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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080149/positive-preferences-the-emotional-valence-of-what-an-avatar-says-matters
#1
Jennifer Wu, Philipp Kraemer
This study examined preferences and ascriptions of human control for avatars associated with positive and negative language. An avatar is a graphical representation of an individual user in a virtual world. Users form judgments of other virtual world users based on the appearance and behavior of their avatars in the absence of physical cues. In particular, users have previously displayed sensitivity toward anthropomorphism and verbal behavior of avatars they encounter within virtual environments. Thus far, investigations of language in online and virtual spaces have been limited to specific contexts...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073890/pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines-as-patient-derived-avatars-genetic-characterisation-and-functional-utility
#2
Erik S Knudsen, Uthra Balaji, Brian Mannakee, Paris Vail, Cody Eslinger, Christopher Moxom, John Mansour, Agnieszka K Witkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a therapy recalcitrant disease with the worst survival rate of common solid tumours. Preclinical models that accurately reflect the genetic and biological diversity of PDAC will be important for delineating features of tumour biology and therapeutic vulnerabilities. DESIGN: 27 primary PDAC tumours were employed for genetic analysis and development of tumour models. Tumour tissue was used for derivation of xenografts and cell lines...
January 10, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051933/toward-a-social-psychophysics-of-face-communication
#3
Rachael E Jack, Philippe G Schyns
As a highly social species, humans are equipped with a powerful tool for social communication-the face. Although seemingly simple, the human face can elicit multiple social perceptions due to the rich variations of its movements, morphology, and complexion. Consequently, identifying precisely what face information elicits different social perceptions is a complex empirical challenge that has largely remained beyond the reach of traditional methods. In the past decade, the emerging field of social psychophysics has developed new methods to address this challenge, with the potential to transfer psychophysical laws of social perception to the digital economy via avatars and social robots...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043026/venturing-into-the-uncanny-valley-of-mind-the-influence-of-mind-attribution-on-the-acceptance-of-human-like-characters-in-a-virtual-reality-setting
#4
Jan-Philipp Stein, Peter Ohler
For more than 40years, the uncanny valley model has captivated researchers from various fields of expertise. Still, explanations as to why slightly imperfect human-like characters can evoke feelings of eeriness remain the subject of controversy. Many experiments exploring the phenomenon have emphasized specific visual factors in connection to evolutionary psychological theories or an underlying categorization conflict. More recently, studies have also shifted away focus from the appearance of human-like entities, instead exploring their mental capabilities as basis for observers' discomfort...
December 30, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028958/the-effectiveness-of-exergames-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ali Yavuz Karahan, Fatih Tok, Pelin Yildirim, Banu Ordahan, Gozde Turkoglu, Nilay Sahin
BACKGROUND: Exergames are a well-known type of game based on a virtual avatar's body movements. This hightech approach promotes an active lifestyle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of exergames on pain, disease activity, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 60 patients, who were randomized into either the exergame group (EG) or the control group (CG)...
September 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027803/rules-of-engagement-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-vibrio-cholerae
#6
REVIEW
Avatar Joshi, Benjamin Kostiuk, Andrew Rogers, Jennifer Teschler, Stefan Pukatzki, Fitnat H Yildiz
Microbial species often exist in complex communities where they must avoid predation and compete for favorable niches. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent bacterial weapon that allows for direct killing of competitors through the translocation of proteinaceous toxins. Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen that can use its T6SS during antagonistic interactions with neighboring prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. The T6SS not only promotes V. cholerae's survival during its aquatic and host life cycles, but also influences its evolution by facilitating horizontal gene transfer...
December 24, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013039/gaze-leading-is-associated-with-liking
#7
Ouriel Grynszpan, Jean-Claude Martin, Philippe Fossati
Gaze plays a pivotal role in human communication, especially for coordinating attention. The ability to guide the gaze orientation of others forms the backbone of joint attention. Recent research has raised the possibility that gaze following behaviors could induce liking. The present study seeks to investigate this hypothesis. We designed two physically different human avatars that could follow the gaze of users via eye-tracking technology. In a preliminary experiment, 20 participants assessed the baseline appeal of the two avatars and confirmed that the avatars differed in this respect...
December 22, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990240/paired-associative-stimulation-using-brain-computer-interfaces-for-stroke-rehabilitation-a-pilot-study
#8
Woosang Cho, Nikolaus Sabathiel, Rupert Ortner, Alexander Lechner, Danut C Irimia, Brendan Z Allison, Guenter Edlinger, Christoph Guger
Conventional therapies do not provide paralyzed patients with closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) uses brain-computer interface (BCI) technology to monitor patients' movement imagery in real-time, and utilizes the information to control functional electrical stimulation (FES) and bar feedback for complete sensorimotor closed loop. To realize this approach, we introduce the recoveriX system, a hardware and software platform for PAS. After 10 sessions of recoveriX training, one stroke patient partially regained control of dorsiflexion in her paretic wrist...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986645/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-by-avatars-a-qualitative-study-of-medical-students-experiences-using-a-multiplayer-virtual-world
#9
Johan Creutzfeldt, Leif Hedman, Li Felländer-Tsai
BACKGROUND: Emergency medical practices are often team efforts. Training for various tasks and collaborations may be carried out in virtual environments. Although promising results exist from studies of serious games, little is known about the subjective reactions of learners when using multiplayer virtual world (MVW) training in medicine. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to reach a better understanding of the learners' reactions and experiences when using an MVW for team training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)...
December 16, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976934/when-virtual-muscularity-enhances-physical-endurance-masculinity-threat-and-compensatory-avatar-customization-among-young-male-adults
#10
Roselyn J Lee-Won, Wai Yen Tang, Mackenzie R Kibbe
Masculinity-threatened men attempt to resolve the negative states caused by the threat through compensatory behavior such as public display of muscularity, which constitutes one way in which men physically establish masculinity. Avatars serve as a key means for self-presentation in technology-mediated environments, and compensatory motives can drive avatar customization. Noting this, the present research examined whether masculinity-threatened young men engage in compensatory avatar customization and whether such customization can be self-affirming...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957404/effects-of-real-world-versus-virtual-environments-on-joint-excursions-in-full-body-reaching-tasks
#11
James S Thomas, Christopher R France, Samuel T Leitkam, Megan E Applegate, Peter E Pidcoe, Stevan Walkowski
Starting from an upright standing posture and reaching for a target that requires some forward bending of the trunk can involve many different configurations of the trunk and limb segments. We sought to determine if configurations of the limb and trunk segments during our standardized full-body reaching tasks were influenced by the visual environment. This paper examined movement patterns of healthy participants ([Formula: see text], eight female and nine male) performing full body reaching tasks to: 1) real-world targets; 2) virtual targets presented on a 3-D television; and 3) virtual targets presented using a head-mounted display...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939053/experimental-variation-of-social-stress-in-virtual-reality-feasibility-and-first-results-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#12
Klaus Hesse, Philipp A Schroeder, Jonathan Scheeff, Stefan Klingberg, Christian Plewnia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social interaction might lead to increased stress levels in patients with psychotic disorders. Impaired social stress tolerance is critical for social functioning and closely linked with symptom relapse and hospitalization. We present an interactive office built-up in virtual reality (VR). METHODS: Patients with psychotic disorders (PP, N = 26 including N = 5 dropouts) and matched healthy controls (HC, N = 20) were examined with a VR simulating an open-plan office...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935045/patient-derived-xenografts-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-are-susceptible-to-rapid-and-delayed-b-lymphoproliferation
#13
Sebastian M Dieter, Klara M Giessler, Mark Kriegsmann, Taronish D Dubash, Lino Möhrmann, Erik R Schulz, Christine Siegl, Sarah Weber, Hendrik Strakerjahn, Ava Oberlack, Ulrike Heger, Jianpeng Gao, Eva-Maria Hartinger, Felix Oppel, Christopher M Hoffmann, Nati Ha, Benedikt Brors, Felix Lasitschka, Alexis Ulrich, Oliver Strobel, Manfred Schmidt, Christof von Kalle, Martin Schneider, Wilko Weichert, K Roland Ehrenberg, Hanno Glimm, Claudia R Ball
Patient-derived cancer xenografts (PDX) are widely used to identify and evaluate novel therapeutic targets, and to test therapeutic approaches in preclinical mouse avatar trials. Despite their widespread use, potential caveats of PDX models remain considerably underappreciated. Here, we demonstrate that EBV-associated B-lymphoproliferations frequently develop following xenotransplantation of human colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas in highly immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl) /SzJ (NSG) mice (18/47 and 4/37 mice, respectively), and in derived cell cultures in vitro...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917128/what-role-can-avatars-play-in-e-mental-health-interventions-exploring-new-models-of-client-therapist-interaction
#14
REVIEW
Imogen C Rehm, Emily Foenander, Klaire Wallace, Jo-Anne M Abbott, Michael Kyrios, Neil Thomas
In the burgeoning field of e-mental health interventions, avatars are increasingly being utilized to facilitate online communication between clients and therapists, and among peers. Avatars are digital self-representations, which enable individuals to interact with each other in computer-based virtual environments. In this narrative review, we examine the psychotherapeutic applications of avatars that have been investigated and trialed to date. Five key applications were identified (1) in the formation of online peer support communities; (2) replicating traditional modes of psychotherapy by using avatars as a vehicle to communicate within a wholly virtual environment; (3) using avatar technology to facilitate or augment face-to-face treatment; (4) as part of serious games; and (5) communication with an autonomous virtual therapist...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915132/dissociating-processes-underlying-level-1-visual-perspective-taking-in-adults
#15
Andrew R Todd, C Daryl Cameron, Austin J Simpson
Although reasoning about other people's mental states has typically been thought to require effortful deliberation, evidence from indirect measures suggests that people may implicitly track others' perspectives, spontaneously calculating what they see and know. We used a process-dissociation approach to investigate the unique contributions of automatic and controlled processes to level-1 visual perspective taking in adults. In Experiment 1, imposing time pressure reduced the ability to exert control over one's responses, but it left automatic processing of a target's perspective unchanged...
February 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901311/video-gaming-as-practical-accomplishment-ethnomethodology-conversation-analysis-and-play
#16
Stuart Reeves, Christian Greiffenhagen, Eric Laurier
Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic (EMCA) perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical "work" of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a "tactical zoom." We start very much "outside" the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within dedicated gaming spaces; here, we find multiple players, machines, and many different sorts of activities going on (besides playing the game)...
November 30, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893269/submentalizing-or-mentalizing-in-a-level-1-perspective-taking-task-a-cloak-and-goggles-test
#17
Jane R Conway, Danna Lee, Mobin Ojaghi, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
It has been proposed that humans possess an automatic system to represent mental states ('implicit mentalizing'). The existence of an implicit mentalizing system has generated considerable debate however, centered on the ability of various experimental paradigms to demonstrate unambiguously such mentalizing. Evidence for implicit mentalizing has previously been provided by the 'dot perspective task,' where participants are slower to verify the number of dots they can see when an avatar can see a different number of dots...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891098/deceptive-manipulation-of-competitive-starting-strategies-influences-subsequent-pacing-physiological-status-and-perceptual-responses-during-cycling-time-trials
#18
Emily L Williams, Hollie S Jones, S Andy Sparks, David C Marchant, Adrian W Midgley, Craig A Bridge, Lars R McNaughton
Little is currently known regarding competitor influence on pacing at the start of an event and in particular the subsequent effect on the remaining distance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of starting pace on the physiological and psychological responses during cycling time trials (TT) utilizing an innovative approach allowing pace to be accurately and dynamically replicated, as well as deceptively manipulated. Ten competitive male cyclists completed five 16.1 km TT, two baseline trials performed alone (BLs), and three with a simulated, dynamic avatar of which they were to match the pace of for the initial 4 km...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875230/six-degree-of-freedom-haptic-simulation-of-a-stringed-musical-instrument-for-triggering-sounds
#19
Dangxiao Wang, Xiaohan Zhao, Youjiao Shi, Yuru Zhang, Jing Xiao
Six degree-of-freedom (DoF) haptic rendering of multi-region contacts between a moving hand avatar and varied-shaped components of a music instrument is fundamental to realizing interactive simulation of music playing. There are two aspects of computational challenges: first, some components have significantly small sizes in some dimensions, such as the strings on a seven-string plucked instrument (e.g. Guqin), which makes it challenging to avoid pop-through during multi-region contact scenarios. Second, deformable strings may produce high-frequency vibration, which requires simulating diversified and subtle force sensations when a hand interacts with strings in different ways...
November 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857172/virtual-nursing-avatars-nurse-roles-and-evolving-concepts-of-care
#20
Miriam Bowers Abbott, Peggy Shaw
Advances in computer software have provided interactive tools that perform many of the duties once in the domain of the nursing profession. Sometimes referred to as 'virtual nursing avatars,' the duties delegated to this technology include facilitating check-ins for patients and coaching patients as they make lifestyle changes. Researchers continue to develop computer applications for virtual nurse avatars. As computers and smartphones take on tasks once in the domain of humans, the roles of nurses will evolve...
August 15, 2016: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
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