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Lactate AND Visceral fat

E P S Conceição, A R Kaezer, N Peixoto-Silva, I Felzenszwalb, E de Oliveira, E G Moura, P C Lisboa
Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) has a beneficial effect in the management of obesity. Here, we studied the effects of yerba mate on hypothalamic changes in leptin and insulin signalling, oxidative stress and liver morphology and metabolism in postnatal early overfeeding (EO) Wistar rats. To induce EO, the litter size was reduced to three pups per dam, and litters with 10 pups per dam were used as a control (10 litters each). On postnatal day (PN) 150, EO offspring were subdivided into EO and EO+mate groups (10 animals each), which were treated with water or mate tea [1 g/kg body weight (BW)/day, by gavage], respectively, for 30 days...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Romeu Paulo Martins Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Dos Santos, Nelson Eurípedes Matildes, Antônio Vicente Mundim, Mario da Silva Garrote-Filho, Pâmella Ferreira Rodrigues, Nilson Penha-Silva
Objective: This study investigated the possible blood changes in wistar rats elderly with and without treatment with anabolic steroids submitted physical training. Materials and methods: Elderly rats (32) were divided into four groups: normal (N), treated normal (NT), diabetic (D) and treated diabetic (DT). They were submitted to 20 sessions of swimming with overload (5% body weight), 40 min/day for four weeks. The NT and DT groups received application of testosterone twice a week...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiao Li, Jing Yang, Youbo Zhu, Yuan Liu, Xin'e Shi, Gongshe Yang
Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m⁶A methylation-an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently-is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Deysla Sabino Guarda, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Janaíne Cavalcanti Carvalho, Adelina Martha Dos Reis, Patricia Novaes Soares, Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Mariana Sarto Figueiredo
We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance...
September 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
E P S Conceição, E G Moura, A C Manhães, J C Carvalho, J L Nobre, E Oliveira, P C Lisboa
Rats overfed during lactation show higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass and metabolic dysfunctions at adulthood. As both vitamin D and glucocorticoids change adipogenesis, parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in the adipocyte can be altered in rats raised in small litters (SL). We also studied the antiobesity effects of high calcium diet since it decreases visceral fat in obesity models. On postnatal day (PN) 3, litter size was adjusted to 3pups/dam (SL) to induce overfeeding. Control litters (NL) remained with 10pups/dam until weaning...
August 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Lila Otani, Tomomi Mori, Ayaka Koyama, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Hisanori Kato
Nutrition in early life is important in determining susceptibility to adult obesity, and arginine may promote growth acceleration in infants. We hypothesized that maternal arginine supplementation may promote growth in their pups and contribute to obesity and alteration of the metabolic system in later life. Dams and pups of Wistar rats were given a normal diet (15% protein) as a control (CN) or a normal diet with 2% arginine (ARG). Altered profiles of free amino acids in breast milk were observed in that the concentrations of threonine and glycine were lower in the ARG dams compared with the CN dams...
June 2016: Nutrition Research
Fei Jiao, Xiaoshuang Yan, Yuan Yu, Xiao Zhu, Ying Ma, Zhen Yue, Hailong Ou, Zhonghai Yan
Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams...
August 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Cristina Menni, Marie Migaud, Craig A Glastonbury, Michelle Beaumont, Aikaterini Nikolaou, Kerrin S Small, Mary Julia Brosnan, Robert P Mohney, Tim D Spector, Ana M Valdes
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether metabolomic markers of T2D and blood pressure (BP) act on these traits via visceral fat (VF) mass. METHODS: Metabolomic profiling of 280 fasting plasma metabolites was conducted on 2,401 women from TwinsUK. The overlap was assessed between published metabolites associated with T2D, insulin resistance, or BP and those that were identified to be associated with VF (after adjustment for covariates) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
June 2016: Obesity
Simon Lecoutre, Barbara Deracinois, Christine Laborie, Delphine Eberlé, Céline Guinez, Polina E Panchenko, Jean Lesage, Didier Vieau, Claudine Junien, Anne Gabory, Christophe Breton
According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
E P S Conceição, E G Moura, P N Soares, X X Ai, M S Figueiredo, E Oliveira, P C Lisboa
Obesity is related to diabetes, higher oxidative stress and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and dietetic therapies, for instance calcium-rich diet, can improve these dysfunctions. Rats raised in small litters (SL) had increased fat depots and insulin resistance at adulthood associated with higher liver oxidative stress and microsteatosis. Thus, we evaluated if dietary calcium can improve these changes. In PN3, litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (SL group) to induce overfeeding, while controls had 10 pups until weaning...
June 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Caroline Thum, Warren C McNabb, Wayne Young, Adrian L Cookson, Nicole C Roy
SCOPE: The composition of the gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota, particularly in early life, influences the development of metabolic diseases later in life. The maternal microbiota is the main source of bacteria colonising the infant GIT and can be modified by dietary prebiotics. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal consumption of prebiotic caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) on the large intestine of female mice, milk composition, and offspring's development. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet, CMO diet, or galacto-oligosaccharide diet from mating to weaning...
September 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Christina Brei, Lynne Stecher, Daniela Much, Marie-Theres Karla, Ulrike Amann-Gassner, Jun Shen, Carl Ganter, Dimitrios C Karampinos, Stefanie Brunner, Hans Hauner
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the n-6:n-3 (ω-6:ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio in the maternal diet during the prenatal and early postnatal phase positively affects the body composition of the offspring. However, only limited data from prospective human intervention studies with long-term follow-up are available. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the long-term effects of a reduced n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the diets of pregnant and lactating women [1020 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/d together with an arachidonic acid-balanced diet compared with a control diet] on the body weights and compositions of their offspring from 2 to 5 y of age with a focus on the 5-y results...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ji Hyen Lee, Hyeryon Lee, Sang Mi Lee, Pil Je Kang, Kwan Chang Kim, Young Mi Hong
BACKGROUND: There are a number of complications that can occur if there is under-nutrition during pregnancy followed by a period of rapid catch-up growth, including a higher chance of adult obesity, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of fetal under-nutrition during late pregnancy and lactation on blood pressure, visceral fat tissue, gene expressions and to evaluate changes after amlodipine- losartan combination treatment...
2016: Clinical Hypertension
C Farmer, P Robertson, C W Xiao, C Rehfeldt, C Kalbe
Due to their functional similarity to estradiol, phytoestrogens could prove to be beneficial in late gestating sows. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of providing the phytoestrogen genistein during late pregnancy on the performance of sows and their litters. In total, 56 gilts were equally divided into the two following groups on day 90 of gestation: (1) controls (CTL); and (2) two daily i.m. injections of 220 mg of genistein (GEN). Treatments were carried out until farrowing. Jugular blood samples were collected from 16 gilts/treatment on days 89 and 110 of gestation, and on days 3 and 21 of lactation...
September 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Malgorzata S Martin-Gronert, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Martin Bushell, Kenneth Siddle, Susan E Ozanne
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals with a low birthweight have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. This is associated with peripheral insulin resistance. Here, we aimed to determine whether changes in insulin signalling proteins in white adipose tissue (WAT) can be detected prior to the onset of impaired glucose tolerance, determine whether these changes are cell-autonomous and identify the underlying mechanisms involved. METHODS: Fourteen-month-old male rat offspring born to dams fed a standard protein (20%) diet or a low (8%) protein diet throughout gestation and lactation were studied...
June 2016: Diabetologia
Rika E Aleliunas, Abeer M Aljaadi, Ismail Laher, Melissa B Glier, Tim J Green, Melissa Murphy, Joshua W Miller, Angela M Devlin
BACKGROUND: The developmental origins of health and disease theory suggest that disturbances in the fetal and early postnatal environment contribute to chronic adulthood diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Greater adiposity and insulin resistance have been reported in children of women with high erythrocyte folate but poor vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy. The mechanisms underlying this relation are not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal supplemental folic acid, with or without vitamin B-12, on adiposity, glucose homeostasis, and vascular health in adult male offspring mice...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
M Weber, L Locher, K Huber, J Rehage, R Tienken, U Meyer, S Dänicke, L Webb, H Sauerwein, M Mielenz
The transition period in dairy cows is characterized by major changes in glucose and adipose tissue metabolism. The Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) PPARγ co-activator 1α (PPARGC1A) axis might be related to the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) system to orchestrate the regulation of these processes. We aimed to assess the mRNA abundance of the aforementioned components in one visceral and one subcutaneous fat depot, together with the ADIPOQ concentrations in serum of dairy cows from late gestation to early lactation. In addition, the effect of 2 diets differing in energy density was tested...
February 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
J Gugusheff, P Sim, A Kheng, S Gentili, M Al-Nussairawi, J Brand-Miller, B Muhlhausler
Clinical studies have reported beneficial effects of a maternal low glycaemic index (GI) diet on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, but the impact of the diet on the offspring in later life, and the mechanisms underlying these effects, remain unclear. In this study, Albino Wistar rats were fed either a low GI (n=14) or high GI (n=14) diet during pregnancy and lactation and their offspring weaned onto either the low or high GI diet. Low GI dams had better glucose tolerance (AUC[glucose], 1322±55 v. 1523±72 mmol min/l, P<0...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Amélia F Bernardo, Erika Cortez, Fabiana A Neves, Anatalia K G Vieira, Vivian de M Soares, Alessandra C de S Rodrigues-Cunha, Daniela C Andrade, Alessandra A Thole, Daniele Gabriel-Costa, Patricia C Brum, Aníbal S Moura, Érica P Garcia-Souza
Several studies have demonstrated that overnutrition during early postnatal period can increase the long-term risk of developing obesity and cardiac disorders, yet the short-term effects of postnatal overfeeding in cardiac metabolism remains unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the cardiac metabolism of weaned mice submitted to overnutrition during lactation, particularly as to mitochondrial function, substrate preference and insulin signaling. Postnatal overfeeding was induced by litter size reduction in mice at postnatal day 3...
March 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Gabriela dos Santos Perez, Lucimeire Santana dos Santos, Gabriele dos Santos Cordeiro, Gardênia Matos Paraguassú, Daniel Abensur Athanazio, Ricardo David Couto, Tereza Cristina Bonfim de Jesus Deiró, Raul Manhães de Castro, Jairza Maria Barreto-Medeiros
AIM: considering the frequent consumption of fat-rich diets by women of reproductive age, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during the perinatal and/ or post-weaning period on the liver parameters and lipid metabolism of young rats. METHODS: Wistar female rats were fed a high-fat (H) or control (C) diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated to four groups: Control Control (CC, n = 11), offspring fed a control diet after weaning; Control High-fat (CH, n = 10), offspring fed a high-fat diet after weaning; High-fat High-fat (HH, n = 10), offspring of mothers H fed a high-fat diet after weaning; and High-fat Control (HC, n = 9), offspring of mothers H fed with control diet after weaning...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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