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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423919/joint-attention-difficulties-in-autistic-adults-an-interactive-eye-tracking-study
#1
Nathan Caruana, Heidi Stieglitz Ham, Jon Brock, Alexandra Woolgar, Nadine Kloth, Romina Palermo, Genevieve McArthur
Joint attention - the ability to coordinate attention with a social partner - is critical for social communication, learning and the regulation of interpersonal relationships. Infants and young children with autism demonstrate impairments in both initiating and responding to joint attention bids in naturalistic settings. However, little is known about joint attention abilities in adults with autism. Here, we tested 17 autistic adults and 17 age- and nonverbal intelligence quotient-matched controls using an interactive eye-tracking paradigm in which participants initiated and responded to joint attention bids with an on-screen avatar...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388428/a-drug-screen-using-human-ipsc-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-reveals-cardiac-glycosides-as-a-potential-treatment-for-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Max A Cayo, Sunil K Mallanna, Francesca Di Furio, Ran Jing, Lauren B Tolliver, Matthew Bures, Amanda Urick, Fallon K Noto, Evanthia E Pashos, Matthew D Greseth, Maciej Czarnecki, Paula Traktman, Wenli Yang, Edward E Morrisey, Markus Grompe, Daniel J Rader, Stephen A Duncan
Efforts to identify pharmaceuticals to treat heritable metabolic liver diseases have been hampered by the lack of models. However, cells with hepatocyte characteristics can be produced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that cardiac glycosides reduce the production of apolipoprotein B (apoB) from human hepatocytes in culture and the serum of avatar mice harboring humanized livers...
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387688/using-visual-stimuli-to-enhance-gait-control
#3
Christopher K Rhea, Nikita A Kuznetsov
Gait control challenges commonly coincide with vestibular dysfunction and there is a long history in using balance and gait activities to enhance functional mobility in this population. While much has been learned using traditional rehabilitation exercises, there is a new line of research emerging that is using visual stimuli in a very specific way to enhance gait control. For example, avatars can be created in an individualized manner to incorporate specific gait characteristics. The avatar could then be used as a visual stimulus to which the patient can synchronize their own gait cycle...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384163/how-social-opinion-influences-syntactic-processing-an-investigation-using-virtual-reality
#4
Evelien Heyselaar, Peter Hagoort, Katrien Segaert
The extent to which you adapt your grammatical choices to match that of your interlocutor's (structural priming) can be influenced by the social opinion you have of your interlocutor. However, the direction and reliability of this effect is unclear as different studies have reported seemingly contradictory results. We have operationalized social perception as the ratings of strangeness for different avatars in a virtual reality study. The use of avatars ensured maximal control over the interlocutor's behaviour and a clear dimension along which to manipulate social perceptions toward this interlocutor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382750/performance-based-financing-in-the-heath-sector-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-is-there-anything-whereof-it-may-be-said-see-this-is-new
#5
REVIEW
Elisabeth Paul, Dimitri Renmans
Whereas performance-based financing (PBF) is now developing fast in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries and is presented an innovative approach-concomitantly, subject to a separate research stream-it shares many features of the "managing for results" (MfR) and performance-based budgeting (PBB) currents that have existed for decades. In this paper, we first argue that PBF as currently developed in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries shares many features and thus can be viewed as an avatar of MfR and more precisely PBB...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319585/increased-fatigue-response-to-augmented-deceptive-feedback-during-cycling-time-trial
#6
Guillaume P Ducrocq, Thomas J Hureau, Olivier Meste, Grégory M Blain
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of different magnitudes of deception on performance and exercise-induced fatigue during cycling time-trial. METHODS: Following three familiarization visits, three females and eight males performed three 5 km cycling time-trials while following a simulated dynamic avatar reproducing either 100% (5K100%), 102% (5K102%) or 105% (5K105%) of the subject's previous fastest trial. Quadriceps muscle activation was quantified with surface electromyography...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315254/live-cell-imaging-of-protease-activity-assays-to-screen-therapeutic-approaches
#7
Anita Chalasani, Kyungmin Ji, Mansoureh Sameni, Samia H Mazumder, Yong Xu, Kamiar Moin, Bonnie F Sloane
Methodologies to image and quantify the activity of proteolytic enzymes have been developed in an effort to identify protease-related druggable pathways that are involved in malignant progression of cancer. Our laboratory has pioneered techniques for functional live-cell imaging of protease activity in pathomimetic avatars for breast cancer. We analyze proteolysis in the context of proliferation and formation of structures by tumor cells in 3-D cultures over time (4D). In order to recapitulate the cellular composition and architecture of tumors in the pathomimetic avatars, we include other tumor-associated cells (e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#8
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301965/from-pong-to-pokemon-go-catching-the-essence-of-the-internet-gaming-disorder-diagnosis
#9
Xavier Carbonell
Taking as a starting point, this commentary proposes some issues regarding the diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder discussed in Kuss et al. (2016). In our opinion, the confusion in DSM-5 diagnosis could be due to the weak starting point in building the criteria. The criteria such as functional impairment and stability of the dysfunctional behavior are considered. It is suggested that avatar identification, playing motivations, and types of video games should be considered for diagnosis. The diagnostic process is highly influenced by social context and the rapid development of video game industry...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300522/asymmetric-peer-selections-among-blacks-asians-and-whites-in-a-virtual-environment-preliminary-evidence-for-triangulated-threat-theory
#10
John Tawa
Black, Asian, and White participants (N = 210) created self-resembling avatars and engaged in peer-selection tasks during social events in the virtual world, Second Life, that were designed to simulate various types of resource competition. Participants in merit-based resource competition settings had less diversity in their peer groups compared to participants in settings where no resource competition was present, and Asian participants had lower preference for Black peers. Furthermore, these relationships were mediated by out-group discomfort...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290746/virtual-reality-training-with-three-dimensional-video-games-improves-postural-balance-and-lower-extremity-strength-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#11
Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song, Seungwon Lee
Avatar-based three-dimensional technology is a new approach to improve physical function in older adults. The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional video gaming technology in virtual reality training to improve postural balance and lower extremity strength in a population of community-dwelling older adults. The experimental group participated in the virtual reality training program for 60 minutes, twice a week, for 6 weeks. Both experimental and control groups were given 3 times for falls prevention education at the first, third, and fifth weeks...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290210/changing-concept-in-treatment-of-asymptomatic-severe-aortic-stenosis-and-normal-ejection-fraction-time-for-biomarkers-reappraisal
#12
Marko D Banovic
The uncertainty of whether/how to treat asymptomatic patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis and normal left ventricular ejection fraction is one of the most topical in cardiovascular medicine. Recently, the AVATAR trial: first ever randomized trial in the setting of aortic stenosis has been started in an attempt to adequately address this 'burning issue'. In light of this fact it is important to identify biomarkers which might help in risk stratification of these patients, not only in the referring physician's office during a routine exam, but also for preoperative patients scheduled for surgical replacement/transcatheter aortic valve implantation...
March 14, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271372/perceiving-crowd-attention-gaze-following-in-human-crowds-with-conflicting-cues
#13
Zhongqiang Sun, Wenjun Yu, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen
People automatically redirect their visual attention by following others' gaze orientation, a phenomenon called "gaze following." This is an evolutionarily generated socio-cognitive process that provides people with information about their environments. Often, however, people in crowds can have rather different gaze orientations. This study investigated how gaze following occurs in situations with many conflicting gazes. In two experiments, we modified the gaze cueing paradigm to use a crowd rather than a single individual...
March 7, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268853/optimal-decision-support-rules-improve-personalize-warfarin-treatment-outcomes
#14
Chih-Lin Chi, Kourosh Ravvaz, John Weissert, Peter J Tonellato
We tested optimization-based approaches to generate decision support rules used to improve personalized warfarin treatment based on clinical and genetic characteristics. Our approach simulated warfarin treatment outcomes using five existing treatment plans for clinical avatars (virtual patients). We used individual clinical avatar Time-in-Therapeutic-Range to represent the two-sided adverse risk to bleeding (over dosed - above therapeutic range) and thrombosis (under dosed - below therapeutic range) and as the objective function in the optimization to minimize overall risk...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255542/usability-and-feasibility-of-health-it-interventions-to-enhance-self-care-for-lymphedema-symptom-management-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#15
Mei R Fu, Deborah Axelrod, Amber A Guth, Yao Wang, Joan Scagliola, Karen Hiotis, Kavita Rampertaap, Nardin El-Shammaa
PURPOSE: The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow health IT system (TOLF) is a patient-centered, web-and-mobile-based educational and behavioral health IT system focusing on safe, innovative, and pragmatic self-care strategies for lymphedema symptom management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate usability, feasibility, and acceptability of TOLF among the end-user of breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Two types of usability testing were completed with 30 breast cancer survivors: heuristic evaluation and end-user testing...
September 2016: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254737/a-mobile-avatar-based-app-for-improving-body-perceptions-among-adolescents-a-pilot-test
#16
Annmarie A Lyles, Ashish Amresh, Jennifer Huberty, Michael Todd, Rebecca E Lee
BACKGROUND: One barrier to effectively treating weight issues among adolescents is that they tend to use social comparison instead of objective measures to evaluate their own health status. When adolescents correctly perceive themselves as overweight, they are more likely to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot test was to develop and assess acceptability and usability of an avatar-based, theoretically derived mobile app entitled Monitor Your Avatar (MYA)...
March 2, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242188/initial-clinical-outcomes-of-audiovisual-assisted-therapeutic-ambience-in-radiation-therapy-avatar
#17
Susan M Hiniker, Karl Bush, Tyler Fowler, Evan C White, Samuel Rodriguez, Peter G Maxim, Sarah S Donaldson, Billy W Loo
PURPOSE: Radiation therapy is an important component of treatment for many childhood cancers. Depending upon the age and maturity of the child, pediatric radiation therapy often requires general anesthesia for immobilization, position reproducibility, and daily treatment delivery. We designed and clinically implemented a radiation therapy-compatible audiovisual system that allows children to watch streaming video during treatment, with the goal of reducing the need for daily anesthesia through immersion in video...
January 19, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227051/optimal-decision-support-rules-improve-personalize-warfarin-treatment-outcomes
#18
Chih-Lin Chi, Kourosh Ravvaz, John Weissert, Peter J Tonellato, Chih-Lin Chi, Kourosh Ravvaz, John Weissert, Peter J Tonellato, Chih-Lin Chi, Kourosh Ravvaz, John Weissert, Peter J Tonellato
We tested optimization-based approaches to generate decision support rules used to improve personalized warfarin treatment based on clinical and genetic characteristics. Our approach simulated warfarin treatment outcomes using five existing treatment plans for clinical avatars (virtual patients). We used individual clinical avatar Time-in-Therapeutic-Range to represent the two-sided adverse risk to bleeding (over dosed - above therapeutic range) and thrombosis (under dosed - below therapeutic range) and as the objective function in the optimization to minimize overall risk...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222933/photogrammetric-3d-skull-photo-superimposition-a-pilot-study
#19
Valeria Santoro, Sergio Lubelli, Antonio De Donno, Alessio Inchingolo, Fulvio Lavecchia, Francesco Introna
The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them...
April 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202429/virtual-patient-technology-engaging-primary-care-in-quality-improvement-innovations
#20
Amanda C Blok, Christine N May, Rajani S Sadasivam, Thomas K Houston
BACKGROUND: Engaging health care staff in new quality improvement programs is challenging. OBJECTIVE: We developed 2 virtual patient (VP) avatars in the context of a clinic-level quality improvement program. We sought to determine differences in preferences for VPs and the perceived influence of interacting with the VP on clinical staff engagement with the quality improvement program. METHODS: Using a participatory design approach, we developed an older male smoker VP and a younger female smoker VP...
February 15, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
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