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Elisangela G Cata-Preta, Yasmim A Serra, Eliseu da C Moreira-Junior, Henrique S Reis, Natali D Kisaki, Matheus Libarino-Santos, Raiany R R Silva, Thaísa Barros-Santos, Lucas C Santos, Paulo C R Barbosa, José L Costa, Alexandre J Oliveira-Lima, Lais F Berro, Eduardo A V Marinho
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage produced from the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi (Bc) and Psychotria viridis (Pv), β-carboline- and N,N -dimethyltryptamine(DMT)-containing plants, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects on ethanol abuse. It is not known, however, whether its effects are dependent on the presence of DMT or if non-DMT-containing components would have therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rewarding properties of ayahuasca (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, orally), Bc (132, 440, and 1320 mg/kg, orally) and Pv (3...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Satheesh Ellipilli, John D Phillips, Jennifer M Heemstra
Branched DNAs (bDNAs) having comb-like structures have found wide utility in molecular diagnostics and DNA nanotechnology. bDNAs can be generated either by designing and assembling linear DNA molecules into rigid non-covalent structures or by using an orthogonally protected branching unit to synthesize covalently linked structures. Despite the advantages of the covalently linked structures, use of this motif has been hampered by the challenging synthesis of appropriately protected branching monomers. We report the facile synthesis of a branching monomer having orthogonal DMT and Lev protecting groups using readily available δ-velarolactone and 1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol...
June 8, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Lee E Dunlap, David E Olson
A large number of clinically used drugs and experimental pharmaceuticals possess the N , N -dimethyltryptamine (DMT) structural core. Previous reports have described the reaction of this motif with dichloromethane (DCM), a common laboratory solvent used during extraction and purification, leading to the formation of an undesired quaternary ammonium salt byproduct. However, the kinetics of this reaction under various conditions have not been thoroughly described. Here, we report a series of experiments designed to simulate the exposure of DMT to DCM that would take place during extraction from plant material, biphasic aqueous work-up, or column chromatography purification...
May 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Krisztina Bencsik, Dániel Sandi, Tamás Biernacki, Zsigmond Kincses, Judit Füvesi, Zsanett Fricska-Nagy, László Vécsei
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a rare disease of the central nervous system considering the total population, the prevalence in Hungary is 83.9/100.000. The first MS registry was established in Denmark in the middle of the 1950's. This was followed by the establishment of several national, then international databases with the number of enrolled patients in the hundred-thousands. At the beginning, the primary goal of the registries were the epidemiological surveys, focusing on the number of patients, the prevalence, the incidence, the mortality and the co-morbidity...
September 30, 2017: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Jared M Bruce, David P Jarmolowicz, Sharon Lynch, Joanie Thelen, Seung-Lark Lim, Julia Smith, Delwyn Catley, Amanda S Bruce
OBJECTIVE: Although the effectiveness and risks of multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies are established, relatively little is known about how these benefits and risks are perceived and weighed by patients. This risk-benefit trade-off is important for clinicians, industry, and regulators to consider when determining which therapies to develop, approve for clinical use, and recommend to individual patients. The primary objective of the present study was to describe individual differences in how MS patients weigh risks and benefits when making treatment decisions...
June 4, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Yun-Ting Hsieh, Jung Yao Chen, Seijiro Fukuta, Po-Chen Lin, Tomoya Higashihara, Chu-Chen Chueh, Wen-Chang Chen
The rapid development of wearable electronic devices has prompted a strong demand to develop stretchable organic solar cells (OSCs) to serve as the advanced powering systems. However, to realize an intrinsically stretchable OSC is challenging since it requires all the constituent layers to possess certain elastic properties. It thus necessitates a combined engineering of charge-transporting layers and photoactive materials. Herein, we first describe a stretchable electron-extraction layer (EEL) using a blend of PFN and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, Nipol®1072)...
June 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
O Yildiz, Z Mao, A Adams, N Dubuisson, K Allen-Philbey, G Giovannoni, A Malaspina, D Baker, S Gnanapavan, K Schmierer
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests people with non-relapsing deteriorating ("progressive") multiple sclerosis (pwPMS) may benefit from disease-modifying immune therapy (DMT). However, only one such treatment (ocrelizumab) has been licensed and is highly restricted to pwPMS suffering from the primary progressive phenotype. The difficulties assessing treatment outcome in pwPMS is one important reason for the lack of respective DMT. The concentration of neurofilaments in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a biomarker of neuro-axonal damage, and both neurofilament light (NfL) and heavy chain (NfH) levels have been used as outcome indices and to guide treatment choices...
May 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Andreas Roth, Steffen C E Schmidt, Ilka Seidel, Alexander Woll, Klaus Bös
Objective: The aim of this study is to measure the motor development and tracking of physical fitness (PF) components of primary school children of Trier in Germany. Methods: Two longitudinal cohorts, of 1768 children (915 f, 853 m) aged 5-11, were measured. In longitudinal cohort 1, a total of 116 female and 137 male participants aged 6.80 ± 0.42 years at baseline were measured four times from grade 1 to grade 4 (response: 40.4%). Participants of longitudinal cohort 2 (166 f, 149 m; 6...
2018: BioMed Research International
T Chalmer, L M Baggesen, M Nørgaard, N Koch-Henriksen, M Magyari, P S Sorensen
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term treatment effectiveness of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) initiated in early disease course versus later treatment start. METHODS: We included all Danish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with DMT through two nationwide population-based MS registries. Patients were categorized as early treated if treatment started within two years after the first MS symptom (n=2,316) and later treated patients if treatment started between two and eight years after clinical onset (n=1,479)...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Jay Visaria, Nina Thomas, Tao Gu, Joseph Singer, Hiangkiat Tan
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the treatment journey of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This study was conducted in 2 phases. The first consisted of a claims-based analysis of data from patients diagnosed with MS between October 1, 2010, and May 31, 2014. Study patients were aged ≥18 years, had ≥12 months of continuous eligibility before and after the earliest MS diagnosis (index date), ≥1 disease-modifying therapy (DMT) claim postindex, and no claims with a code for DMT or MS during the 12-month preindex period...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Andrew J Hallett, Emeline Placet, Roxane Prieux, Danielle McCafferty, James A Platts, David Lloyd, Marc Isaacs, Anthony J Hayes, Simon J Coles, Mateusz B Pitak, Sarah Marchant, Stephen N Marriott, Rudolf K Allemann, Athanasia Dervisi, Ian A Fallis
A systematic study of the cellular uptake of emissive complexes as a function of their lipophilicity is presented. Here a series of amphiphilic rhenium fac-tricarbonyl bisimine complexes bearing axial substituted imidazole or thiazole ligands, [Re(bpy)(CO)3(ImCnHm)]+ {n = 1 m = 3 (1+), n = 4 m = 9 (2+), n = 8 m = 17 (3+), n = 12 m = 25 (4+), n = 16 m = 33 (5+), n = 2 m = 3 (6+); bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Im = imidazole} and [Re(bpy)(CO)3(L)]+ {L = 1-mesitylimidazole, ImMes (7+), 4,5-dimethylthiazole, dmt (8+) and 4-methyl-5-thiazole-ethanol, mte (9+)} is reported...
May 23, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
A Maarouf, C Boutière, A Rico, B Audoin, J Pelletier
In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug specifically for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). More than two decades later, a dozen such treatments are now available. Of these, four are considered second-line treatments for use in escalation strategies and two new drugs are currently undergoing accreditation procedures. Soon, they will provide clinicians with a range of six effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) to thwart the inflammatory processes in MS patients with active disease...
May 17, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Michael Chary, David Yi, Alex F Manini
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) refer to synthetic compounds or derivatives of more widely known substances of abuse that have emerged over the last two decades. Case reports suggest that users combine substances to achieve desired psychotropic experiences while reducing dysphoria and unpleasant somatic effects. However, the pattern of combining NPS has not been studied on a large scale. Here, we show that posts discussing NPS describe combining nootropics with sedative-hypnotics and stimulants with plant hallucinogens or psychiatric medications...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jiwon Oh, Marie-Sarah Gagné-Brosseau, Melanie Guenette, Catherine Larochelle, François Lemieux, Suresh Menon, Sarah A Morrow, Laurence Poliquin-Lasnier, Chantal Roy-Hewitson, Carolina Rush, Anne-Marie Trudelle, Paul S Giacomini
The objective of this study was to develop a shared-care model to enable primary-care physicians to participate more fully in meeting the complex, multidisciplinary healthcare needs of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: The design consisted of development of consensus recommendations and a shared-care algorithm. PARTICIPANTS: A working group of 11 Canadian neurologists involved in the management of patients with MS were included in this study. MAIN MESSAGE: The clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis is increasing in complexity as new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) become available, and ongoing safety monitoring is required...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Y C Kim, W J Kwon, J G Min, H D Jeong
Betanodaviruses cause the disease viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in finfish. Using a novel approach with two consecutive PCRs, detection semi-nested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR) and discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR), we have identified the presence of a new type of betanodavirus in shellfish and called it Korean shellfish nervous necrosis virus (KSNNV). Partial nucleotide sequences of the T4 region in RNA2 fragment of KSNNVs were 73%-75% homologous to those of other reported genotypes and formed a new cluster of betanodavirus in phylogenetic tree analysis...
May 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Thikriat S Al-Jewair, Brittany Swiderski
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Prosthetic replacement vs space closure for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis: A systematic review. Silveira GS, Almeida NV, Pereira DMT, Mattos CT, Mucha JN. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2016; 150(2):228-37. SOURCE OF FUNDING: None listed TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review.
June 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
Marco Aurelio Peres, Pingzhou Liu, Flavio Fernando Demarco, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva, Fernando Cesar Wehrmeister, Ana Maria Menezes, Karen Glazer Peres
We aimed to analyze the effects of family income trajectories on the increase in dental caries from childhood to young adulthood. Data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, in which dental caries was measured at ages 6, 12, and 18 years, were analyzed. Family income of 302 participants was assessed at birth, and at 4, 11, 15, and 18 years of age. Mother's education, toothbrushing frequency, dental visiting, dental caries in primary dentition, and birth weight were covariates. A latent class growth analysis was conducted to characterize trajectories of time-varying variables...
2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa, Luís F Tófoli, Michael P Bogenschutz, Robert Hoy, Lais F Berro, Eduardo A V Marinho, Kelsy N Areco, Michael J Winkelman
The aims of this study were to assess the impact of ceremonial use of ayahuasca -a psychedelic brew containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline -and attendance at União do Vegetal (UDV) meetings on substance abuse; here we report the findings related to alcohol and tobacco use disorder. A total of 1,947 members of UDV 18+ years old were evaluated in terms of years of membership and ceremonial attendance during the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited from 10 states from all major regions of Brazil...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jon G Dean
N,N -dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a powerful serotonergic psychedelic whose exogenous administration elicits striking psychedelic effects in humans. Studies have identified DMT and analogous compounds (e.g., 5-hydroxy-DMT, 5-methoxy-DMT) alongside of an enzyme capable of synthesizing DMT endogenously from tryptamine, indolethylamine- N -methyltransferase (INMT), in human and several other mammalian tissues. Subsequently, multiple hypotheses for the physiological role of endogenous DMT have emerged, from proposed immunomodulatory functions to an emphasis on the overlap between the mental states generated by exogenous DMT and naturally occurring altered states of consciousness; e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fei Ma, Jian Liu, Tingting Zhou, Min Lei, Jing Chen, Xiachang Wang, Yinan Zhang, Xu Shen, Lihong Hu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, complex and multifactorial metabolic disorder, and targeting gluconeogenesis inhibition is a promising strategy for anti-diabetic drug discovery. This study discovered a new class of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives as hepatic gluconeogenesis inhibitors. First, a hit compound (DMT: IC50  = 33.8 μM) characterized by a thienopyridine core was identified in a cell-based screening of our privileged small molecule library. Structure activity relationships (SARs) study showed that replaced the CF3 in the thienopyridine core could improve the potency and led to the discovery of 8e (IC50  = 16...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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