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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813625/detection-of-first-line-drug-resistance-mutations-and-drug-protein-interaction-dynamics-from-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#1
Somanna Ajjamada Nachappa, Sumana M Neelambike, Chokkanna Amruthavalli, Nallur B Ramachandra
Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. AIMS: To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813596/molecular-imaging-of-p-glycoprotein-in-chemoresistant-tumors-using-a-dual-modality-pet-fluorescence-probe
#2
Mengzhe Wang, Chengqiong Mao, Hui Wang, Xueying Ling, Zhanhong Wu, Zi-Bo Li, Xin Ming
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been considered a primary cause for multidrug resistance in a variety of cancers for three decades. However, clinical translation of Pgp targeted therapeutics has been hindered by lack of patient preselection based on the Pgp presence in tumors. We aim to develop a molecularly targeted probe for imaging tumoral Pgp in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence, and to provide a tool for preselecting the patients with tumoral Pgp expression. Thus, a Pgp monoclonal antibody 15D3 was chemically modified with IRDye800 (IR800) and DOTA chelator...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813520/the-frequency-of-class1-and-2-integrons-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-a-burn-center-of-ahvaz-iran
#3
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Moloudsadat Motahar, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with the ability to cause severe nosocomial infections and remains a major problem in burn patients. This organism shows a remarkable antimicrobial resistance and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Integron genes as mobile genetic elements are playing an important role in the spread of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of class 1, and 2 integron genes (int1, int2), among P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811792/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-peshawar
#4
Abdul Samad, Tanveer Ahmed, Afaq Rahim, Abdul Khalil, Iftikhar Ali
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014 in Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar. A total of 615 sputum samples were collected from both in and out-patients. Sputum samples were collected as per standard procedure and were inoculated on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate agar...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#5
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811220/euphorbia-lunulata-extract-acts-on-multidrug-resistant-gastric-cancer-cells-to-inhibit-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-arrest-cell-cycle-progression-and-induce-apoptosis
#6
Zhaoying Fu, Xiaodong Han, Juan Du, Xiaoxiao Han, Weipeng Liu, Shumei Shao, Xiaobin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The milky sap or the aboveground part of the plant Euphorbia lunulata has long been used by Chinese people to treat noncancerous growths and cancerous ailments but the specific mode of action and the action mechanism remain to be elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of Euphorbia lunulata extract on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of multidrug resistant human gastric cancer cells; To study the mechanism of apoptosis induction by Euphorbia lunulata extract in multidrug resistant human gastric cancer cells...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#7
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810817/struggles-over-antibiotics-physicians-stance-taking-toward-a-nonconforming-policy-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#8
Letizia Caronia, Marzia Saglietti
One of the most pressing contemporary health care challenges consists in rethinking antibiotic use to contrast the increase of multidrug resistant bacteria. Drawing on an ethnographic fieldwork in an Intensive Care Unit that adopts a nonconforming policy of antibiotic stewardship, this article analyzes doctor-doctor interaction concerning infectious disease diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. By analyzing examples of medical decision-making from a corpus of video-recorded morning briefings, we focus on physicians' stance-taking toward the ward's nonconforming policy and illustrate how it is contingently situated along a continuum from strong commitment to overt resistance...
August 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810651/kanglaite-inhibits-the-expression-of-drug-resistance-genes-through-suppressing-pvt1-in-cisplatin-resistant-gastric-cancer-cells
#9
Xian-Wen Zhang, Liang Liu, Xi-Zhi Zhang, Ping Bo
Kanglaite (KLT) was shown to alleviate the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) clinically. The purpose of this study is to examine the mechanism of KLT for chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer cells involving the regulation of MDR-related proteins. The cisplatin-resistant BGC823/DPP and SGC7901/DDP cells were treated with 1, 2.5 and 5 µl/ml of KLT for 24, 36 and 48 h. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry were performed to detect the cell viability and cell apoptosis, respectively...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#10
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810308/-the-management-of-infections-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-lower-respiratory-tract
#11
Y Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808447/predictors-for-mortality-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-tanzania
#12
Edson W Mollel, Jaffu O Chilongola
PROBLEM: Factors related to MDRTB mortality in Tanzania have not been adequately explored and reported. OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic, clinical, radiographic, and laboratory factors associated with MDRTB mortality in a Tanzanian TB Referral Hospital. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study with 193 participants. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected, and their associations with mortality among MDRTB patients were determined...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808284/molecular-rationale-behind-the-differential-substrate-specificity-of-bacterial-rnd-multi-drug-transporters
#13
Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Attilio V Vargiu, Giuliano Malloci, Jürg Dreier, Paolo Ruggerone
Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) transporters AcrB and AcrD of Escherichia coli expel a wide range of substrates out of the cell in conjunction with AcrA and TolC, contributing to the onset of bacterial multidrug resistance. Despite sharing an overall sequence identity of ~66% (similarity ~80%), these RND transporters feature distinct substrate specificity patterns whose underlying basis remains elusive. We performed exhaustive comparative analyses of the putative substrate binding pockets considering crystal structures, homology models and conformations extracted from multi-copy μs-long molecular dynamics simulations of both AcrB and AcrD...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808258/hexahydroquinolines-are-antimalarial-candidates-with-potent-blood-stage-and-transmission-blocking-activity
#14
Manu Vanaerschot, Leonardo Lucantoni, Tao Li, Jill M Combrinck, Andrea Ruecker, T R Santha Kumar, Kelly Rubiano, Pedro E Ferreira, Giulia Siciliano, Sonia Gulati, Philipp P Henrich, Caroline L Ng, James M Murithi, Victoria C Corey, Sandra Duffy, Ori J Lieberman, M Isabel Veiga, Robert E Sinden, Pietro Alano, Michael J Delves, Kim Lee Sim, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Timothy J Egan, Stephen L Hoffman, Vicky M Avery, David A Fidock
Antimalarial compounds with dual therapeutic and transmission-blocking activity are desired as high-value partners for combination therapies. Here, we report the identification and characterization of hexahydroquinolines (HHQs) that show low nanomolar potency against both pathogenic and transmissible intra-erythrocytic forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This activity translates into potent transmission-blocking potential, as shown by in vitro male gamete formation assays and reduced oocyst infection and prevalence in Anopheles mosquitoes...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808163/a-role-for-fimh-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-and-translocation-through-the-intestinal-epithelium
#15
Nina M Poole, Sabrina I Green, Anubama Rajan, Luz E Vela, Xi-Lei Zeng, Mary K Estes, Anthony W Maresso
The translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium of immunocompromised patients can lead to bacteremia and life-threatening sepsis. Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), so named because this pathotype infects tissues distal to the intestinal tract, is a frequent cause of such infections, is often multidrug resistant, and chronically colonizes a sizable portion of the healthy population. Although several virulence factors and their roles in pathogenesis are well described for ExPEC that cause urinary tract infections and meningitis, they have not been linked to translocation through intestinal barriers, a fundamentally distant yet important clinical phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807917/bedaquiline-inhibits-the-atp-synthase-in-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-is-effective-in-infected-zebrafish
#16
Christian Dupont, Albertus Viljoen, Sangeeta Thomas, Françoise Roquet-Banères, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Kevin Pethe, Laurent Kremer
Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus are emerging as a global threat, especially in cystic fibrosis patients. Further intensifying the concern of M. abscessus infection is the recent evidence of human-to-human transmission of the infection. M. abscessus is a naturally multidrug resistant, fast-growing pathogen for which pharmacological options are limited. Repurposing antitubercular drugs represents an attractive option for the development of chemotherapeutic alternatives against M. abscessus infections...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807909/development-and-use-of-personalized-bacteriophage-based-therapeutic-cocktails-to-treat-a-patient-with-a-disseminated-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#17
Robert T Schooley, Biswajit Biswas, Jason J Gill, Adriana Hernandez-Morales, Jacob Lancaster, Lauren Lessor, Jeremy J Barr, Sharon L Reed, Forest Rohwer, Sean Benler, Anca M Segall, Randy Taplitz, Davey M Smith, Kim Kerr, Monika Kumaraswamy, Victor Nizet, Leo Lin, Melanie D McCauley, Steffanie A Strathdee, Constance A Benson, Robert K Pope, Brian M Leroux, Andrew C Picel, Alfred J Mateczun, Katherine E Cilwa, James M Regeimbal, Luis A Estrella, David M Wolfe, Matthew S Henry, Javier Quinones, Scott Salka, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, Ry Young, Theron Hamilton
Widespread antibiotic use in clinical medicine and the livestock industry has contributed to the global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii We report on a method used to produce a personalized bacteriophage-based therapeutic treatment for a 68-year old diabetic patient with necrotizing pancreatitis complicated by a MDR A. baumannii infection. Despite multiple antibiotic courses and efforts at percutaneous drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst, the patient deteriorated over a four-month period...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807836/development-and-evaluation-of-the-automated-risk-assessment-system-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-autoras-mdro
#18
Eun-Young Hur, Yinji Jin, Taixian Jin, Sun-Mi Lee
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of infections acquired in hospitals are caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). The priority in MDRO prevention is to detect high-risk patients and implement preventive intervention as soon as possible. AIM: To develop an automated risk assessment system for MDROs (autoRAS-MDRO) to screen for patients at MDRO infection risk and evaluate the predictive validity of the autoRAS-MDRO. METHODS: Data for 4,200 variables were extracted from the electronic health records (EHRs) for constructing the MDRO risk-scoring algorithm, which was based on a logistic regression model...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807400/incx3-plasmid-harboring-a-non-tn4401-genetic-element-ntekpc-in-a-hospital-associated-clone-of-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st340-cg258
#19
Louise T Cerdeira, Marcos P V Cunha, Gabriela R Francisco, Maria Fernanda C Bueno, Bruna F Araujo, Rosineide M Ribas, Paulo P Gontijo-Filho, Terezinha Knöbl, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Nilton Lincopan
IncX-type plasmids have achieved clinical significance for their contribution in the dissemination of genes confering resistance to carbapenems (most blaKPC- and blaNDM-type genes) and polymyxins (mcr-type genes), both antibiotics considered last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. In this study, we report the identification and complete sequence analysis of an IncX3 plasmid (designated pKP1194a) carrying a non-Tn4401 genetic element (NTEKPC) of tnpR-tnpA (partial)-blaKPC-2-ΔISKpn6/traN, originating from a hospital-associated lineage of K...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807301/a-candidate-recombinant-antigen-for-diagnosis-of-schistosomiasis-japonica-in-domestic-animals
#20
Jintao Feng, Rui Xu, Xin Zhang, Yu Han, Chuanchuan He, Chao Lu, Yang Hong, Ke Lu, Hao Li, Yamei Jin, Jiaojiao Lin, Jinming Liu
Domestic animals infected with Schistosoma japonicum are a major source of infection and play an important role in transmission to humans. A key strategy for the elimination of schistosomiasis is to control the sources of infection. In the present study, we identified a candidate diagnostic antigen-encoding gene, SjMRP1, the putative multidrug resistance protein 1 gene, by screening a cDNA phage display library from 44-day-old S. japonicum worms using IgGs from goat, cattle, and buffalo infected with S. japonicum...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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