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Urolithin A

Benhong Zhou, Jing Wang, Guohua Zheng, Zhenpeng Qiu
Urolithins are bioactive ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora. Although previous studies have demonstrated the cytotoxicity of urolithins, the effect of urolithins on miRNAs is still unclear. In this study, the suppressing effects of methylated urolithin A (mUA) on cell viability in human prostate cancer DU145 cells was investigated. mUA induced caspase-dependent cell apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization and down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The results showed that upon exposure to mUA, miR-21 expression was decreased and the expression of PTEN and Pdcd4 protein was elevated...
October 8, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Morgane Bayle, Céline Roques, Bénédicte Marion, Michel Audran, Catherine Oiry, Françoise M M Bressolle-Gomeni, Gérard Cros
Urolithins are microflora human metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives. There is now a growing interest in the biological activities of these compounds. Several studies suggest that urolithins have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-glycative activities. Recently, our group investigated the role of urolithins as potential anti-diabetic treatments; among the four urolithins, urolithin C was the most promising compound. The purpose of this paper was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of urolithin C in rat plasma...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Pilar Gaya, Margarita Medina, Abel Sánchez-Jiménez, José Mᵃ Landete
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Valentina Spigoni, Pedro Mena, Monia Cito, Federica Fantuzzi, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Furio Brighenti, Alessandra Dei Cas, Daniele Del Rio
The consumption of foodstuffs yielding circulating compounds able to maintain endothelial function by improving nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability can be considered as an effective strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention. This work assessed the in vitro effects of urolithin A, urolithin B, and urolithin B-glucuronide, ellagitannin-derived metabolites of colonic origin, on NO release and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Urolithins were tested both individually at 15 μM and as a mixture of 5 μM each, at different time points...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Laura A Kresty, John J Fromkes, Wendy L Frankel, Cynthia D Hammond, Navindra P Seeram, Maureen Baird, Gary D Stoner
Black raspberries inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models which has led to clinical evaluations targeting premalignant lesions of the colon, oral cavity and esophagus. A phase I pilot study was conducted in twenty Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients to investigate the effect of lyophilized black raspberries (LBR) on urinary metabolites and markers of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and tissue markers of cellular proliferation, detoxification, and inflammation. Surveys, biopsies, blood and urine samples were collected before and after 6 months of LBR treatment (32 or 45 g)...
July 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Dongryeol Ryu, Laurent Mouchiroud, Pénélope A Andreux, Elena Katsyuba, Norman Moullan, Amandine A Nicolet-Dit-Félix, Evan G Williams, Pooja Jha, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Damien Huzard, Patrick Aebischer, Carmen Sandi, Chris Rinsch, Johan Auwerx
The biological effects of urolithins remain poorly characterized, despite wide-spread human exposure via the dietary consumption of their metabolic precursors, the ellagitannins, which are found in the pomegranate fruit, as well as in nuts and berries. We identified urolithin A (UA) as a first-in-class natural compound that induces mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo following oral consumption. In C. elegans, UA prevented the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria with age and extended lifespan. Likewise, UA prolonged normal activity during aging in C...
August 2016: Nature Medicine
Wei Zhang, Jo-Hsin Chen, Irene Aguilera-Barrantes, Chung-Wai Shiau, Xiugui Sheng, Li-Shu Wang, Gary D Stoner, Yi-Wen Huang
SCOPE: Obese and overweight women are at high risk of developing endometrial cancer; indeed, many of endometrial cancer patients are obese. The increased number and size of adipocytes due to obesity elevate levels of circulating estrogens that stimulate cell proliferation in the endometrium. However, black raspberries (BRBs) are a promising approach to preventing endometrial cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 17 BRB constituents and metabolites (10μM or 10μg/ml, 48h) for their ability to prevent endometrial cancer cells from proliferating...
June 25, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Piu Saha, Beng San Yeoh, Rajbir Singh, Bhargavi Chandrasekar, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Bodduluri Haribabu, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Venkatakrishna R Jala
Numerous studies signify that diets rich in phytochemicals offer many beneficial functions specifically during pathologic conditions, yet their effects are often not uniform due to inter-individual variation. The host indigenous gut microbiota and their modifications of dietary phytochemicals have emerged as factors that greatly influence the efficacy of phytoceutical-based intervention. Here, we investigated the biological activities of one such active microbial metabolite, Urolithin A (UA or 3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one), which is derived from the ellagic acid (EA)...
2016: PloS One
Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Antonio González-Sarrías, Rocío García-Villalba, María A Núñez-Sánchez, María V Selma, María T García-Conesa, Juan Carlos Espín
Urolithins are dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives that are produced by the human gut microbiota from ellagitannins and ellagic acid. These metabolites are much better absorbed than their precursors and have been suggested to be responsible for the health effects attributed to ellagitannins and ellagic acid that occur in food products as berries and nuts. In the present review, the role and potential of urolithins in human health are critically reviewed, and a perspective of the research approach needed to demonstrate these health effects is presented, based on the existing knowledge...
May 9, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Qi-An Han, Chunhong Yan, Lingfang Wang, Guanghui Li, Yunfeng Xu, Xiaodong Xia
SCOPE: Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are both common events occurring during the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that urolithins, the intestinal microflora metabolites of ellagitannin, exhibit anti-inflammation and antioxidative properties. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of urolithin A (UA) on ox-LDL-induced (where ox-LDL is oxidized low-density lipoprotein) endothelial dysfunction and possible modes of action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human artery endothelial cells were incubated with 50 μg/mL ox-LDL and various concentrations of UA for 24 h...
September 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Ankur Karmokar, Antonio González-Sarrías, Rocío García-Villalba, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, María Teresa García-Conesa, Karen Brown, Juan Carlos Espín
Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) offer a novel paradigm for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment and dietary polyphenols may contribute to battle these cells. Specifically, polyphenol-derived colon metabolites have the potential to interact with and affect colon CSCs. We herein report the effects against colon CSCs of two mixtures of ellagitannin (ET) metabolites, ellagic acid (EA) and the gut microbiota-derived urolithins (Uro) at concentrations detected in the human colon tissues following the intake of ET-containing products (pomegranate, walnuts)...
June 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Laura Mele, Pedro Mena, Antonio Piemontese, Valentina Marino, Noelia López-Gutiérrez, Franco Bernini, Furio Brighenti, Ilaria Zanotti, Daniele Del Rio
Atherosclerosis, one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is characterized by impaired endothelial function and lipid metabolism, among other factors. Ellagitannins are a class of phenolic compounds that may play a role in cardiovascular health. This work aimed to study the potential atheroprotective effects of urolithins, ellagitannin-derived gut microbiota metabolites, on different key factors in atherosclerosis development: the ability of monocytes to adhere to endothelial cells and the uptake and efflux of cholesterol by macrophages...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Inhae Kang, YongEun Kim, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan Carlos Espín, Soonkyu Chung
SCOPE: Urolithins (Uro) are ellagic acid (EA)-derived metabolites produced by gut microbes. There is a growing interest in the biological activities of Uro. Our aim was to evaluate the impacts of Uro on regulating triglyceride (TG) accumulation using cultures of primary human adipocytes and hepatoma Huh7 cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: UroA, UroB, UroC, UroD, and iso-UroA were used to determine the effect of Uro on adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Individual Uro (30 μM) were added to human adipogenic stem cells during differentiation...
May 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Britt M Burton-Freeman, Amandeep K Sandhu, Indika Edirisinghe
Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring...
January 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Claudia Sánchez-González, Carlos Ciudad, Véronique Noé, Maria Izquierdo-Pulido
Walnuts are commonly found in our diet and have been recognized for their nutritious properties for a long time. Traditionally, walnuts have been known for their lipid profile which has been linked to a wide array of biological properties and health-promoting effects. In addition to essential fatty acids, walnuts contain a variety of other bioactive compounds such as, vitamin E and polyphenols. Among common foods and beverages, walnuts represent one of the most important sources of polyphenols, hence, their effect over human health warrants attention...
December 29, 2015: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Rocío García-Villalba, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan Carlos Espín
PURPOSE: Urolithins, metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from ellagic acid, have been acknowledged with cancer chemopreventive activity. Although urolithin A (Uro-A) has been reported to be the most active one, 10-50 % of humans can also produce the isomer isourolithin A (IsoUro-A). However, no biological activity for IsoUro-A has been reported so far. Herein, we describe for the first time the antiproliferative effect of IsoUro-A, compared to Uro-A, against both human colon cancer (Caco-2) and normal (CCD18-Co) cell lines...
December 17, 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, María Teresa García-Conesa, Juan Carlos Espín
SCOPE: Ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and the colonic metabolites urolithins (Uros) exhibit anticancer effects against colon cells, but a comprehensive molecular analysis has not been done. Herein, we used a panel of cell lines to first time evaluate the antiproliferative properties and accompanying molecular responses of two ellagitannin metabolites mixtures mimicking the situation in vivo and of each individual metabolite. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, and the expression of related genes and microRNAs (miRs) in a panel of nonmalignant and malignant colon cell lines...
April 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
María V Selma, María Romo-Vaquero, Rocío García-Villalba, Antonio González-Sarrías, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan C Espín
We recently identified three metabotypes (0, A and B) that depend on the metabolic profile of urolithins produced from polyphenol ellagic acid (EA). The gut microbiota and Gordonibacter spp. recently were identified as species able to produce urolithins. A higher percentage of metabotype B was found in patients with metabolic syndrome or colorectal cancer in comparison with healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to analyse differences in EA metabolism between healthy overweight-obese and normoweight individuals and evaluate the role of gut microbial composition including Gordonibacter...
April 2016: Food & Function
Tao Yuan, Hang Ma, Weixi Liu, Daniel B Niesen, Nishan Shah, Rebecca Crews, Kenneth N Rose, Dhiraj A Vattem, Navindra P Seeram
Pomegranate shows neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in several reported animal studies. However, whether its constituent ellagitannins and/or their physiologically relevant gut microbiota-derived metabolites, namely, urolithins (6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives), are the responsible bioactive constituents is unknown. Therefore, from a pomegranate extract (PE), previously reported by our group to have anti-AD effects in vivo, 21 constituents, which were primarily ellagitannins, were isolated and identified (by HPLC, NMR, and HRESIMS)...
January 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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