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Heather J Ferguson, Victoria E A Brunsdon, Elisabeth E F Bradford
Despite being able to rapidly and accurately infer their own and other peoples' visual perspectives, healthy adults experience difficulty ignoring the irrelevant perspective when the two perspectives are in conflict; they experience egocentric and altercentric interference. We examine for the first time how the age of an observed person (adult vs. child avatar) influences adults' visual perspective-taking, particularly the degree to which they experience interference from their own or the other person's perspective...
September 21, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Laura Dellazizzo, Olivier Percie du Sert, Kingsada Phraxayavong, Stéphane Potvin, Kieron O'Connor, Alexandre Dumais
Auditory verbal hallucinations are hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia and are amongst the most disturbing symptoms of the disorder. Although not entirely understood, the relationship between the voice hearer and their voices has been shown to be an important treatment target. Understanding voice hearers' standpoints through qualitative analysis is central to apprehend a deeper comprehension of their experience and further explore the relevance of interpersonal interventions. Compared with other dialogical intervention, virtual reality-assisted therapy (Avatar Therapy) enables patients to be in a tangible relation with a representation of their persecutory voice...
September 16, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Chiara Fini, Pieter Verbeke, Sophie Sieber, Agnes Moors, Marcel Brass, Oliver Genschow
A classic example of discriminatory behavior is keeping spatial distance from an out-group member. To explain this social behavior, the literature offers two alternative theoretical options that we label as the "threat hypothesis" and the "shared-experience hypothesis". The former relies on studies showing that out-group members create a sense of alertness. Consequently, potentially threatening out-group members are represented as spatially close allowing the prevention of costly errors...
September 6, 2018: Psychological Research
Christian Böffel, Jochen Müsseler
In modern digital applications, users often interact with virtual representations of themselves or others, called avatars. We examined how these avatars and their perspectives influence stimulus-response compatibility in a Simon task. Participants responded to light/dark blue stimuli with left/right key presses in the presence of a task-irrelevant avatar. Changes in stimulus-response compatibility were used to quantify changes in the mental representation of the task and perspective taking toward this avatar...
September 5, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Francesco Nappi, Sanjeet Singh Avatar Singh, Orlando Santana, Christos G Mihos
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is one the most common complications of myocardial infarction (MI) in adults carrying a significant clinical and economic burden. Despite specific randomized controlled studies to address its treatment have been performed, there are still a number of questions remained unanswered. Outcomes of surgical repair of FMR are still hampered by a significant rate of recurrence of regurgitation and need for reoperation. Mechanisms underlying failure of repairs still need to be completely clarified and questions regarding the indications and optimal timing for intervention as well as the best suitable operative technique to be applied are still debated...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Marion Giroux, Julien Barra, Issam-Eddine Zrelli, Pierre-Alain Barraud, Corinne Cian, Michel Guerraz
The reflection of passive arm displacement in a mirror is a powerful means of inducing a kinaesthetic illusion in the static arm hidden behind the mirror. Our recent research findings suggest that this illusion is not solely visual in origin but results from the combination of visual and proprioceptive signals from the two arms. To determine the respective contributions of visual and proprioceptive signals to this illusion, we reproduced the mirror paradigm in virtual reality. As in the physical version of the mirror paradigm, one of the participant's arms (the left arm, in our study) could be flexed or extended passively...
2018: PloS One
Zhentao Liu, Zuhua Chen, Jingyuan Wang, Mengqi Zhang, Zhongwu Li, Shubin Wang, Bin Dong, Cheng Zhang, Jing Gao, Lin Shen
BACKGROUND: No approved targeted agents are available for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Informative genomic analysis and mouse patient-derived xenografts (PDX) also called mouse avatar can greatly expedite drug discovery. METHODS: Six ESCC cell lines and 7 out of 25 PDX models derived from 188 biopsies with clear molecular features were employed to evaluate the sensitivity of several EGFR blockers in vitro and in vivo, as well as the underlying antitumor mechanisms of the most promising EGFR-TKI afatinib...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Noémie Braekeveldt, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Susanne Fransson, Angela Martinez-Monleon, David Lindgren, Håkan Axelson, Fredrik Levander, Jakob Willforss, Karin Hansson, Ingrid Øra, Torbjörn Backman, Anna Börjesson, Siv Beckman, Javanshir Esfandyari, Ana P Berbegall, Rosa Noguera, Jenny Karlsson, Jan Koster, Tommy Martinsson, David Gisselsson, Sven Påhlman, Daniel Bexell
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and the Avatar, a single PDX mirroring an individual patient, are emerging tools in preclinical cancer research. However, the consequences of intratumor heterogeneity for PDX modeling of biomarkers, target identification, and treatment decisions remain underexplored. In this study, we undertook serial passaging and comprehensive molecular analysis of neuroblastoma orthotopic PDXs, which revealed strong intrinsic genetic, transcriptional, and phenotypic stability for more than two years...
August 28, 2018: Cancer Research
Veronica Neves Fialho Queiroz, Luiz Guilherme Villares da Costa, Rogerio Póvoa Barbosa, Flávio Takaoka, Luc De Baerdemaeker, Daniel Souza Cesar, Ulisses Cardoso D'Orto, José Roberto Galdi, Vijaya Gottumukkala, Juan P Cata, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Markus W Hollman, Alain Kalmar, Lucas A B de Moura, Renato M Mariano, Idit Matot, Guido Mazzinari, Gary H Mills, Irimar de Paula Posso, Alexandre Teruya, Marcos Francisco Vidal Melo, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten, Tanja A Treschan, Seppe Koopman, Leonid Eidelman, Lee-Lynn Chen, Jae-Woo Lee, Jose J Ariño Irujo, Beatriz Tena, Harald Groeben, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
INTRODUCTION: Robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) has emerged as an alternative minimally invasive surgical option. Despite its growing applicability, the frequent need for pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position could significantly affect respiratory mechanics during RAS. AVATaR is an international multicenter observational study aiming to assess the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), to characterise current practices of mechanical ventilation (MV) and to evaluate a possible association between ventilatory parameters and PPC in patients undergoing RAS...
August 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Eva Heim, Alexander Rötger, Noah Lorenz, Andreas Maercker
Objective: To examine the working alliance between users and an avatar and users' treatment expectations in an unguided Internet intervention for the treatment of insomnia. Methods: The sample included participants from the treatment condition ( N  = 29) of a randomised controlled trial. The task and goal subscales of the Working Alliance Inventory Short Revised (WAI-SR) were applied in week three. Five items of the Bern Post-Session Report and one question about the extent to which users had missed a human therapist were administered after each session...
March 2018: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
Jochen Müsseler, Lennart Ruhland, Christian Böffel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Marlene Weller, Kohske Takahashi, Katsumi Watanabe, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
The object orientation effect describes shorter perceived distances to the front than to the back of oriented objects. The present work extends previous studies in showing that the object orientation effect occurs not only for egocentric distances between an observer and an object, but also for exocentric distances, that are between two oriented objects. Participants watched animated virtual humans (avatars) which were either facing each other or looking away, and afterward adjusted a bar to estimate the perceived length...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
D W Tscholl, L Handschin, P Neubauer, M Weiss, B Seifert, D R Spahn, C B Noethiger
BACKGROUND: Maintaining situation awareness of monitored patients can be challenging because care providers must continually read and integrate multiple waveforms and numerical vital sign values into a mental model of the patient's situation. We developed and evaluated a technology designed to improve perception of vital sign information by presenting patient status as an animated patient avatar. METHODS: After step-wise improvement of the avatar, anaesthesia professionals from two hospitals participated in a comparative study of conventional monitoring...
September 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Lisa Liebke, Georgia Koppe, Melanie Bungert, Janine Thome, Sophie Hauschild, Nadine Defiebre, Natalie A Izurieta Hidalgo, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Anxious preoccupation with real or imagined abandonment is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent experimental research suggests that patients with BPD do not simply show emotional overreactivity to rejection. Instead, they experience reduced connectedness with others in situations of social inclusion. Resulting consequences of these features on social behavior are not investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential impact of social acceptance and rejection on social expectations and subsequent social behavior in BPD...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Claire E Wakefield, Emma L Doolan, Joanna E Fardell, Christina Signorelli, Veronica F Quinn, Kathy F Tucker, Andrea F Patenaude, Glenn M Marshall, Richard B Lock, Gabrielle Georgiou, Richard J Cohn
INTRODUCTION: Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have the potential to transform personalised cancer care, however, little is known about the acceptability of using PDXs to guide treatment decision-making. Given that patient and community preferences can influence satisfaction with care as well as the success of new technologies, we will evaluate the acceptability of PDXs in individuals affected by cancer and community comparisons. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This comparative cross-sectional study will recruit 323 individuals affected by cancer (cancer survivors (of childhood or adult cancer) and parents of childhood cancer survivors) and 323 community comparisons (adults and parents)...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Open
M Todd Allen
Avoidance is a common feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as anxiety and depressive disorders. Avoidance can be expressed behaviorally as well as cognitively. Most personality assessments for avoidance involve self-report inventories which are susceptible to biased responding. The avatar task (Myers et al., 2016a) was developed as an objective measure of behavioral inhibition (BI) which is defined as a tendency for avoidance of unfamiliar people and situations. The avatar task has been demonstrated to screen avoidant behaviors related to BI, PTSD, as well as harm avoidance (HA) as measured by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ)...
2018: PeerJ
Adam Polyak, Lior Wolf, Yaniv Taigman
We study the problem of mapping an input image to a tied pair consisting of a vector of parameters and an image that is created using a graphical engine from the vector of parameters. The mapping's objective is to have the output image as similar as possible to the input image. During training, no supervision is given in the form of matching inputs and outputs.
August 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Mark Dworkin, Apurba Chakraborty, Sangyoon Lee, Colleen Monahan, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Robert Garofalo, Dima Qato, Antonio Jimenez
BACKGROUND: Avatars and embodied agents are a promising innovation for human health intervention because they may serve as a relational agent that might augment user engagement in a behavioral change intervention and motivate behavioral change such as antiretroviral adherence and retention in care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a theory-driven talking avatar-like embodied agent mobile phone intervention guided by the information-motivation-behavioral skills model to promote HIV medication adherence and retention in care in young African American men who have sex with men (MSM)...
July 31, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Carlos Amaral, Susana Mouga, Marco Simões, Helena C Pereira, Inês Bernardino, Hugo Quental, Rebecca Playle, Rachel McNamara, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Deficits in the interpretation of others' intentions from gaze-direction or other social attention cues are well-recognized in ASD. Here we investigated whether an EEG brain computer interface (BCI) can be used to train social cognition skills in ASD patients. We performed a single-arm feasibility clinical trial and enrolled 15 participants (mean age 22y 2m) with high-functioning ASD (mean full-scale IQ 103). Participants were submitted to a BCI training paradigm using a virtual reality interface over seven sessions spread over 4 months...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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