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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639206/are-associations-between-sexist-video-games-and-decreased-empathy-toward-women-robust-a-reanalysis-of-gabbiadini-et-al-2016
#1
Christopher J Ferguson, M Brent Donnellan
Gabbiadini, A., Riva, P., Andrighetto, L., Volpato, C., & Bushman, B, (PloS ONE, 2016) provided evidence for a connection between "sexist" video games and decreased empathy toward girls using an experimental paradigm. These claims are based on a moderated mediation model. They reported a three-way interaction between game condition, gender, and avatar identification when predicting masculine ideology in their original study. Masculine ideology was associated, in turn, with decreased empathy. However, there were no main experimental effects for video game condition on empathy...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635345/avatar-assisted-therapy-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study-of-a-novel-technology-based-intervention-to-treat-substance-use-disorders
#2
Michael S Gordon, Steven B Carswell, Mary Schadegg, Kayla Mangen, Kelly Merkel, Susan Tangires, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: Avatar-assisted therapy (AAT) is a novel and emerging technology that uses the Internet to enable clinicians and clients in substance abuse treatment to participate in group counseling sessions from separate and remote locations in real time through the use of avatars and virtual environments. OBJECTIVES: The current study is a pilot proof-of-concept feasibility study involving individuals in outpatient substance abuse treatment. This report addresses two questions: (1) are individuals who present for substance abuse treatment interested in receiving AAT and (2) what factors are associated with better treatment success...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600704/steering-clear-of-driving-after-drinking-a-tailored-e-health-intervention-for-reducing-repeat-offending-and-modifying-alcohol-use-in-a-high-risk-cohort
#3
Hollie Jai Wilson, Gavan Palk, Mary Christina Sheehan, Darren Wishart, Barry Watson
PURPOSE: Digital interventions to reduce risk behaviours are emerging as effective public health measures; however, few have been applied to drink driving and associated alcohol use based on a harm reduction perspective. This paper reports on the design, development, and pilot of a novel intervention which aims to reduce repeat offending by first-time convicted drink driving offenders. It explores whether an online program is acceptable and user friendly and contains useful and relevant content, with a sample of first-time drink driving offenders recruited at the time of conviction...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595055/the-body-model-theory-of-somatosensory-cortex
#4
REVIEW
Michael Brecht
I outline a microcircuit theory of somatosensory cortex as a body model serving both for body representation and "body simulation." A modular model of innervated and non-innervated body parts resides in somatosensory cortical layer 4. This body model is continuously updated and compares to an avatar (an animatable puppet) rather than a mere sensory map. Superficial layers provide context and store sensory memories, whereas layer 5 provides motor output and stores motor memories. I predict that layer-6-to-layer-4 inputs initiate body simulations allowing rehearsal and risk assessment of difficult actions, such as jumps...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592282/the-role-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-motor-performance-as-revealed-by-eeg-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Margherita Russo, Antonino Leo, Rosaria De Luca, Tina Balletta, Antonio Buda, Gianluca La Rosa, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of repetitive task practice by using robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) devices, including Lokomat, for the treatment of lower limb paresis. Virtual reality (VR) has proved to be a valuable tool to improve neurorehabilitation training. The aim of our pilot randomized clinical trial was to understand the neurophysiological basis of motor function recovery induced by the association between RAGT (by using Lokomat device) and VR (an animated avatar in a 2D VR) by studying electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578296/attentional-interference-is-modulated-by-salience-not-sentience
#6
Christopher J Wilson, Alessandro Soranzo, Marco Bertamini
Spatial cueing of attention occurs when attention is oriented by the onset of a stimulus or by other information that creates a bias towards a particular location. The presence of a cue that orients attention can also interfere with participants' reporting of what they see. It has been suggested that this type of interference is stronger in the presence of socially-relevant cues, such as human faces or avatars, and is therefore indicative of a specialised role for perspective calculation within the social domain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560254/unravelling-socio-motor-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#7
Piotr Słowiński, Francesco Alderisio, Chao Zhai, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Catherine Bortolon, Delphine Capdevielle, Laura Cohen, Mahdi Khoramshahi, Aude Billard, Robin Salesse, Mathieu Gueugnon, Ludovic Marin, Benoit G Bardy, Mario di Bernardo, Stephane Raffard, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova
We present novel, low-cost and non-invasive potential diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia. They are based on the 'mirror-game', a coordination task in which two partners are asked to mimic each other's hand movements. In particular, we use the patient's solo movement, recorded in the absence of a partner, and motion recorded during interaction with an artificial agent, a computer avatar or a humanoid robot. In order to discriminate between the patients and controls, we employ statistical learning techniques, which we apply to nonverbal synchrony and neuromotor features derived from the participants' movement data...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550447/trends-in-surgical-research-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Genrich Tolstonog, Christian Simon
The task of surgical research is to improve the efficacy of available surgical therapeutic modalities, develop new ones, and balance this well with favorable functional outcome. Therefore, surgical research is composed of a translational and a clinical component. In translational surgical research, animal models are used to better understand the biology of head and neck cancers, but even more importantly, the biology of changes to the disease and the microenvironment created by surgical interventions. Animal models additionally allow for the development of image-guided surgery systems, novel strategies of intraoperative adjuvant treatment, and patient "avatars" to test innovative anticancer drug combinations...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506312/pathomimetic-avatars-reveal-divergent-roles-of-microenvironment-in-invasive-transition-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#9
Mansoureh Sameni, Dora Cavallo-Medved, Omar E Franco, Anita Chalasani, Kyungmin Ji, Neha Aggarwal, Arulselvi Anbalagan, Xuequn Chen, Raymond R Mattingly, Simon W Hayward, Bonnie F Sloane
BACKGROUND: The breast tumor microenvironment regulates progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, it is unclear how interactions between breast epithelial and stromal cells can drive this progression and whether there are reliable microenvironmental biomarkers to predict transition of DCIS to IDC. METHODS: We used xenograft mouse models and a 3D pathomimetic model termed mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering (MAME) to study the interplay between human breast myoepithelial cells (MEPs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on DCIS progression...
May 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501698/sensorimotor-experience-in-virtual-reality-enhances-sense-of-agency-associated-with-an-avatar
#10
Gaiqing Kong, Kang He, Kunlin Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498339/easy-and-fast-reconstruction-of-a-3d-avatar-with-an-rgb-d-sensor
#11
Aihua Mao, Hong Zhang, Yuxin Liu, Yinglong Zheng, Guiqing Li, Guoqiang Han
This paper proposes a new easy and fast 3D avatar reconstruction method using an RGB-D sensor. Users can easily implement human body scanning and modeling just with a personal computer and a single RGB-D sensor such as a Microsoft Kinect within a small workspace in their home or office. To make the reconstruction of 3D avatars easy and fast, a new data capture strategy is proposed for efficient human body scanning, which captures only 18 frames from six views with a close scanning distance to fully cover the body; meanwhile, efficient alignment algorithms are presented to locally align the data frames in the single view and then globally align them in multi-views based on pairwise correspondence...
May 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481633/the-best-of-both-worlds-avatar-assisted-therapy-offers-the-benefits-of-therapist-assisted-and-internet-based-interventions
#12
Darla E Kendzor, Emily T Hébert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479082/pilot-testing-a-digital-pet-avatar-for-older-adults
#13
Nai-Ching Chi, Olivia Sparks, Shih-Yin Lin, Amanda Lazar, Hilaire J Thompson, George Demiris
Social isolation in older adults is a major public health concern. An embodied conversational agent (ECA) has the potential to enhance older adults' social interaction. However, little is known about older adults' experience with an ECA. In this paper, we conducted a pilot study to examine the perceived acceptance and utility of a tablet-based conversational agent in the form of an avatar (termed "digital pet") for older adults. We performed secondary analysis of data collected from a study that employed the use of a digital pet in ten older adults' homes for three months...
May 4, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471479/internet-and-mobile-interventions-for-depression-opportunities-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Pim Cuijpers, Annet Kleiboer, Eirini Karyotaki, Heleen Riper
BACKGROUND: The Internet offers several new ways of developing, implementing, and disseminating evidence-based interventions for depression. METHODS: In this paper, we narratively synthesized the evidence showing that Internet-based therapies are effective in treating depression. RESULTS: In the past decade, a considerable number of psychological treatments have been developed for the treatment of depression and several hundreds of randomized controlled trials have been conducted, showing that these interventions are effective and that there are no major differences in effects between therapies...
May 4, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470081/a-comparison-of-attitudes-towards-stuttering-of-non-stuttering-preschoolers-in-the-united-states-and-turkey
#15
Mary E Weidner, Kenneth O St Louis, Egemen Nakisci, Ramazan S Ozdemir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extensive research documents ubiquitous negative attitudes towards stuttering, but when and how they develop is unclear. This non-experimental, comparative study examined US and Turkish preschoolers to explore the origin of stuttering attitudes cross-culturally. METHOD: The authors compared stuttering attitudes of 28 US and 31 Turkish non-stuttering preschoolers on English and Turkish versions of experimental prototypes of the newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes-Stuttering/Child (POSHA-S/Child)...
April 21, 2017: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459495/using-training-needs-assessment-to-develop-a-nurse-preceptor-centered-training-program
#16
Ya-Wen Lee, Hui-Ling Lin, Hui-Ling Tseng, Yu-Mei Tsai, Jane Lee-Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Studies reveal that most nurse preceptor preparation programs do not meet nurse preceptors' training needs. This study thus developed a nurse preceptor-centered training program (NPCTP) in Taiwan. METHOD: The ADDIE model was used for the instructional design. On the basis of the nurse preceptors' training needs assessment, the research team developed the NPCTP. Content was adopted from the authentic experiences of preceptors and new graduate nurses (NGNs) using interview data to make 81 videos with computer avatars and 10 live actor films...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455278/the-physical-activity-tracker-testing-in-youth-p-a-t-t-y-study-content-analysis-and-children-s-perceptions
#17
Brittany Masteller, John Sirard, Patty Freedson
BACKGROUND: Activity trackers are widely used by adults and several models are now marketed for children. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) perform a content analysis of behavioral change techniques (BCTs) used by three commercially available youth-oriented activity trackers and (2) obtain feedback describing children's perception of these devices and the associated websites. METHODS: A content analysis recorded the presence of 36 possible BCTs for the MovBand (MB), Sqord (SQ), and Zamzee (ZZ) activity trackers...
April 28, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435124/action-recognition-is-viewpoint-dependent-in-the-visual-periphery
#18
Laura Fademrecht, Isabelle Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Recognizing actions of others across the whole visual field is required for social interactions. In a previous study, we have shown that recognition is very good even when life-size avatars who were facing the observer carried out actions (e.g. waving) and were presented very far away from the fovea (Fademrecht, Bülthoff, & de la Rosa, 2016). We explored the possibility whether this remarkable performance was owed to life-size avatars facing the observer, which - according to some social cognitive theories (e...
April 26, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423919/joint-attention-difficulties-in-autistic-adults-an-interactive-eye-tracking-study
#19
Nathan Caruana, Heidi Stieglitz Ham, Jon Brock, Alexandra Woolgar, Nadine Kloth, Romina Palermo, Genevieve McArthur
Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388428/a-drug-screen-using-human-ipsc-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-reveals-cardiac-glycosides-as-a-potential-treatment-for-hypercholesterolemia
#20
Max A Cayo, Sunil K Mallanna, Francesca Di Furio, Ran Jing, Lauren B Tolliver, Matthew Bures, Amanda Urick, Fallon K Noto, Evanthia E Pashos, Matthew D Greseth, Maciej Czarnecki, Paula Traktman, Wenli Yang, Edward E Morrisey, Markus Grompe, Daniel J Rader, Stephen A Duncan
Efforts to identify pharmaceuticals to treat heritable metabolic liver diseases have been hampered by the lack of models. However, cells with hepatocyte characteristics can be produced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that cardiac glycosides reduce the production of apolipoprotein B (apoB) from human hepatocytes in culture and the serum of avatar mice harboring humanized livers...
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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