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Urolithin A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283501/phase-ii-conjugates-of-urolithins-isolated-from-human-urine-and-potential-role-of-%C3%AE-glucuronidases-in-their-disposition
#1
Jakub P Piwowarski, Iwona Stanisławska, Sebastian Granica, Joanna Stefańska, Anna K Kiss
In recent years, many xenobiotics derived from natural products have been shown to undergo extensive metabolism by gut microbiota. Ellagitannins, which are high molecular polyphenols, are metabolized to dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives- urolithins. These compounds, in contrast with their parental compounds, have good bioavailability and are found in plasma and urine at micromolar concentrations. In vivo studies conducted for ellagitannin-containing natural products indicate their beneficial health effects towards inflammation and cancer, which are associated with the formation of urolithins...
March 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251839/urolithin-b-a-newly-identified-regulator-of-skeletal-muscle-mass
#2
Julie Rodriguez, Nicolas Pierre, Damien Naslain, Françoise Bontemps, Daneel Ferreira, Fabian Priem, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
BACKGROUND: The control of muscle size is an essential feature of health. Indeed, skeletal muscle atrophy leads to reduced strength, poor quality of life, and metabolic disturbances. Consequently, strategies aiming to attenuate muscle wasting and to promote muscle growth during various (pathological) physiological states like sarcopenia, immobilization, malnutrition, or cachexia are needed to address this extensive health issue. In this study, we tested the effects of urolithin B, an ellagitannin-derived metabolite, on skeletal muscle growth...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235551/mitophagy-in-neurodegeneration-and-aging
#3
REVIEW
Elayne M Fivenson, Sofie Lautrup, Nuo Sun, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Tinna Stevnsner, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro F Fang
Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to normal aging and a wide spectrum of age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. It is important to maintain a healthy mitochondrial population which is tightly regulated by proteolysis and mitophagy. Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that regulates the turnover of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria, organelles that function in producing energy for the cell in the form of ATP and regulating energy homeostasis...
February 21, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183047/gene-expression-changes-in-colon-tissues-from-colorectal-cancer-patients-following-the-intake-of-an-ellagitannin-containing-pomegranate-extract-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
María A Nuñez-Sánchez, Antonio González-Sarrías, Rocío García-Villalba, Tamara Monedero-Saiz, Noelia V García-Talavera, María B Gómez-Sánchez, Carmen Sánchez-Álvarez, Ana M García-Albert, Francisco J Rodríguez-Gil, Miguel Ruiz-Marín, Francisco A Pastor-Quirante, Francisco Martínez-Díaz, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan Carlos Espín, María-Teresa García-Conesa
The clinical evidence of dietary polyphenols as colorectal cancer (CRC) chemopreventive compounds is very weak. Verification in humans of tissue-specific molecular regulation by the intake of polyphenols requires complex clinical trials that allow for the procurement of sufficient pre- and postsupplementation tissue samples. Ellagitannins (ETs), ellagic acid (EA) and their gut microbiota-derived metabolites, the urolithins, modify gene expression in colon normal and cancer cultured cells. We conducted here the first clinical trial with 35 CRC patients daily supplemented with 900 mg of an ET-containing pomegranate extract (PE) and evaluated the expression of various CRC-related genes in normal and cancerous colon tissues before (biopsies) and after (surgical specimens) 5-35 days of supplementation...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142243/neuroprotective-effects-of-bioavailable-polyphenol-derived-metabolites-against-oxidative-stress-induced-cytotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#5
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan Carlos Espín
Oxidative stress is involved in cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary polyphenols can exert health benefits, but their direct effects on neuronal cells are debatable because most phenolics are metabolized and do not reach the brain as they occur in the dietary sources. Herein, we evaluate the effects of a panel of bioavailable polyphenols and derived metabolites at physiologically relevant conditions against H2O2-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Among the 19 metabolites tested, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and urolithins prevented neuronal apoptosis via attenuation of ROS levels, increased REDOX activity, and decreased oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by preventing the caspase-3 activation via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in SH-SY5Y cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006907/differences-in-metabolism-of-ellagitannins-by-human-gut-microbiota-ex-vivo-cultures
#6
Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Joanna Stefańska, Anna K Kiss
Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are used as popular remedies in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Urolithins are gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins and are considered responsible for in vivo health effects. Various natural products have been studied that are known sources of urolithins. However, few studies have focused on the metabolism of ellagitannin molecules. The aim of the study was to examine the metabolic fate of select ellagitannins using ex vivo cultures of human gut microbiota...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940244/pomegranate-ellagitannins-stimulate-the-growth-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Susanne M Henning, Paula H Summanen, Ru-Po Lee, Jieping Yang, Sydney M Finegold, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Results from our previous human pomegranate extract (POM extract) intervention study demonstrated that about seventy percent of participants were able to form urolithin A from ellagitannins in the intestine (urolithin A producers). Urolithin A formation was associated with a high proportion of Akkermansia muciniphila in fecal bacterial samples as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Here we investigated whether A. muciniphila counts increased in stool samples collected after the POM extract intervention compared to baseline stool samples using real-time PCR...
December 7, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895386/addition-of-strawberries-to-the-usual-diet-increases-postprandial-but-not-fasting-non-urate-plasma-antioxidant-activity-in-healthy-subjects
#8
Anna Prymont-Przyminska, Piotr Bialasiewicz, Anna Zwolinska, Agata Sarniak, Anna Wlodarczyk, Jaroslaw Markowski, Krzysztof P Rutkowski, Dariusz Nowak
Strawberries can augment plasma antioxidant activity, but this may be confounded by selection of methods, time of blood sampling and concomitant dietary restrictions. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DPPH-test) of native and non-urate plasma in healthy subjects on their usual diet. Eleven subjects consumed strawberries (500 g daily) for 9 days. Fasting and 3-h postprandial plasma and 24-h urine collection were obtained before, during and after strawberry course for FRAP, DPPH-test and polyphenols determination...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879044/clustering-according-to-urolithin-metabotype-explains-the-interindividual-variability-in-the-improvement-of-cardiovascular-risk-biomarkers-in-overweight-obese-individuals-consuming-pomegranate-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#9
Antonio González-Sarrías, Rocío García-Villalba, María Romo-Vaquero, Cesarettin Alasalvar, Asim Örem, Pilar Zafrilla, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, María V Selma, Juan Carlos Espín
SCOPE: The pomegranate lipid-lowering properties remain controversial, probably due to the interindividual variability in polyphenol (ellagitannins) metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating whether the microbial-derived ellagitannin-metabolizing phenotypes, i.e. urolithin metabotypes A, (UM-A), B (UM-B) and 0 (UM-0), influence the effects of pomegranate extract (PE) consumption on eighteen cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy overweight-obese individuals...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827510/synthesis-of-natural-urolithin-m6-a-galloflavin-mimetic-as-a-potential-inhibitor-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a
#10
Sebastiano Rupiani, Laura Guidotti, Marcella Manerba, Lorenza Di Ianni, Elisa Giacomini, Federico Falchi, Giuseppina Di Stefano, Marinella Roberti, Maurizio Recanatini
Glycolysis is the main route for energy production in tumors. LDH-A is a key enzyme of this process and its inhibition represents an attractive strategy to hamper cancer cell metabolism. Galloflavin is a reliable LDH-A inhibitor as previously identified by us; however, its poor physicochemical properties and chemical tractability render it unsuitable for further development. Therefore, a rational design was undertaken with the aim to reproduce the pharmacophore of galloflavin on simpler, potentially more soluble and synthetic accessible scaffolds...
November 22, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804206/pomegranate-extract-prevents-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-against-wasting-induced-by-acute-tnf-%C3%AE-injection
#11
Julie Rodriguez, Olivier Caille, Daneel Ferreira, Marc Francaux
SCOPE: We investigated whether punicalagin-rich pomegranate extract (PE) protects skeletal muscle of mice against inflammation induced by an acute injection of TNF-α. RESULTS: Mice fed with PE or standard chow during 6 wk were injected with TNF-α (100 ng/g) or vehicle and sacrificed 6 h later. Prior supplementation with PE prevented the loss of tibialis anterior mass induced by TNF-α. In skeletal muscle, the activation of the NF-κB signaling and the induction of cytokines mRNA were reduced in mice having received PE...
November 2, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725205/methylated-urolithin-a-the-modified-ellagitannin-derived-metabolite-suppresses-cell-viability-of-du145-human-prostate-cancer-cells-via-targeting-mir-21
#12
Benhong Zhou, Jing Wang, Guohua Zheng, Zhenpeng Qiu
Urolithins are bioactive ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora. Although previous studies have demonstrated the cytotoxicity of urolithins, the effect of urolithins on miRNAs is still unclear. In this study, the suppressing effects of methylated urolithin A (mUA) on cell viability in human prostate cancer DU145 cells was investigated. mUA induced caspase-dependent cell apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization and down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The results showed that upon exposure to mUA, miR-21 expression was decreased and the expression of PTEN and Pdcd4 protein was elevated...
November 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633111/improvements-in-metabolic-health-with-consumption-of-ellagic-acid-and-subsequent-conversion-into-urolithins-evidence-and-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521987/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-determination-of-urolithin-c-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#14
Morgane Bayle, Céline Roques, Bénédicte Marion, Michel Audran, Catherine Oiry, Françoise M M Bressolle-Gomeni, Gérard Cros
Urolithins are microflora human metabolites of dietary ellagic acid derivatives. There is now a growing interest in the biological activities of these compounds. Several studies suggest that urolithins have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-glycative activities. Recently, our group investigated the role of urolithins as potential anti-diabetic treatments; among the four urolithins, urolithin C was the most promising compound. The purpose of this paper was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of urolithin C in rat plasma...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517891/phytoestrogen-metabolism-by-adult-human-gut-microbiota
#15
Pilar Gaya, Margarita Medina, Abel Sánchez-Jiménez, José Mᵃ Landete
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens...
August 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490528/effects-on-nitric-oxide-production-of-urolithins-gut-derived-ellagitannin-metabolites-in-human-aortic-endothelial-cells
#16
Valentina Spigoni, Pedro Mena, Monia Cito, Federica Fantuzzi, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Furio Brighenti, Alessandra Dei Cas, Daniele Del Rio
The consumption of foodstuffs yielding circulating compounds able to maintain endothelial function by improving nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability can be considered as an effective strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention. This work assessed the in vitro effects of urolithin A, urolithin B, and urolithin B-glucuronide, ellagitannin-derived metabolites of colonic origin, on NO release and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Urolithins were tested both individually at 15 μM and as a mixture of 5 μM each, at different time points...
August 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409421/a-phase-i-pilot-study-evaluating-the-beneficial-effects-of-black-raspberries-in-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus
#17
Laura A Kresty, John J Fromkes, Wendy L Frankel, Cynthia D Hammond, Navindra P Seeram, Maureen Baird, Gary D Stoner
Black raspberries inhibit a broad range of cancers in preclinical models which has led to clinical evaluations targeting premalignant lesions of the colon, oral cavity and esophagus. A phase I pilot study was conducted in twenty Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients to investigate the effect of lyophilized black raspberries (LBR) on urinary metabolites and markers of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and tissue markers of cellular proliferation, detoxification, and inflammation. Surveys, biopsies, blood and urine samples were collected before and after 6 months of LBR treatment (32 or 45 g)...
July 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400265/urolithin-a-induces-mitophagy-and-prolongs-lifespan-in-c-elegans-and-increases-muscle-function-in-rodents
#18
Dongryeol Ryu, Laurent Mouchiroud, Pénélope A Andreux, Elena Katsyuba, Norman Moullan, Amandine A Nicolet-Dit-Félix, Evan G Williams, Pooja Jha, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Damien Huzard, Patrick Aebischer, Carmen Sandi, Chris Rinsch, Johan Auwerx
The biological effects of urolithins remain poorly characterized, despite wide-spread human exposure via the dietary consumption of their metabolic precursors, the ellagitannins, which are found in the pomegranate fruit, as well as in nuts and berries. We identified urolithin A (UA) as a first-in-class natural compound that induces mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo following oral consumption. In C. elegans, UA prevented the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria with age and extended lifespan. Likewise, UA prolonged normal activity during aging in C...
August 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342949/urolithin-a-suppresses-the-proliferation-of-endometrial-cancer-cells-by-mediating-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-dependent-gene-expression
#19
Wei Zhang, Jo-Hsin Chen, Irene Aguilera-Barrantes, Chung-Wai Shiau, Xiugui Sheng, Li-Shu Wang, Gary D Stoner, Yi-Wen Huang
SCOPE: Obese and overweight women are at high risk of developing endometrial cancer; indeed, many of endometrial cancer patients are obese. The increased number and size of adipocytes due to obesity elevate levels of circulating estrogens that stimulate cell proliferation in the endometrium. However, black raspberries are a promising approach to preventing endometrial cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 17 black raspberry constituents and metabolites (10 μM or 10 μg/mL, 48 h) for their ability to prevent endometrial cancer cells from proliferating...
November 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254317/gut-microbiota-conversion-of-dietary-ellagic-acid-into-bioactive-phytoceutical-urolithin-a-inhibits-heme-peroxidases
#20
Piu Saha, Beng San Yeoh, Rajbir Singh, Bhargavi Chandrasekar, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Bodduluri Haribabu, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Venkatakrishna R Jala
Numerous studies signify that diets rich in phytochemicals offer many beneficial functions specifically during pathologic conditions, yet their effects are often not uniform due to inter-individual variation. The host indigenous gut microbiota and their modifications of dietary phytochemicals have emerged as factors that greatly influence the efficacy of phytoceutical-based intervention. Here, we investigated the biological activities of one such active microbial metabolite, Urolithin A (UA or 3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one), which is derived from the ellagic acid (EA)...
2016: PloS One
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