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Urolithin A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660655/urolithin-a-shows-anti-atherosclerotic-activity-via-activation-of-class-b-scavenger-receptor-and-activation-of-nef2-signaling-pathway
#1
Guang-Hao Cui, Wei-Qian Chen, Zhen-Ya Shen
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the therapeutic potential of urothelin A in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion in wistar rat models and explore the role of Scavenger receptor-class B type I (SR-BI) and activation of Nrf-2 singling pathway. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 48) were feed with high cholesterol diet supplemented with Vitamin D3 and subjected to balloon injury of the aorta. Three days prior to the aortal injury, rats (n = 16) were administered urothelin A (3 mg/kg/d; po)...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604377/pomegranate-polyphenols-and-urolithin-a-inhibit-%C3%AE-glucosidase-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-lipase-triglyceride-accumulation-and-adipogenesis-related-genes-in-3t3-l1-adipocyte-like-cells
#2
Francisco Les, José Miguel Arbonés-Mainar, Marta Sofía Valero, Víctor López
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: pomegranate fruit is considered an antidiabetic medicine in certain systems of traditional medicine. In addition, pomegranate polyphenols are known as powerful antioxidants with beneficial effects such as the reduction of oxidative / inflammatory stress and the increase of protective signalling such as antioxidant enzymes, neurotrophic factors and cytoprotective proteins. AIM OF THE STUDY: this work evaluates the effects of pomegranate juice, its main polyphenols known as ellagic acid and punicalagin, as well as its main metabolite urolithin A, on physiological and pharmacological targets of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583112/ellagibacter-isourolithinifaciens-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-eggerthellaceae-isolated-from-human-gut
#3
David Beltrán, María Romo-Vaquero, Juan C Espín, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Maria V Selma
Urolithins are gut microbial metabolites that exert health benefits in vivo and are generated from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannin-containing foods such as strawberries, pomegranates and walnuts. Gordonibacter species produce some intermediary urolithins but the micro-organisms responsible for the transformation of EA into the final and more bioactive urolithins, such as urolithin A and isourolithin A, are unknown. We report here a new bacterium, capable of metabolizing EA into isourolithin A, isolated from healthy human faeces and characterized by determining phenotypic, biochemical and molecular methods...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494535/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-induced-impairment-of-cardiomyocyte-function-and-the-protective-role-of-urolithin-b-glucuronide
#4
Monia Savi, Leonardo Bocchi, Letizia Bresciani, Angela Falco, Federico Quaini, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Alan Crozier, Donatella Stilli, Daniele Del Rio
One of the most recently proposed candidates as a potential trigger for cardiovascular diseases is trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO). Possible direct effects of TMAO on myocardial tissue, independent of vascular damage, have been only partially explored so far. In the present study, we assessed the detrimental direct effects of TMAO on cardiomyocyte contractility and intracellular calcium dynamics, and the ability of urolithin B-glucuronide (Uro B-gluc) in counteracting TMAO-induced cell damage. Cell mechanics and calcium transients were measured, and ultrastructural analysis was performed in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from the heart of normal adult rats...
March 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471627/oxidant-free-c-sp-2-h-functionalization-c-o-bond-formation-a-kolbe-oxidative-cyclization-process
#5
Lei Zhang, Zhenxing Zhang, Junting Hong, Jian Yu, Jianning Zhang, Fanyang Mo
An anodic oxidation/cyclization of 2-arylbenzoic acids for dibenzopyranones synthesis has been developed. The reaction proceeds at room temperature with no oxidant or electrolyte required, and exhibits high atom-economy as H2 being the only by-product. A series of dibenzopyranones were obtained in good to excellent yields. Urolithin A, B and C are formally synthesized by adopting this method as a key step to demonstrate its synthetic utility.
February 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417752/silver-linings-on-the-horizon-highlights-from-the-10th-cachexia-conference
#6
Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Haehling
This article highlights the updates from preclinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 10th Cachexia Conference held in Rome, Italy, in December 2017. This year's conference saw some interesting results of larger-scale studies and clinical trials and new therapeutic targets. Herein, we summarize the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new diagnostic tools and cut-offs for the detection of skeletal muscle wasting, including micro RNAs, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, mTOR signalling, news in body composition analysis including the D3-creatine dilution method, and new biomarkers...
February 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356695/using-polyphenol-derivatives-to-prevent-muscle-wasting
#7
Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent evidence for the ability of polyphenols and their derivatives to reduce muscle wasting in different pathological states. RECENT FINDINGS: From January 2016 to August 2017, four articles dealt with the effects of polyphenols on muscle wasting, which were all carried out in mice. The four studies found that polyphenols reduced muscle mass loss associated with cancer cachexia, acute inflammation or sciatic nerve section. One study even showed that muscle mass was totally preserved when rutin was added to the diet of mice undergoing cancer cachexia...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336147/urolithins-attenuate-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv2microglia-via-mapk-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#8
Jialin Xu, Chunhui Yuan, Guihua Wang, Jiaming Luo, Hang Ma, Li Xu, Yu Mu, Yuanyuan Li, Navindra P Seeram, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
Emerging data suggest that urolithins, gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins, contribute toward multiple health benefits attributed to ellagitannin-rich foods, including walnuts, red raspberry, strawberry, and pomegranate. However, there is limited data on whether the potential neuroprotective effects of these ellagitannin-rich foods are mediated by urolithins. Herein, we evaluated the potential mechanisms of antineuroinflammatory effects of urolithins (urolithins A, B, and C; 8-methyl-O-urolithin A; and 8,9-dimethyl-O-urolithin C) in BV2 murine microglia in vitro...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318244/metabolic-fate-of-strawberry-polyphenols-after-chronic-intake-in-healthy-older-adults
#9
Amandeep K Sandhu, Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Tammy M Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Strawberries contain a wide array of nutrients and phytochemicals including polyphenols such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins. These polyphenols are absorbed and metabolized to various phenolic metabolites/conjugates in the body, which may play a role in disease risk reduction. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic fate of strawberry polyphenols after chronic (90 days) supplementation of freeze-dried strawberry (24 g d-1 , equivalent to 2 cups of fresh strawberries) vs. control powder in 19 healthy older adults...
January 24, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242216/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-new-urolithin-producing-bacterium-gordonibacter-urolithinfaciens-dsm-27213-t
#10
Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Daniel Ramón, David Beltrán, María Romo-Vaquero, Rocío García-Villalba, Juan C Espín, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Francisco M Codoñer, María V Selma
Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens DSM 27213T was isolated from human feces and is able to metabolize ellagic acid (a dietary phenolic compound present in various fruits) to urolithins. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
December 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143528/ellagitannins-from-strawberries-with-different-degrees-of-polymerization-showed-different-metabolism-through-gastrointestinal-tract-of-rats
#11
Joanna Milala, Monika Kosmala, Elżbieta Karlińska, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bartosz Fotschki
The present paper describes a comparative study of the metabolism of (1) ellagic acid, (2) monomeric ellagitannins (a mixture of α- and β-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose), and (3) dimeric ellagitannins (mainly agrimoniin with both glucose residues being esterified with hexahydroxydiphenoyl) in rats fed polyphenol-rich diets. Their metabolites were identified and quantified in selected parts of the gastrointestinal tract, i.e., the stomach, small intestine, and cecum, on the second, fourth, and seventh days of the experiment, as well as in the rats' feces, blood serum, and urine...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138782/vasorelaxant-activity-of-twenty-one-physiologically-relevant-poly-phenolic-metabolites-on-isolated-mouse-arteries
#12
E Van Rymenant, C Grootaert, K Beerens, P W Needs, P A Kroon, A Kerimi, G Williamson, R García-Villalba, A González-Sarrías, F Tomas-Barberan, J Van Camp, J Van de Voorde
Polyphenols are beneficial for health, but are metabolised after consumption. We compared the vasorelaxant capacity of twenty-one physiologically relevant polyphenol metabolites in isolated mouse arteries. Hesperetin, urolithins and ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate - not their glucuronidated forms or ferulic acid - caused vasorelaxation. Therefore, we advise the use of relevant conjugates in future mechanistic research.
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109959/probiotic-bacteria-for-healthier-aging-immunomodulation-and-metabolism-of-phytoestrogens
#13
REVIEW
José María Landete, Pilar Gaya, Eva Rodríguez, Susana Langa, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, Juan L Arqués
Age-related degeneration gives rise to a number of pathologies, many of them associated with imbalances of the microbiota and the gut-associated immune system. Thus, the intestine is considered a key target organ to improve the quality of life in senescence. Gut microbiota can have a powerful impact in the deterioration linked to aging by its nutritional and immunomodulatory activity. Reduced numbers of beneficial species and low microbial biodiversity in the elderly have been linked with pathogenesis of many diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031765/an-increased-autophagic-flux-contributes-to-the-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-urolithin-a-in-macrophages
#14
Yaw Duah Boakye, Laura Groyer, Elke H Heiss
BACKGROUND: An extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and its constituent geraniin have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. However, orally consumed geraniin, an ellagitannin, shows low bioavailability and undergoes metabolization to urolithins by gut microbiota. This study aimed at comparing geraniin and urolithin A with respect to inhibition of M1 (LPS) polarization of murine J774.1 macrophages and shedding more light on possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Photometric, fluorimetric as well as luminescence-based assays monitored production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), cell viability or reporter gene expression...
January 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976622/metabolite-of-ellagitannins-urolithin-a-induces-autophagy-and-inhibits-metastasis-in-human-sw620-colorectal-cancer-cells
#15
Wenhua Zhao, Fengqiang Shi, Zhikun Guo, Jiaojie Zhao, Xueying Song, Hua Yang
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway in which cytoplasmic contents are degraded and recycled. This study found that submicromolar concentrations of urolithin A, a major polyphenol metabolite, induced autophagy in SW620 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Exposure to urolithin A also dose-dependently decreased cell proliferation, delayed cell migration, and decreased matrix metalloproteinas-9 (MMP-9) activity. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by Atg5-siRNA, caspases by Z-VAD-FMK suppressed urolithin A-stimulated cell death and anti-metastatic effects...
February 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948694/pomegranate-by-products-in-colorectal-cancer-chemoprevention-effects-in-apc-mutated-pirc-rats-and-mechanistic-studies-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#16
Katia Tortora, Angelo Pietro Femia, Andrea Romagnoli, Irene Sineo, Mohamad Khatib, Nadia Mulinacci, Lisa Giovannelli, Giovanna Caderni
SCOPE: To investigate the effect of pomegranate mesocarp, a polyphenol-rich by-product of juice production, in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mesocarp decoction (PMD) is administered for 6 weeks in the diet to Pirc rats, mutated in Apc, a key-gene in CRC. Mucin-depleted foci (MDFs), as CRC biomarkers, are reduced in PMD-fed rats compared to controls (MDF/colon: 34 ± 4 versus 47 ± 3, p = 0.02). There is an increase in apoptosis in MDFs from PMD-treated rats compared to controls (2...
January 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946708/diverse-phytochemicals-and-bioactivities-in-the-ancient-fruit-and-modern-functional-food-pomegranate-punica-granatum
#17
REVIEW
Sheng Wu, Li Tian
Having served as a symbolic fruit since ancient times, pomegranate (Punica granatum) has also gained considerable recognition as a functional food in the modern era. A large body of literature has linked pomegranate polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins (ATs) and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), to the health-promoting activities of pomegranate juice and fruit extracts. However, it remains unclear as to how, and to what extent, the numerous phytochemicals in pomegranate may interact and exert cooperative activities in humans...
September 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762310/sarcopenia-aging-and-prospective-interventional-strategies
#18
Tyler B Waltz, Elayne M Fivenson, Marya Morevati, Chuanhao Li, Kevin G Becker, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro Fei Fang
Sarcopenia, or age-related muscle decline, occurs in most organisms and burdens both human health and the healthcare system. As our population ages, additional options for treating sarcopenia are needed. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the onset of sarcopenia, so therapies directed at improving mitochondrial function in muscle should be considered. Many naturally-occurring compounds, derived from commonly consumed foods, possess anti-sarcopenic effects, such asnicotinamide riboside, tomatidine, and Urolithin A...
July 31, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757461/safety-assessment-of-urolithin-a-a-metabolite-produced-by-the-human-gut-microbiota-upon-dietary-intake-of-plant-derived-ellagitannins-and-ellagic-acid
#19
Jacqueline Heilman, Pénélope Andreux, Nga Tran, Chris Rinsch, William Blanco-Bose
Urolithins are metabolites produced in the gut following consumption of ellagitannins and ellagic acid rich foods such as pomegranates, nuts and certain berries. Urolithin A (UA) is one of the predominant isoforms of urolithins in humans and has demonstrated compelling biological activities, suggesting potential benefits of direct consumption of UA. However, an evaluation of the safety of direct administration of UA has not yet been published. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the genotoxicity, toxicokinetics, and repeated dose safety of orally administered synthetic UA in rats...
October 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731232/a-comprehensive-review-of-agrimoniin
#20
REVIEW
Daniel M Grochowski, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Jianbo Xiao, Marcello Locatelli, Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Michał Tomczyk
Plant tannins are a unique class of polyphenols with relatively high molecular weights. Within the ellagitannins group, agrimoniin--dimeric ellagitannin--is one of the most representative compounds found in many plant materials belonging to the Rosaceae family. Agrimoniin was first isolated in 1982 from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), a plant traditionally used in Japan and China as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antiparasitic agent. Agrimoniin is a constituent of medicinal plants, which are often applied orally in the form of infusions, decoctions, or tinctures...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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