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Xi Chen, Zhenhua Feng, Ming Tang, Songnian Fu, Deming Liu
As a promising solution for short-to-medium transmission systems, direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT) has been intensively investigated in last decade. Benefitting from the advantages of peak-to-average power (PAPR) reduction and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equalization, precoding techniques are widely applied to enhance the performance of DDO-OFDM systems. However, the conventional method of partitioning precoding sets limits the ability of precoding schemes to optimize the SNR variation and the allocation of modulation formats...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Joseph J Palamar, Pia M Mauro, Benjamin H Han, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy/MDMA has been one of the most prevalent party drugs for decades, and powder ecstasy recently increased in popularity. We examined trends in use to determine who to best target for prevention and harm reduction. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 2007-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample, was conducted. Linear trends in past-year ecstasy use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among ecstasy users were examined among participants ages 12-34 (N=332,560)...
October 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Y C Kim, W J Kwon, M S Kim, K I Kim, J G Min, H D Jeong
Using two serially executed PCRs, the discriminative multiplex two-step RT-PCR (DMT-2 RT-PCR) following the detection seminested two-step RT-PCR (DSN-2 RT-PCR), we found a high frequency presence of BFNNV genotype as well as RGNNV in various domestic and imported shellfish. This was definitely different from the previous reports of outbreaks and asymptomatic infection only by the RGNNV genotype in cultured finfish in Korea. Cultivation of NNV entrapped in shellfish was performed successfully by a blind passage...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
C Y Chang, F J Simeone, M C DeLorenzo, W E Palmer, M A Bredella, A J Huang
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate fluoroscopy dose reduction through both simulated injections on a phantom and patient injections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study was IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant. Simulation on a phantom was used to estimate effective dose, entrance dose, and organ doses for hip joint injections without and with dose minimization technique (DMT). Additionally, 1,094 joint, bursae, and tendon sheath injections performed by three operators in the same fluoroscopy suite were evaluated both before and after application of DMT...
October 13, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
Jeffrey Cummings
BACKGROUND: Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) are urgently needed for neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and many other disorders characterized by protein aggregation and neurodegeneration. Despite advances in understanding the neurobiology of NDD, there are no approved DMTs. DISCUSSION: Defining disease-modification is critical to drug-development programs. A DMT is an intervention that produces an enduring change in the trajectory of clinical decline of an NDD by impacting the disease processes leading to nerve cell death...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
Vanja Dakic, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Renata de Moraes Maciel, Draulio B de Araujo, Sidarta Ribeiro, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens K Rehen
Dimethyltryptamines are entheogenic serotonin-like molecules present in traditional Amerindian medicine recently associated with cognitive gains, antidepressant effects, and changes in brain areas related to attention. Legal restrictions and the lack of adequate experimental models have limited the understanding of how such substances impact human brain metabolism. Here we used shotgun mass spectrometry to explore proteomic differences induced by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) on human cerebral organoids...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eli Skromne-Eisenberg, Laura Ordoñez-Boschetti, Irene Treviño-Frenk
The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has become increasingly complex during the last 10 years, mainly because of the advent of new and more potent disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). In Latin America, the therapeutic repertoire available for MS treatment is similar to the one in the rest of the world, but the high costs of these drugs, in conjunction with the limited resources of the social security health systems, makes the treatment of MS more difficult. For neurologists in Latin America, providing personalized MS treatment has become a challenge...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Xin Wang, Shing-Chung Wong, Yung Joon Jung, Kai-Tak Wan
Adhesion at the dissimilar interface of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles and electrospun polymer nano-fibers (Espun) was directly measured using a nano-cheese-cutter. A sample fiber suspended at the tip of an AFM cantilever and another freestanding fiber on a mica substrate were arranged in a cross-cylinder configuration and allowed to adhere. External tensile load led to spontaneous "pull-off". Adhesion was shown to be dominated by van der Waals attraction, and the detachment process conforms to the classical Maugis parameter for JKR-DMT transition...
October 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
J L Wei, C Sanchez, E Giacoumidis
We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first known detailed analysis and fair comparison of complexity of a 56 Gb/s multi-band carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) and discrete multi-tone (DMT) over 80 km dispersion compensation fiber-free single-mode fiber links based on intensity modulation and direct detection for data center interconnects. We show that the matched finite impulse response filters and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT)/FFT take the majority of the complexity of the multi-band CAP and DMT, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Werner Schroth, Stefan Winter, Thomas Mürdter, Elke Schaeffeler, Diana Eccles, Bryony Eccles, Balram Chowbay, Chiea C Khor, Arafat Tfayli, Nathalie K Zgheib, Michel Eichelbaum, Matthias Schwab, Hiltrud Brauch
Purpose: Prediction of impaired tamoxifen (TAM) to endoxifen metabolism may be relevant to improve breast cancer treatment, e.g., via TAM dose increase. The polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) strongly determines an individual's capacity for endoxifen formation, however, CYP2D6 phenotype assignments inferred from genotype widely differ between studies. Thus, we modeled plasma endoxifen predictability depending on variable CYP2D6 genotype groupings. Methods: CYP2D6 diplotype and metabolite plasma concentrations were assessed in 908 pre- and post-menopausal estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, TAM treated early breast cancer patients of Caucasian (N = 678), Middle-Eastern Arab (N = 77), and Asian (N = 153) origin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ahmed Al-Imam
An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Gabriel Pardo, David E Jones
The treatment landscape for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS) has expanded considerably over the last 10 years with the approval of multiple new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), and others in late-stage clinical development. All DMTs for RMS are believed to reduce central nervous system immune-mediated inflammatory processes, which translate into demonstrable improvement in clinical and radiologic outcomes. However, some DMTs are associated with long-lasting effects on the immune system and/or serious adverse events, both of which may complicate the use of subsequent therapies...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
Mireia Lao, Encarnació Companys, Liping Weng, Jaume Puy, Josep Galceran
Free concentrations of Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a red wine (Raimat, Catalonia, Spain) have been determined, with the Donnan Membrane Technique (DMT) for the first time. The required equilibration time benefits from the acceptor solution including major cations. K(+) and Na(+), mainly unbound to any ligand in the sample, have been identified as suitable reference ions. A free Zn concentration of 1.76μmolL(-1) determined with DMT was in excellent agreement with the free Zn concentration independently provided by the electroanalytical technique Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES), 1...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mitzi J Williams, Kristen Johnson, Helen M Trenz, Stephanie Korrer, Rachel Halpern, Yujin Park, Vivian Herrera
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined compliance to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) in minority populations. This study compared adherence, discontinuation, and persistence for fingolimod (FTY) and glatiramer acetate (GA) initiators among Hispanic and African American patients with MS. METHODS: This retrospective claims data study examined Hispanic and African American adults with MS who initiated FTY or GA between September 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014...
October 3, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Abhishek Asthana, Shounak Baksi, Ajay Ashok, Shilpita Karmakar, Najiba Mammadova, Robyn Kokemuller, Mary Heather Greenlee, Qingzhong Kong, Neena Singh
Prion disease-associated retinal degeneration is attributed to PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc)), a misfolded isoform of prion protein (PrP(C)) that accumulates in the neuroretina. However, a lack of temporal and spatial correlation between PrP(Sc) and cytotoxicity suggests the contribution of host factors. We report retinal iron dyshomeostasis as one such factor. PrP(C) is expressed on the basolateral membrane of retinal-pigment-epithelial (RPE) cells, where it mediates uptake of iron by the neuroretina. Accordingly, the neuroretina of PrP-knock-out mice is iron-deficient...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kohei Yamada, Naoto Kamimura, Munetaka Kunishima
A novel method for the synthesis of trisubstituted oxazoles via a one-pot oxazole synthesis/Suzuki-Miyaura coupling sequence has been developed. One-pot formation of 5-(triazinyloxy)oxazoles using carboxylic acids, amino acids and a dehydrative condensing reagent, DMT-MM, followed by Ni-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with boronic acids provided the corresponding 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles in good yields.
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Archibald de Ceuninck van Capelle, Hanneke van der Meide, Frans J H Vosman, Leo H Visser
BACKGROUND: Physicians commonly advise patients to begin disease modifying therapies (DMT's) shortly after the establishment of a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) to prevent further relapses and disease progression. However, little is known about the meaning for patients going through the process of the diagnosis of MS and of making decisions on DMT's in early MS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the patient perspective on using DMT's for MS. Methods: Ten participants with a recent (< 2 years) relapsing-remitting MS diagnosis were interviewed...
2017: PloS One
Christopher R Cogle, Sheila R Reddy, Eunice Chang, Elya Papoyan, Michael S Broder, Michael McGuire, Gary Binder
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in refractory cytopenias. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions can improve anemia; however, prolonged transfusion dependence (TD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for MDS can reduce transfusion requirements, although the optimum timing of DMT initiation is unclear. This retrospective study analyzed linked SEER registry and Medicare claims (2006-2012) to estimate the impact of DMT-initiation (azacitidine, decitabine, or lenalidomide) timing (≤ 3 vs...
September 2017: Leukemia Research
Patricia K Coyle
Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have significantly advanced the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), decreasing the frequency of relapses, disability, and magnetic resonance imaging lesion formation. However, patients' responses to and tolerability of DMTs vary considerably, creating an unmet need for biomarkers to identify likely responders and/or those who may have treatment-limiting adverse reactions. Most studies in MS have focused on the identification of pharmacogenetic markers, using either the candidate-gene approach, which requires prior knowledge of the genetic marker and its role in the target disease, or genome-wide association, which examines multiple genetic variants, typically single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2017: Multiple Sclerosis International
Robson Savoldi, Daniel Polari, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Bruno Lobao-Soares, Mauricio Yonamine, Fulvio A M Freire, Ana C Luchiari
The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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