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Epicatechin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919166/phytochemical-profiles-and-antioxidant-activity-of-27-cultivars-of-tea
#1
Liang Zeng, Liyong Luo, Hongjun Li, Ruihai Liu
Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915048/protective-effects-of-green-tea-and-its-main-constituents-against-natural-and-chemical-toxins-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Maryam Rameshrad, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Toxins are natural or chemical poisonous substances with severe side effects on health. Humans are generally exposed by widespread toxic contaminations via air, soil, water, food, fruits and vegetables. Determining a critical antidote agent with extensive effects on different toxins is an ultimate goal for all toxicologists. Traditional medicine is currently perceived as a safe and natural approach against toxins. In this regard, we focused on the protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its main components such as catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate as a principal source of antioxidants against both natural and chemical toxins...
November 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910216/capillary-electrophoresis-as-tool-for-diastereomeric-separation-in-a-trichilia-catigua-fraction
#3
Ana Luiza Sereia, Renata Longhini, Gisely Cristiny Lopes, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello
INTRODUCTION: The tree Trichilia catigua, popularly known as "catuaba", shows several biological activities and has emerged as a potential source of new drugs. Considering that more than 10 species are known under the same popular name, regulatory agencies require more rigorous quality control of this medicinal plant. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a methodology using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet (UV) detection for analysing polyphenols in the ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of Trichilia catigua...
December 2, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887737/polyphenolic-diversity-and-characterization-in-the-red-purple-berries-of-east-asian-wild-vitis-species
#4
Kazuya Koyama, Hiroshi Kamigakiuchi, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Ryosuke Mochioka, Nami Goto-Yamamoto
Grapes (Vitis spp.) produce diverse polyphenolic compounds, which are phytochemicals that contribute to human health. In this study, the polyphenolic profiles of the red-purple berries of two wild grape species native to Japan, Vitis ficifolia and V. coignetiae, and their interspecific hybrid cultivars were investigated and compared with the profiles of V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were present at lower concentrations in both skins and seeds of wild grape species and their hybrid cultivars than those in V...
November 22, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885334/-epicatechin-prevents-blood-pressure-increase-and-reduces-locomotor-hyperactivity-in-young-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#5
M Kluknavsky, P Balis, A Puzserova, J Radosinska, A Berenyiova, M Drobna, S Lukac, J Muchova, I Bernatova
This study investigated the effects of subchronic (-)-epicatechin (Epi) treatment on locomotor activity and hypertension development in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Epi was administered in drinking water (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Epi significantly prevented the development of hypertension (138 ± 2 versus 169 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduced total distance traveled in the open-field test (22 ± 2 versus 35 ± 4 m, p < 0.01). In blood, Epi significantly enhanced erythrocyte deformability, increased total antioxidant capacity, and decreased nitrotyrosine concentration...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881069/anti-influenza-virus-effects-of-catechins-a-molecular-and-clinical-review
#6
Kazuke Ide, Yohei Kawasaki, Koji Kawakami, Hiroshi Yamada
Influenza infection and associated epidemics represent a serious public health problem. Several preventive and curative measures exist against its spread including vaccination and therapeutic agents such as neuraminidase inhibitors (e.g., oseltamivir, zanamivir, as well as peramivir and laninamivir, which are licensed in several countries) and adamantanes (e.g., amantadine and rimantadine). However, neuraminidase inhibitor- and adamantane-resistant viruses have been detected, whereas vaccines exhibit strain-specific effects and are limited in supply...
November 22, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869786/a-role-for-leucoanthocyanidin-reductase-in-the-extension-of-proanthocyanidins
#7
Chenggang Liu, Xiaoqiang Wang, Vladimir Shulaev, Richard A Dixon
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are the second most abundant plant polyphenolic compounds after lignin. PAs affect taste, mouth feel and astringency of many fruits, wines and beverages(1,2), have been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease(3-5), can improve nutrition and prevent bloat in ruminant animals(6) and enhance soil nitrogen retention(7). PAs are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols, primarily (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but the mechanism by which the monomers polymerize and become insoluble is currently unknown...
November 21, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865616/phenylpropanoids-from-cinnamon-bark-reduced-%C3%AE-amyloid-production-by-the-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-secretase-in-chinese-hamster-ovarian-cells-stably-expressing-amyloid-precursor-protein
#8
Yu Jeong Kang, Dae-Gun Seo, So-Young Park
β-Amyloid (Aβ) is a substance of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is generated via the amyloidogenic pathway from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. Inhibition of Aβ production is a potential therapeutic approach to AD. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cinnamon bark (Cinnamomi Cortex Spissus), the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae), and its constituents are beneficial to AD. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark efficiently reduced Aβ40 production in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells stably expressing APP as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 15, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864733/-epicatechin-a-natural-flavonoid-compound-protects-astrocytes-against-hemoglobin-toxicity-via-nrf2-and-ap-1-signaling-pathways
#9
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Jian Wang
(-)-Epicatechin is a brain-permeable, natural product found at high concentrations in green tea and cocoa. Our previous research has shown that (-)-epicatechin treatment reduces hemorrhagic stroke injury via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in vivo. However, the mechanism of action of this compound in modulation of oxidant stress and in protection against hemoglobin-induced astrocyte injury is unclear. Therefore, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these protective effects in vitro...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859283/impact-of-pecan-nut-shell-aqueous-extract-on-the-oxidative-properties-of-margarines-during-storage
#10
Paula Cristina Engler Ribeiro, Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Andrea Dal Bo, Pedro Alberto Barbetta, Jane Mara Block
BACKGROUND: The oxidative properties of margarines supplemented with pecan nut shell extracts, rosemary extract and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were investigated RESULTS: The extracts of pecan nut shell and rosemary showed a high content of total phenolics and condensed tannins (93 and 102.9 mg GAE g(-1) and 46 and 38.9 mg CE g(-1) , respectively) as well as a high antioxidant activity (1257 and 2306 µmol TEAC g(-1) , and 293 and 856 mg TEAC g(-1) for ABTS and DPPH methods, respectively)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855934/variation-of-theanine-phenolic-and-methylxanthine-compounds-in-21-cultivars-of-camellia-sinensis-harvested-in-different-seasons
#11
Rui Fang, Sally P Redfern, Don Kirkup, Elaine A Porter, Geoffrey C Kite, Leon A Terry, Mark J Berry, Monique S J Simmonds
This is the first study to use chemometric methods to differentiate among 21 cultivars of Camellia sinensis from China and between leaves harvested at different times of the year using 30 compounds implicated in the taste and quality of tea. Unique patterns of catechin derivatives were observed among cultivars and across harvest seasons. C. sinensis var. pubilimba (You 510) differed from the cultivars of C. sinensis var. sinensis, with higher levels of theobromine, (+)-catechin, gallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate and theasinensin B, and lower levels of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), respectively...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855885/front-face-fluorescence-spectroscopy-combined-with-second-order-multivariate-algorithms-for-the-quantification-of-polyphenols-in-red-wine-samples
#12
Manuel Cabrera-Bañegil, María Del Carmen Hurtado-Sánchez, Teresa Galeano-Díaz, Isabel Durán-Merás
The potential of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy combined with second-order chemometric methods was investigated for the quantification of the main polyphenols present in wine samples. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and unfolded-partial least squares coupled to residual bilinearization (U-PLS/RBL) were assessed for the quantification of catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, resveratrol, caffeic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillic acid in red wines. Excitation-emission matrices of different red wine samples, without pretreatment, were obtained in front-face mode, recording emission between 290 and 450 nm, exciting between 240 and 290 nm, for the analysis of epicatechin, catechin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and vanillic acid; and excitation and emission between 300-360 and 330-400nm, respectively, for the analysis of resveratrol...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849252/profiling-of-antioxidant-potential-and-phytoconstituents-of-plantago-coronopus
#13
C G Pereira, L Custódio, M J Rodrigues, N R Neng, J M F Nogueira, J Carlier, M C Costa, J Varela, L Barreira
The halophyte species Plantago coronopus has several described ethnomedicinal uses, but few reported biological activities. This work carried out for the first time a comparative analysis of P. coronopus organs in terms of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of organic and water extracts from roots, leaves and flowers. The leaves contents in selected nutrients, namely amino acids and minerals, are also described. Roots (ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) had the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, while leaves (hexane extract) had higher RSA on nitric oxide radical and iron chelating ability...
November 16, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846826/natural-product-htp-screening-for-antibacterial-e-coli-0157-h7-and-anti-inflammatory-agents-in-lps-from-e-coli-o111-b4-activated-macrophages-and-microglial-cells-focus-on-sepsis
#14
Elizabeth A Mazzio, Nan Li, David Bauer, Patricia Mendonca, Equar Taka, Mohammed Darb, Leeshawn Thomas, Henry Williams, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND: Acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome arising from infection can lead to multiple organ failure and death, with greater susceptibility occurring in immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, sub-acute chronic inflammation is a contributor to the pathology of diverse degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis). Given the known limitations in Western medicine to treat a broad range of inflammatory related illness as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistance, there is a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to achieve these means...
November 15, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827474/the-prothrombotic-state-associated-with-obesity-induced-hypertension-is-reduced-by-cocoa-and-its-main-flavanols
#15
G M Rabadán-Chávez, E Reyes-Maldonado, L Quevedo-Corona, N Paniagua-Castro, G Escalona-Cardoso, M E Jaramillo-Flores
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of cocoa and its main flavanols on the prothrombotic state associated with the development of hypertension in diet-induced obesity models. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of cocoa powder, cocoa extract and their main flavanols on plasma biomarkers related to impaired coagulation and fibrinolysis and its association with hypertension and obesity-related metabolic disorders in rats fed a hypercaloric diet. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 7 treatment groups (n = 7): normal diet (ND); hypercaloric diet control group (HCD); HCD + cocoa powder (CO); HCD + cocoa extract (CO-EX); HCD + (-)-epicatechin (EPI); HCD + (+)-catechin (CAT); and HCD + procyanidin B2 (PB2)...
November 9, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812831/carotenoids-phenolic-profile-mineral-content-and-antioxidant-properties-in-flesh-and-peel-of-prunus-persica-fruits-during-two-maturation-stages
#16
Samia Dabbou, Samira Maatallah, Antonella Castagna, Monia Guizani, Wala Sghaeir, Hichem Hajlaloui, Annamaria Ranieri
Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar...
November 3, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808339/differentiated-caco-2-cell-monolayers-exhibit-adaptation-in-the-transport-and-metabolism-of-flavan-3-ols-with-chronic-exposure-to-both-isolated-flavan-3-ols-and-enriched-extracts
#17
Benjamin W Redan, Mohammad Chegeni, Mario G Ferruzzi
The relatively low oral bioavailability of flavan-3-ols from acute doses is commonly highlighted as a limitation when considering the biological significance of these compounds. However, evidence suggests that the absorption of flavan-3-ols may be enhanced during periods of repeated exposure which is more representative of dietary patterns. To explore changes occurring in the upper small intestine from repeated exposure to dietary flavan-3-ols, Caco-2 human intestinal cells were cultured and differentiated in the presence of isolated flavan-3-ols epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin (EC) or flavan-3-ol-rich green tea and grape seed extracts...
November 3, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803764/the-chemical-profile-of-senna-velutina-leaves-and-their-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-effects
#18
Jaqueline Ferreira Campos, David Tsuyoshi Hiramatsu de Castro, Marcio José Damião, Heron F Vieira Torquato, Edgar J Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Natural products can be a source of biomolecules with antioxidant activity which are able to prevent oxidative stress-induced diseases and show antitumor activity, making them important sources of new anticancer drug prototypes. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of an ethanol extract of Senna velutina leaves and to assess its antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in leukemic cells. The antioxidant properties were evaluated using a DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by examining the extract's inhibition of AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794196/short-term-biomarkers-of-apple-consumption
#19
Theresa Saenger, Florian Hübner, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
SCOPE: Urinary biomarkers are used to estimate the nutritional intake of humans. The aim of this study was to distinguish between low, medium and high apple consumption by quantifying possible intake biomarkers in urine samples after apple consumption by HPLC-MS/MS. Apples were chosen as they are the most consumed fruits in Germany. METHODS AND RESULTS: 30 subjects took part in a seven day study. They abstained from apples and apple products except for one weighed apple portion resembling one, two or four apples...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791455/in-vitro-and-in-silico-interaction-of-porcine-%C3%AE-amylase-with-vicia-faba-crude-seed-extract-and-evaluation-of-antidiabetic-activity
#20
Dhiraj Kumar Choudhary, Abha Mishra
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The proper management of blood glucose level is an indicator in the treatment of this complex pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of Vicia faba crude seed extracts on the activities of α-amylase. Phytochemical screening, FTIR and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of a phenolic compound with percentage yield of 9.87% in the acetone extract. Acetone extract of seed had highest inhibitory potential against porcine α-amylase (IC50 value of 2...
October 28, 2016: Bioengineered
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