safe and efficient delivery of messenger RNAs for protein replacement therapies offers great promise but remains challenging. In this report, we demonstrate systemic, in vivo, nonviral mRNA delivery through lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to treat a Factor IX (FIX)-deficient mouse model of hemophilia B. Delivery of human FIX (hFIX) mRNA encapsulated in our LUNAR LNPs results in a rapid pulse of FIX protein (within 4-6 h) that remains stable for up to 4-6 d and is therapeutically effective, like the recombinant human factor IX protein (rhFIX) that is the current standard of care...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192881/stem-cell-biomaterials-and-growth-factors-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Soleiman Jaferian, Maryam Soleymaninejad, Babak Negahdari, Ali Eatemadi
Hepatocellular carcinoma is an antecedent of liver illnesses, including viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or metabolic disease. Transforming growth factor-Beta (TGF-b) plays an important role in creating a favorable microenvironment for tumor cell growth via two major mechanisms: an intrinsic activity as an autocrine growth factor and an extrinsic activity by inducing microenvironment changes. Recently stem cell therapy as also been a promising and potential treatment for liver cancer and in addition signaling pathways like GF/GFR systems, SDF-1α/CXC4 ligand receptor interaction and PI3K/Akt signaling, and cytokines has been identified to regulate cell fate decisions, and can be utilized to positively influence cell therapy outcomes...
February 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173756/a-clinical-score-to-predict-mortality-in-septic-acute-kidney-injury-patients-requiring-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-the-helenicc-score
#6
Rogério da Hora Passos, João Gabriel Rosa Ramos, Evandro Jose Bulhoes Mendonça, Eva Alves Miranda, Fábio Ricardo Dantas Dutra, Maria Fernanda R Coelho, Andrea C Pedroza, Luis Claudio L Correia, Paulo Benigno Pena Batista, Etienne Macedo, Margarida M D Dutra
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify predictors of early (7-day) mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) who required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). METHODS: Prospective cohort of 186 septic AKI patients undergoing CRRT at a tertiary hospital, from October 2005 to November 2010. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, five variables were associated to early mortality: norepinephrine utilization, liver failure, medical condition, lactate level, and pre-dialysis creatinine level...
February 7, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170183/functional-human-and-murine-tissue-engineered-liver-is-generated-from-adult-stem-progenitor-cells
#7
Nirmala Mavila, Andrew Trecartin, Ryan Spurrier, Yi Xiao, Xiaogang Hou, David James, Xiaowei Fu, Brian Truong, Clara Wang, Gerald S Lipshutz, Kasper S Wang, Tracy C Grikscheit
Liver disease affects large numbers of patients, yet there are limited treatments available to replace absent or ineffective cellular function of this crucial organ. Donor scarcity and the necessity for immunosuppression limit one effective therapy, orthotopic liver transplantation. But in some conditions such as inborn errors of metabolism or transient states of liver insufficiency, patients may be salvaged by providing partial quantities of functional liver tissue. After transplanting multicellular liver organoid units composed of a heterogeneous cellular population that includes adult stem and progenitor cells, both mouse and human tissue-engineered liver (TELi) form in vivo...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154760/blood-transfusions-and-tumor-biopsy-may-increase-hcc-recurrence-rates-after-liver-transplantation
#8
Daniel Seehofer, Robert Öllinger, Timm Denecke, Moritz Schmelzle, Andreas Andreou, Eckart Schott, Johann Pratschke
Introduction. Beneath tumor grading and vascular invasion, nontumor related risk factors for HCC recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) have been postulated. Potential factors were analyzed in a large single center experience. Material and Methods. This retrospective analysis included 336 consecutive patients transplanted for HCC. The following factors were analyzed stratified for vascular invasion: immunosuppression, rejection therapy, underlying liver disease, age, gender, blood transfusions, tumor biopsy, caval replacement, waiting time, Child Pugh status, and postoperative complications...
2017: Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133126/-resection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-synchronous-bilateral-adrenal-metastases
#9
Naoto Fujimoto, Yoshito Tomimaru, Kozo Noguchi, Hirotsugu Nagase, Atsushi Hamabe, Masashi Hirota, Kazuteru Oshima, Tsukasa Tanida, Shunji Morita, Hiroshi Imamura, Takashi Iwazawa, Kenzo Akagi, Kunihiko Shu, Shiro Adachi, Keizo Dono
A 59-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with liver dysfunction. Examinations revealed a huge liver tumor in the right hepatic lobe and a mass in each adrenal gland. The preoperative diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)with synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases. The patient underwent right hepatic lobectomy, cholecystectomy, and bilateral adrenalectomy. Histopathological examination of the specimens confirmed the diagnosis of HCC with synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases. After surgery, he received steroid replacement therapy and had a favorable clinical course without complications...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131540/fabrication-of-a-fiber-type-hepatic-tissue-by-bottom-up-method-using-multilayer-spheroids
#10
Tatsuya Okudaira, Ryohei Yabuta, Hiroshi Mizumoto, Toshihisa Kajiwara
Liver regenerative medicine, a therapy using cultured hepatocytes or hepatic tissues, has the potential to replace liver transplantation. However, this therapeutic strategy has challenges to overcome, including in construction of the hepatic tissues. As an approach to fabricating functional 3D hepatic tissues, we focused on hepatocyte spheroids, which have high cell density and maintain high liver-specific functions. We employed a bottom-up method using spheroids, arranging hepatocytes and endothelial cells regularly at the time of tissue construction...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128878/heat-stroke-leading-to-acute-liver-injury-failure-a-case-series-from-the-acute-liver-failure-study-group
#11
Brian C Davis, Holly Tillman, Raymond T Chung, R Todd Stravitz, K Rajender Reddy, Robert J Fontana, Brendan McGuire, Timothy Davern, William M Lee
OBJECTIVE: In the United States, nearly 1000 annual cases of heat stroke are reported but the frequency and outcome of severe liver injury in such patients is not well described. The aim of this study was to describe cases of acute liver injury (ALI) or failure (ALF) caused by heat stroke in a large ALF registry. DATA SOURCES: Amongst 2,675 consecutive subjects enrolled in a prospective observational cohort of patients with ALI or ALF between January 1998 and April 2015, there were 8 subjects with heat stroke...
January 27, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121714/hepatitis-delta-and-hiv-infection
#12
Vincent Soriano, Kenneth E Sherman, Pablo Barreiro
Viral liver diseases are frequent co-morbidities and major contributors to death in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Whereas cure of hepatitis C and control of hepatitis B with antivirals avert liver disease progression in most HIV-coinfected patients, the lack of satisfactory treatment for hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection remains a major threat for developing cirrhosis and liver cancer in this population. In the European Union and North America, sexual contact has replaced injection drug use has major transmission route for HDV in HIV-positive persons...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112679/mechanism-for-leptin-s-acute-insulin-independent-effect-to-reverse-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#13
Rachel J Perry, Liang Peng, Abudukadier Abulizi, Lynn Kennedy, Gary W Cline, Gerald I Shulman
The mechanism by which leptin reverses diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. We examined the acute insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of DKA. Leptin infusion reduced rates of lipolysis, hepatic glucose production (HGP), and hepatic ketogenesis by 50% within 6 hours and were independent of any changes in plasma glucagon concentrations; these effects were abrogated by coinfusion of corticosterone. Treating leptin- and corticosterone-infused rats with an adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitor blocked corticosterone-induced increases in plasma glucose concentrations and rates of HGP and ketogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101307/review-and-recommendations-on-management-of-adult-female-thalassemia-patients-with-hypogonadism-based-on-literature-review-and-experience-of-icet-a-network-specialists
#14
REVIEW
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Alice Albu, Soad Al Jaouni, Salvatore Anastasi, Maria Grazia Bisconte, Duran Canatan, Soteroula Christou, Shahina Daar, Salvatore Di Maio, Mohamed El Kholy, Doaa Khater, Mohamed Elshinawy, Yurdanur Kilinc, Roberto Mattei, Hala H Mosli, Alessandra Quota, Maria Grazia Roberti, Praveen Sobti, Saif Al Yaarubi, Saveria Canpisi, Christos Kattamis
BACKGROUND: Multi-transfused thalassemia major (TM) patients frequently develop severe endocrine complications, mainly due to iron overload, anemia, and chronic liver disease, which require prompt diagnosis, treatment and follow-up by specialists. The most common endocrine complication documented is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism which increases with age and associated comorbidities. It is thus important for physicians to have a clear understanding of the pathophysiology and management of this disorder...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100871/in-vivo-direct-reprogramming-of-liver-cells-to-insulin-producing-cells-by-virus-free-overexpression-of-defined-factors
#15
Xiao-Fei Yang, Li-Wei Ren, Lu Yang, Chun-Yan Deng, Fu-Rong Li
Direct reprogramming of autologous cells from diabetes patients to insulin producing cells is a new method for pancreatic cell replacement therapy. At present, transdifferentiation among mature cells is achieved mainly by introducing foreign genes into the starting tissue with viral vector, but there are potentical safety problems. In the present study, we delivered plasmids carrying Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA genes (PNM) into mouse hepatocytes by hydrodynamics tail vein injection, investigated islet β cells markers in transfected cells from protein and mRNA level, and then observed the long-term control of blood glucose in diabetic mice...
January 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097104/massive-hemolysis-causing-renal-failure-in-acute-hepatitis-e-infection
#16
Pragya Karki, Sarthak Malik, Bipadabhanjan Mallick, Vishal Sharma, Surinder S Rana
Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088579/the-microrna-449-family-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-liver-cancer-cell-migration-by-targeting-sox4
#17
Maria Sandbothe, Reena Buurman, Nicole Reich, Luisa Greiwe, Beate Vajen, Engin Gürlevik, Vera Schäffer, Marlies Eilers, Florian Kühnel, Alejandro Vaquero, Thomas Longerich, Stephanie Roessler, Peter Schirmacher, Michael P Manns, Thomas Illig, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Britta Skawran
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Modulation of microRNA expression is considered for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we characterized the epigenetically regulated microRNA-449 family (miR-449a, miR-449b, miR-449c) with regards to its functional effects and target genes in HCC. METHODS: After transfection of miR-449a, miR-449b, and/or miR-449c, tumor-relevant functional effects were analyzed using in vitro assays and a xenograft mouse model. Binding specificities, target genes, and regulated pathways of each microRNA were identified by microarray analyses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076340/telomere-length-assessment-for-prediction-of-organ-transplantation-outcome-future-or-failure-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
Karolina Kłoda, Leszek Domański, Artur Mierzecki
Telomeres are located at each end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Their functional role is genomic stability maintenance. The protective role of telomeres depends on various factors, including number of nucleotides repeats, telomere-binding proteins, and telomerase activity. Organ transplantation is the preferred replacement therapy in the case of chronic kidney disease and the only possibility of sustaining recipients' life in the case of advanced liver failure. While the prevalence of acute rejection is constantly decreasing, prevention of transplanted organ long-term function loss is still challenging...
January 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076311/biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury-the-pathway-from-discovery-to-clinical-adoption
#19
Kianoush Kashani, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Claudio Ronco
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of critical illnesses and has a significant impact on outcomes, including mortality and morbidities. Unfortunately, apart from prophylactic measures, no effective treatment for this syndrome is known. Therefore, early recognition of AKI not only can provide better opportunities for preventive interventions, but also opens many gates for research and development of effective therapeutic options. Over the last few years, several new AKI biomarkers have been discovered and validated to improve early detection, differential diagnosis, and differentiation of patients into risk groups for progressive renal failure, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), or death...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071899/near-ir-absorbing-gold-nanoframes-with-enhanced-physiological-stability-and-improved-biocompatibility-for-in-vivo-biomedical-applications
#20
Liying Wang, Yunching Chen, Hsin Yao Lin, Yung-Te Hou, Ling-Chu Yang, Aileen Y Sun, Jia-Yu Liu, Chien-Wen Chang, Dehui Wan
This paper describes the synthesis of near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing gold nanoframes (GNFs) and a systematic study comparing their physiological stability and biocompatibility with those of hollow Au-Ag nanoshells (GNSs), which have been used widely as photothermal agents in biomedical applications because of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR region. The GNFs were synthesized in three steps: galvanic replacement, Au deposition, and Ag dealloying, using silver nanospheres (SNP) as the starting material...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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