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Liyu Shi, Shifeng Cao, Xin Chen, Wei Chen, Yonghua Zheng, Zhenfeng Yang
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are distributed widely in Chinese bayberry fruit and have been associated with human health benefits, but molecular and biochemical characterization of PA biosynthesis remains unclear. Here, two genes encoding key PA biosynthetic enzymes, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) were isolated in bayberry fruit. MrANR was highly expressed at the early stage of fruit development when soluble PAs accumulated at high levels. Meanwhile, the transcript abundance of both MrANR and MrLAR observed at the late stage was paralleled with the high amounts of insoluble PAs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mina Cheraghi Nirumand, Marziyeh Hajialyani, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Stéphane Zingue, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Anupam Bishayee
Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus ( horse gram ), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chunting Li, Navindra P Seeram
The red maple (Acer rubrum) species is economically important to North America because of its sap which is used to produce maple syrup. In addition, various other red maple plant parts, including leaves, were used as a traditional medicine by the Native Americans. Currently, red maple leaves are being used for nutraceutical and cosmetic applications but there are no published analytical methods for comprehensive phytochemical characterization of this material. Herein, a rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the phenolics in a methanol extract of red maple leaves and a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract (Maplifa™)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Kai Peng, Qianqian Huang, Zhongjun Xu, Tim A McAllister, Surya Acharya, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Christopher Drake, Junming Cao, Yanhua Huang, Yuping Sun, Shunxi Wang, Yuxi Wang
Conservation methods have been shown to affect forage nutrient composition and value, but little information is available about the effect of forage conservation on plant condensed tannins (CT). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of conservation method on the concentration, chemical composition and biological activity of CT. Whole-plant purple prairie clover (PPC, Dalea purpurea Vent.) was harvested at full flower and conserved as freeze-dried forage (FD), hay (HAY) or silage (SIL). Concentration of CT in conserved PPC was determined by the butanol-HCl-acetone method...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Le Ying, De-Dong Kong, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Feng Yan, Yue-Fei Wang, Ping Xu
Phenolics, as the main bioactive compounds in tea, have been suggested to have potential in the prevention of various human diseases. However, little is known about phenolics and their bioactivity in Zhangping Narcissue tea cake which is considered the most special kind of oolong tea. To unveil its bioactivity, three phenolic-enriched extracts were obtained from Zhangping Narcissue tea cake using ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. Their main chemical compositions and in vitro bioactivity were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Ling-Ling Ying, De-Yin Wang, Hui-Ping Yang, Xi-Yan Deng, Chao Peng, Chao Zheng, Bei Xu, Lin-Yi Dong, Xu Wang, Liang Xu, Yan-Wen Zhang, Xian-Hua Wang
A combination between modification with porous layer and grafting of polyethyleneimine (PEI) on the inner face of capillary was for the first time developed for boronate affinity in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) material to enhance the extraction capacity for cis-diol-containing polyphenols. The successful synthesis of boronate-decorated polyethyleneimine-grafted porous layer open tubular (BPPLOT) capillary was confirmed by scanning electron micrograph, Fourier transform-infrared spectra and absorption experiments...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Eirini Sarrou, Lefki-Pavlina Giassafaki, Domenico Masuero, Daniele Perenzoni, Ioannis S Vizirianakis, Maria Irakli, Paschalina Chatzopoulou, Stefan Martens
Hypericum perforatum is known as an important medicinal plant, used for the treatment of several diseases, while its pharmacological properties are attributed to the presence of a wide range of secondary metabolites. Due to the great chemotypic variability of Hypericum species in the nature, and the demand for standardized herbal products, a detailed phytochemical investigation was carried out on different parts (herba, leaf, flowers) from wild collected and cultivated populations, using advanced chromatographic tools...
February 27, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Wojciech Koch, Wirginia Kukula-Koch, Łukasz Komsta
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin-Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Nepal, Sri Lanka) were shown. The Indian samples demonstrated the highest total catechin content (184.8 mg/100 mL), the largest TPC and DPPH scavenging potential (58.2 mg/100 mL and 84.5%, respectively)...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Asako Narai-Kanayama, Kosuke Saruwatari, Natsumi Mori, Tsutomu Nakayama
Black tea is a highly popular beverage, and its pigments, polymerized catechins such as theaflavins (TFs), are attracting attention due to their beneficial health effects. In this study, to test the inhibitory activities of TFs on the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, we investigated their effects on phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles in the absence or presence of a bile salt. (-)-Epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and TFs formed insoluble complexes with PC vesicles. Galloylated TFs such as TF2A, TF2B, and TF3 precipitated far more than other polyphenols...
March 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Pan-Pan Liu, Jun-Feng Yin, Gen-Sheng Chen, Fang Wang, Yong-Quan Xu
Flavor characteristics and chemical compositions of Tieguanyin oolong tea processed using different semi-fermentation times were investigated. Six flavor attributes of the teas, namely, astringency, bitterness, umami, sweet aftertaste, floral flavor, and green fruity flavor, were analysed. With extended semi-fermentation time, the taste intensity of sweet aftertaste increased, and the aroma intensity of floral and green fruity flavors increased, while the intensities of astringency, bitterness, and umami showed no clear trend...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Almas F Memon, Amber R Solangi, Saima Q Memon, Arfana Mallah, Najma Memon
Recently, an increasing interest has been observed in ionic liquids (ILs) due to their potentialities in various chemical processes. ILs have some unique properties making them excellent additives in capillary electrophoresis. In this work a simple, rapid, and reliable capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) method has been developed and validated using 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6 ) ionic liquid as a buffer additive for the determination/separation of five flavonoids including hesperedin, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and morin using photodiode array (PDA) detector...
February 27, 2018: Electrophoresis
P G Ferreira, A C Ferraz, J E Figueiredo, C F Lima, V G Rodrigues, A G Taranto, J M S Ferreira, G C Brandão, S A Vieira-Filho, L P Duarte, C L de Brito Magalhães, J C de Magalhães
Mayaro fever, caused by Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a sub-lethal disease with symptoms that are easily confused with those of dengue fever, except for polyarthralgia, which may culminate in physical incapacitation. Recently, outbreaks of MAYV have been documented in metropolitan areas, and to date, there is no therapy or vaccine available. Moreover, there is no information regarding the three-dimensional structure of the viral proteins of MAYV, which is important in the search for antivirals. In this work, we constructed a three-dimensional model of protein C of MAYV by homology modelling, and this was employed in a manner similar to that of receptors in virtual screening studies to evaluate 590 molecules as prospective antiviral agents...
February 24, 2018: Archives of Virology
Dan-Dan Tian, Joshua J Kellogg, Neşe Okut, Nicholas H Oberlies, Nadja B Cech, Danny D Shen, Jeannine S McCune, Mary F Paine
Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) is a popular beverage worldwide, raising concern for adverse interactions when co-consumed with conventional drugs. Like many botanical natural products, green tea contains numerous polyphenolic constituents that undergo extensive glucuronidation. As such, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), particularly intestinal UGTs, represent potential 'first-pass' targets for green tea-drug interactions. Candidate intestinal UGT inhibitors were identified using a biochemometrics approach, which combines bioassay and chemometric data...
February 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Sven Stadlbauer, Carmen Steinborn, Amy Klemd, Fumihiko Hattori, Ken Ohmori, Keisuke Suzuki, Roman Huber, Philipp Wolf, Carsten Gründemann
Among the known or suspected risk factors, inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious pathways leading to cancer. Green tea polyphenols have been associated with reducing inflammation and protection against carcinogenesis, especially in prostate cancer. While most of the research in this field, so far, has focussed on epigallocatechin-3- O -gallate only, we studied epicatechin-3- O -gallate, the second most abundant green tea polyphenol with essential therapeutic potential, to obtain a more detailed understanding of its anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory action...
February 21, 2018: Planta Medica
Do Manh Cuong, Soon-Jae Kwon, Jin Jeon, Yun Ji Park, Jong Seok Park, Sang Un Park
Phenylpropanoids and flavonoids belong to a large group of secondary metabolites, and are considered to have antioxidant activity, which protects the cells against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the accumulation of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids in bitter melon has rarely been studied. Here, we identify ten putative phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic genes in bitter melon. Most genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or flowers. HPLC analysis showed that rutin and epicatechin were the most abundant compounds in bitter melon...
February 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sumit Mukherjee, Rahman Hussaini, Richard White, Doaa Atwi, Angela Fried, Samay Sampat, Longzhu Piao, Quintin Pan, Probal Banerjee
Our earlier studies reported a unique potentiated combination (TriCurin) of curcumin (C) with two other polyphenols. The TriCurin-associated C displays an IC50 in the low micromolar range for cultured HPV+ TC-1 cells. In contrast, because of rapid degradation in vivo, the TriCurin-associated C reaches only low nano-molar concentrations in the plasma, which are sub-lethal to tumor cells. Yet, injected TriCurin causes a dramatic suppression of tumors in TC-1 cell-implanted mice (TC-1 mice) and xenografts of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in nude/nude mice...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Wanwan Ma, Yunliang Dai, Kyung Ho Row
Two types of molecular-imprinted polymers-based magnetic chitosan with facile deep eutectic solvent-functional monomers (Fe3 O4 -CTS@DES-MIPs) were synthesized and applied as adsorbents in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for the selective recognition and separation of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in black tea. The obtained Fe3 O4 -CTS@DES-MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The selective recognition ability was examined by adsorption experiments...
February 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Monika E Czerwińska, Marta K Dudek, Karolina A Pawłowska, Anna Pruś, Maria Ziaja, Sebastian Granica
Linden flower is a wildly used plant material among patients in the treatment of common cold symptoms and mucosa inflammations. However, the structure and bioactivity of flavan-3-ol derivatives present in infusions from flowers of Tilia cordata have not been studied so far. The aim of current study was to isolate and identify main procyanidins present in the flowers of small-leaved lime and to evaluate their influence on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils ex vivo. The chemical structure of isolated compounds was established by 1D and 2D NMR experiments...
February 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Maria Augusta Tremocoldi, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Marcelo Franchin, Adna Prado Massarioli, Carina Denny, Érica Regina Daiuto, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Priscilla Siqueira Melo, Severino Matias de Alencar
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties and phenolic composition of peel and seed of avocado varieties Hass and Fuerte using green solvents. Ethanol soluble compounds were identified in peel and seed of both varieties using HPLC-MS/MS and quantified using HPLC-DAD. Agro-industrial by-products of both varieties exhibited high radical scavenging activity against synthetic free radicals (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species (peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid) and high ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+...
2018: PloS One
Kyle B Kener, Devin J Munk, Chad R Hancock, Jeffery S Tessem
High-resolution respirometry allows for the measurement of oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, cells and tissues. Beta cells play a critical role in the body by controlling blood glucose levels through insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose concentrations. Insulin secretion is controlled by glucose metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, measuring intact beta cell respiration is essential to be able to improve beta cell function as a treatment for diabetes. Using intact 832/13 INS-1 derived beta cells we can measure the effect of increasing glucose concentration on cellular respiration...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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