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Urolithin A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143528/ellagitannins-from-strawberry-with-different-degree-of-polymerization-showed-different-metabolism-through-gastrointestinal-tract-of-rats
#1
Joanna Milala, Monika Kosmala, Elżbieta Karlińska, Jerzy Juskiewicz, Zenon Zdunczyk, Bartosz Fotschki
The present paper describes a comparative study of the metabolism of 1) ellagic acid, 2) monomeric ellagitannins - a mixture of α- and β-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose, and 3) dimeric ellagitannins - mainly agrimoniin with both glucose residues being esterified with hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP), in rats fed polyphenol-rich diets. Their metabolites were identified and quantified in selected parts of the gastrointestinal tract i.e., the stomach, small intestine, and cecum on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day of the experiment, as well as in the feces, blood serum, and urine of rats...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138782/vasorelaxant-activity-of-twenty-one-physiologically-relevant-poly-phenolic-metabolites-on-isolated-mouse-arteries
#2
E Van Rymenant, C Grootaert, K Beerens, P W Needs, P A Kroon, A Kerimi, G Williamson, R García-Villalba, A González-Sarrías, F Tomas-Barberan, J Van Camp, J Van de Voorde
Polyphenols are beneficial for health, but are metabolised after consumption. We compared the vasorelaxant capacity of twenty-one physiologically relevant polyphenol metabolites in isolated mouse arteries. Hesperetin, urolithins and ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate - not their glucuronidated forms or ferulic acid - caused vasorelaxation. Therefore, we advise the use of relevant conjugates in future mechanistic research.
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109959/probiotic-bacteria-for-healthier-aging-immunomodulation-and-metabolism-of-phytoestrogens
#3
REVIEW
José María Landete, Pilar Gaya, Eva Rodríguez, Susana Langa, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, Juan L Arqués
Age-related degeneration gives rise to a number of pathologies, many of them associated with imbalances of the microbiota and the gut-associated immune system. Thus, the intestine is considered a key target organ to improve the quality of life in senescence. Gut microbiota can have a powerful impact in the deterioration linked to aging by its nutritional and immunomodulatory activity. Reduced numbers of beneficial species and low microbial biodiversity in the elderly have been linked with pathogenesis of many diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031765/an-increased-autophagic-flux-contributes-to-the-anti-inflammatory-potential-of-urolithin-a-in-macrophages
#4
Yaw Duah Boakye, Laura Groyer, Elke H Heiss
BACKGROUND: An extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and its constituent geraniin have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. However, orally consumed geraniin, an ellagitannin, shows low bioavailability and undergoes metabolization to urolithins by gut microbiota. This study aimed at comparing geraniin and urolithin A with respect to inhibition of M1 (LPS) polarization of murine J774.1 macrophages and shedding more light on possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Photometric, fluorimetric as well as luminescence-based assays monitored production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), cell viability or reporter gene expression...
January 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976622/metabolite-of-ellagitannins-urolithin-a-induces-autophagy-and-inhibits-metastasis-in-human-sw620-colorectal-cancer-cells
#5
Wenhua Zhao, Fengqiang Shi, Zhikun Guo, Jiaojie Zhao, Xueying Song, Hua Yang
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway in which cytoplasmic contents are degraded and recycled. This study found that submicromolar concentrations of urolithin A, a major polyphenol metabolite, induced autophagy in SW620 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Exposure to urolithin A also dose-dependently decreased cell proliferation, delayed cell migration and decreased matrix metalloproteinas-9 (MMP-9) activity. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by Atg5-siRNA, caspases by Z-VAD-FMK suppressed urolithin A- stimulated cell death and anti-metastatic effects...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948694/pomegranate-by-products-in-colorectal-cancer-chemoprevention-effects-in-apc-mutated-pirc-rats-and-mechanistic-studies-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#6
Katia Tortora, Angelo Pietro Femia, Andrea Romagnoli, Irene Sineo, Mohamad Khatib, Nadia Mulinacci, Lisa Giovannelli, Giovanna Caderni
SCOPE: To investigate the effect of pomegranate mesocarp, a polyphenol-rich by-product of juice production, in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A mesocarp decoction (PMD) was administered for 6 weeks in the diet to Pirc rats, mutated in Apc, a key-gene in CRC. Mucin Depleted Foci (MDFs), as CRC biomarkers, were reduced in PMD-fed rats compared to Controls (MDF/colon: 34±4 vs 47±3, P = 0.02). Apoptosis in MDFs from PMD-treated rats was increased compared to Controls (2...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946708/diverse-phytochemicals-and-bioactivities-in-the-ancient-fruit-and-modern-functional-food-pomegranate-punica-granatum
#7
REVIEW
Sheng Wu, Li Tian
Having served as a symbolic fruit since ancient times, pomegranate (Punica granatum) has also gained considerable recognition as a functional food in the modern era. A large body of literature has linked pomegranate polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins (ATs) and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), to the health-promoting activities of pomegranate juice and fruit extracts. However, it remains unclear as to how, and to what extent, the numerous phytochemicals in pomegranate may interact and exert cooperative activities in humans...
September 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762310/sarcopenia-aging-and-prospective-interventional-strategies
#8
Tyler B Waltz, Elayne M Fivenson, Marya Morevati, Chuanhao Li, Kevin G Becker, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro Fei Fang
Sarcopenia, or age-related muscle decline, occurs in most organisms and burdens both human health and the healthcare system. As our population ages, additional options for treating sarcopenia are needed. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the onset of sarcopenia, so therapies directed at improving mitochondrial function in muscle should be considered. Many naturally-occurring compounds, derived from commonly consumed foods, possess anti-sarcopenic effects, such asnicotinamide riboside, tomatidine, and Urolithin A...
July 31, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757461/safety-assessment-of-urolithin-a-a-metabolite-produced-by-the-human-gut-microbiota-upon-dietary-intake-of-plant-derived-ellagitannins-and-ellagic-acid
#9
Jacqueline Heilman, Pénélope Andreux, Nga Tran, Chris Rinsch, William Blanco-Bose
Urolithins are metabolites produced in the gut following consumption of ellagitannins and ellagic acid rich foods such as pomegranates, nuts and certain berries. Urolithin A (UA) is one of the predominant isoforms of urolithins in humans and has demonstrated compelling biological activities, suggesting potential benefits of direct consumption of UA. However, an evaluation of the safety of direct administration of UA has not yet been published. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the genotoxicity, toxicokinetics, and repeated dose safety of orally administered synthetic UA in rats...
October 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731232/a-comprehensive-review-of-agrimoniin
#10
REVIEW
Daniel M Grochowski, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Jianbo Xiao, Marcello Locatelli, Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Michał Tomczyk
Plant tannins are a unique class of polyphenols with relatively high molecular weights. Within the ellagitannins group, agrimoniin--dimeric ellagitannin--is one of the most representative compounds found in many plant materials belonging to the Rosaceae family. Agrimoniin was first isolated in 1982 from roots of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), a plant traditionally used in Japan and China as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic, and antiparasitic agent. Agrimoniin is a constituent of medicinal plants, which are often applied orally in the form of infusions, decoctions, or tinctures...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728453/incomplete-metabolism-of-phytoestrogens-by-gut-microbiota-from-children-under-the-age-of-three
#11
Pilar Gaya, Abel Sánchez-Jiménez, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, José Maria Landete
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with structural and functional similarities to mammalian oestrogens. The aim of this work was to study the metabolism of phytoestrogens by children's intestinal microbiota and to compare it with previous results in adults. Faecal samples of 24 healthy children were subjected to phytoestrogen fermentation assay. Only one child produced equol, while O-desmethylangolensin was found in all. Urolithin production was detected in 14 children and enterolactone in 10. Further comparison with the metabolism of phytoestrogens by adult intestinal microbiota reflected that glycitein, dihydrogenistein, urolithins D and E, enterolactone, secoisolariciresinol and arctigenin were the most important metabolites differentiating between adult and child microbial gut metabolism...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726389/antimelanogenic-effect-of-urolithin-a-and-urolithin-b-the-colonic-metabolites-of-ellagic-acid-in-b16-melanoma-cells
#12
Shang-Ta Wang, Wei-Chia Chang, Chen Hsu, Nan-Wei Su
Antimelanogenic agents from natural sources have been widely investigated. Urolithin A (UA) and B (UB), the main gut microflora metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives, have various bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory and antiaging effects. In this study, the metabolites were found to possess depigmentation efficacy by suppressing tyrosinase activity. Both UA and UB could attenuate melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells to 55.1 ± 3.8 and 76.4 ± 17.4% of control at noncytotoxic dosage, 10 μM, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683791/in-vivo-administration-of-urolithin-a-and-b-prevents-the-occurrence-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Monia Savi, Leonardo Bocchi, Pedro Mena, Margherita Dall'Asta, Alan Crozier, Furio Brighenti, Donatella Stilli, Daniele Del Rio
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that specific (poly)phenols may constitute new preventative strategies to counteract cell oxidative stress and myocardial tissue inflammation, which have a key role in the patho-physiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In a rat model of early diabetes, we evaluated whether in vivo administration of urolithin A (UA) or urolithin B (UB), the main gut microbiota phenolic metabolites of ellagitannin-rich foods, can reduce diabetes-induced microenvironmental changes in myocardial tissue, preventing cardiac functional impairment...
July 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631469/chemical-composition-of-blackberry-press-cake-polyphenolic-extract-and-defatted-seeds-and-their-effects-on-cecal-fermentation-bacterial-metabolites-and-blood-lipid-profile-in-rats
#14
Monika Kosmala, Adam Jurgoński, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Elżbieta Karlińska, Jakub Macierzyński, Edward Rój, Zenon Zduńczyk
Blackberry fiber (BF), extracted blackberry fiber (EBF), defatted blackberry seeds (DBS), and blackberry polyphenols (BP) were added to the diets of rats. A control diet, fiber diets (BF, EBF, DBS) with 6% addition instead of cellulose, and a polyphenol diet (BP) with 1% addition were administered for 4 weeks. BF and DBS contained polyphenols (3.6%); EBF did not. DBS was free of fat. Ellagitannins were the main phenolics, mostly dimers (sanguiin H-6 with isomers) and monomers (pedunculagin, casuarictin isomer, and sanguiin H-2 isomer)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631098/urolithins-impair-cell-proliferation-arrest-the-cell-cycle-and-induce-apoptosis-in-umuc3-bladder-cancer-cells
#15
Joana Liberal, Anália Carmo, Célia Gomes, Maria Teresa Cruz, Maria Teresa Batista
Ellagitannins have been gaining attention as potential anticancer molecules. However, the low bioavailability of ellagitannins and their extensive metabolization in the gastrointestinal tract into ellagic acid and urolithins suggest that the health benefits of consuming ellagitannins rely on the direct effects of their metabolites. Recently, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities were ascribed to urolithins. Nonetheless, there is still a need to screen and evaluate the selectivity of these molecules and to elucidate their cellular mechanisms of action...
December 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616977/gastrointestinal-simulation-model-twin-shime-shows-differences-between-human-urolithin-metabotypes-in-gut-microbiota-composition-pomegranate-polyphenol-metabolism-and-transport-along-the-intestinal-tract
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rocío García-Villalba, Hanne Vissenaekens, Judit Pitart, María Romo-Vaquero, Juan C Espín, Charlotte Grootaert, María V Selma, Katleen Raes, Guy Smagghe, Sam Possemiers, John Van Camp, Francisco A Tomas-Barberan
A TWIN-SHIME system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites, and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins, and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541359/potential-antiproliferative-activity-of-polyphenol-metabolites-against-human-breast-cancer-cells-and-their-urine-excretion-pattern-in-healthy-subjects-following-acute-intake-of-a-polyphenol-rich-juice-of-grumixama-eugenia-brasiliensis-lam
#17
L L Teixeira, G R Costa, F A Dörr, T P Ong, E Pinto, F M Lajolo, N M A Hassimotto
The bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following acute intake of grumixama fruit, native Brazilian cherry, by humans, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were investigated. A single dose of grumixama juice was administered to healthy women (n = 10) and polyphenol metabolites were analyzed in urine and plasma samples collected over 24 h. The majority of the metabolites circulating and excreted in urine were phenolic acids and urolithin conjugates, the gut microbiota catabolites of both classes of polyphenols, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535698/effect-of-urolithins-on-oxidative-stress-of-colorectal-adenocarcinomacells-caco-2
#18
Milica Kojadinovic, Aleksandra Arsic, Gordana Petovic-Oggiano, Marija Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija Glibetic, Milica Popovic
Urolithins (UROs) are metabolites derived from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins (ETs) by gut microbiota after consumption of different ETs. The health effects attributed to UROs are numerous and diverse, ranging from antimalarial properties to anticancer activities and regulation of gene expression. The aim of this work was at assessing the effect of URO-A; -B; -C; -D on the oxidative status of colon epithelium using as a model colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2). No significant cytotoxic effects of UROs was noted, with the applied treatments...
December 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513179/consumption-of-watermelon-juice-enriched-in-l-citrulline-and-pomegranate-ellagitannins-enhanced-metabolism-during-physical-exercise
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ascensión Martínez-Sánchez, Fernando Alacid, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Bárbara Fernández-Lobato, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Encarna Aguayo
l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454190/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-epilobium-angustifolium-aqueous-extract-on-lncap-cell-proliferation-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#20
Jakub P Piwowarski, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak, Iwona Stanisławska, Wojciech Bielecki, Robert Wrzesien, Sebastian Granica, Katarzyna Krupa, Anna K Kiss
Epilobium sp. are commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation. It is suggested that a dominating constituent, oenothein B, is responsible for the extracts therapeutic effects. Several bioactivities were established for extracts and oenothein B in various in vitro models, but due to the questionable bioavailability of this dimeric macrocyclic ellagitannin, their significance in the in vivo effects remains unresolved. We have thus focused our attention on a complex comparative investigation of the in vitro and in vivo activities of phytochemically characterized Epilobium angustifolium aqueous extract and oenothein B on prostate cancer cells proliferation...
October 2017: Planta Medica
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