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Urolithin A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866017/an-overview-of-natural-plant-products-in-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Divya Rawat, Somi Shrivastava, Rayees Ahmad Naik, Saurabh Kumar Chhonker, Aditi Mehrotra, Raj Kumar Koiri
Liver cancer is the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Among the liver cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported to be responsible for 85-90% of primary liver cancer and it is the second most common cause of cancer mortality with 700,000 deaths documented annually. The major risk factors of HCC include chronic infections with the hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) virus, chronic liver diseases, alcoholism as well as dietary carcinogens, such as aflatoxins...
June 3, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847844/a-pharmacological-update-of-ellagic-acid
#2
José-Luis Ríos, Rosa M Giner, Marta Marín, M Carmen Recio
Ellagic acid is a common metabolite present in many medicinal plants and vegetables. It is present either in free form or as part of more complex molecules (ellagitannins), which can be metabolized to liberate ellagic acid and several of its metabolites, including urolithins. While ellagic acid's antioxidant properties are doubtless responsible for many of its pharmacological activities, other mechanisms have also been implicated in its various effects, including its ability to reduce the lipidemic profile and lipid metabolism, alter pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β , interleukin-6), and decrease the activity of nuclear factor- κ B while increasing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression...
May 30, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802820/plasma-urolithin-metabolites-correlate-with-improvements-in-endothelial-function-after-red-raspberry-consumption-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Geoffrey Istas, Rodrigo P Feliciano, Timon Weber, Rocio Garcia-Villalba, Francisco Tomas-Barberan, Christian Heiss, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos
Raspberries are a rich source of ellagitannins and anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to investigate whether raspberry consumption can improve vascular function and to understand which phenolic metabolites may be responsible for the effects. A 3 arm double-blind randomized controlled crossover human intervention trial was conducted in 10 healthy males. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured at baseline, 2 h, and 24 h post-consumption of 200 g and 400 g of red raspberries containing 201 or 403 mg of total (poly)phenols, or a matched control drink...
May 23, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793057/ellagic-acid-protects-from-myelin-associated-sphingolipid-loss-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Rebeca Busto, Jorge Serna, Aránzazu Perianes-Cachero, Rocío Quintana-Portillo, David García-Seisdedos, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Carlos L Paino, Milagros Lerma, María E Casado, Antonia Martín-Hidalgo, Eduardo Arilla-Ferreiro, Miguel A Lasunción, Óscar Pastor
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most common model for multiple sclerosis, is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the central nervous system and demyelination. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of some polyphenols may reduce the neurological alterations of EAE. In this work, we show that ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound, is beneficial in EAE, most likely through stimulation of ceramide biosynthesis within the brain. EAE was induced in Lewis rats by injection of guinea-pig spinal cord tissue along with Freund's complete adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742265/antiproliferative-effect-of-urolithin-a-the-ellagic-acid-derived-colonic-metabolite-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-2-15-cells-by-targeting-lin28a-let-7a-axis
#5
Zhenpeng Qiu, Junxuan Zhou, Cong Zhang, Ye Cheng, Junjie Hu, Guohua Zheng
An abnormality in the Lin28/let-7a axis is relevant to the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which could be a novel therapeutic target for this malignant tumor. The present study aimed to investigate the antiproliferative and anti-invasive effects of urolithin A in a stable full-length HBV gene integrated cell line HepG2.2.15 using CCK-8 and transwell assays. The RNA and protein expressions of targets were assessed by quantitative PCR and western blot, respectively...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692859/emblic-leafflower-phyllanthus-emblica-l-fruits-ameliorate-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-dysfunction-in-hyperglycemia-an-underlying-mechanism-involved-in-ellagitannin-metabolite-urolithin-a
#6
Junxuan Zhou, Cong Zhang, Guo-Hua Zheng, Zhenpeng Qiu
Ellagitannins in Phyllanthus emblica L. (emblic leafflower fruits) have been thought of as the beneficial constituents for ameliorating endocrinal and metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, the effect of emblic leafflower fruits on diabetic vascular complications involved in ellagitannin-derived urolithin metabolites is still rare. In this study, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in aortas was facilitated upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption in the single dose streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685968/impact-of-dietary-gut-microbial-metabolites-on-the-epigenome
#7
REVIEW
Clarissa Gerhauser
Within the past decade, epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by natural products have gained increasing interest. Dietary bioactive compounds from various sources, including green tea, soya, fruit and berries, cruciferous vegetables, whole grain foods, fish and others, have been shown to target enzymes involved in epigenetic gene regulation, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases and demethylases in vitro and in cell culture. Also, many dietary agents were shown to alter miRNA expression...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660655/urolithin-a-shows-anti-atherosclerotic-activity-via-activation-of-class-b-scavenger-receptor-and-activation-of-nef2-signaling-pathway
#8
Guang-Hao Cui, Wei-Qian Chen, Zhen-Ya Shen
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the therapeutic potential of urothelin A in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion in wistar rat models and explore the role of Scavenger receptor-class B type I (SR-BI) and activation of Nrf-2 singling pathway. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 48) were feed with high cholesterol diet supplemented with Vitamin D3 and subjected to balloon injury of the aorta. Three days prior to the aortal injury, rats (n = 16) were administered urothelin A (3 mg/kg/d; po)...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604377/pomegranate-polyphenols-and-urolithin-a-inhibit-%C3%AE-glucosidase-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-lipase-triglyceride-accumulation-and-adipogenesis-related-genes-in-3t3-l1-adipocyte-like-cells
#9
Francisco Les, José Miguel Arbonés-Mainar, Marta Sofía Valero, Víctor López
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pomegranate fruit is considered an antidiabetic medicine in certain systems of traditional medicine. In addition, pomegranate polyphenols are known as powerful antioxidants with beneficial effects such as the reduction of oxidative / inflammatory stress and the increase of protective signalling such as antioxidant enzymes, neurotrophic factors and cytoprotective proteins. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work evaluates the effects of pomegranate juice, its main polyphenols known as ellagic acid and punicalagin, as well as its main metabolite urolithin A, on physiological and pharmacological targets of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583112/ellagibacter-isourolithinifaciens-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-eggerthellaceae-isolated-from-human-gut
#10
David Beltrán, María Romo-Vaquero, Juan C Espín, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Maria V Selma
Urolithins are gut microbial metabolites that exert health benefits in vivo and are generated from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannin-containing foods such as strawberries, pomegranates and walnuts. Gordonibacter species produce some intermediary urolithins but the micro-organisms responsible for the transformation of EA into the final and more bioactive urolithins, such as urolithin A and isourolithin A, are unknown. We report here a new bacterium, capable of metabolizing EA into isourolithin A, isolated from healthy human faeces and characterized by determining phenotypic, biochemical and molecular methods...
May 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494535/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-induced-impairment-of-cardiomyocyte-function-and-the-protective-role-of-urolithin-b-glucuronide
#11
Monia Savi, Leonardo Bocchi, Letizia Bresciani, Angela Falco, Federico Quaini, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Alan Crozier, Donatella Stilli, Daniele Del Rio
One of the most recently proposed candidates as a potential trigger for cardiovascular diseases is trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO). Possible direct effects of TMAO on myocardial tissue, independent of vascular damage, have been only partially explored so far. In the present study, we assessed the detrimental direct effects of TMAO on cardiomyocyte contractility and intracellular calcium dynamics, and the ability of urolithin B-glucuronide (Uro B-gluc) in counteracting TMAO-induced cell damage. Cell mechanics and calcium transients were measured, and ultrastructural analysis was performed in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from the heart of normal adult rats...
March 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471627/oxidant-free-c-sp-2-h-functionalization-c-o-bond-formation-a-kolbe-oxidative-cyclization-process
#12
Lei Zhang, Zhenxing Zhang, Junting Hong, Jian Yu, Jianning Zhang, Fanyang Mo
An anodic oxidation/cyclization of 2-arylbenzoic acids for the synthesis of dibenzopyranones has been developed. The reaction proceeds at room temperature with no oxidant or electrolyte required and exhibits a high atom economy with H2 being the only byproduct. A series of dibenzopyranones was obtained in good to excellent yields. Urolithins A, B, and C are formally synthesized by adopting this method as a key step to demonstrate its synthetic utility.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417752/silver-linings-on-the-horizon-highlights-from-the-10th-cachexia-conference
#13
Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Haehling
This article highlights the updates from preclinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 10th Cachexia Conference held in Rome, Italy, in December 2017. This year's conference saw some interesting results of larger-scale studies and clinical trials and new therapeutic targets. Herein, we summarize the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new diagnostic tools and cut-offs for the detection of skeletal muscle wasting, including micro RNAs, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, mTOR signalling, news in body composition analysis including the D3-creatine dilution method, and new biomarkers...
February 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356695/using-polyphenol-derivatives-to-prevent-muscle-wasting
#14
Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent evidence for the ability of polyphenols and their derivatives to reduce muscle wasting in different pathological states. RECENT FINDINGS: From January 2016 to August 2017, four articles dealt with the effects of polyphenols on muscle wasting, which were all carried out in mice. The four studies found that polyphenols reduced muscle mass loss associated with cancer cachexia, acute inflammation or sciatic nerve section. One study even showed that muscle mass was totally preserved when rutin was added to the diet of mice undergoing cancer cachexia...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336147/urolithins-attenuate-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv2microglia-via-mapk-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#15
Jialin Xu, Chunhui Yuan, Guihua Wang, Jiaming Luo, Hang Ma, Li Xu, Yu Mu, Yuanyuan Li, Navindra P Seeram, Xueshi Huang, Liya Li
Emerging data suggest that urolithins, gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins, contribute toward multiple health benefits attributed to ellagitannin-rich foods, including walnuts, red raspberry, strawberry, and pomegranate. However, there is limited data on whether the potential neuroprotective effects of these ellagitannin-rich foods are mediated by urolithins. Herein, we evaluated the potential mechanisms of antineuroinflammatory effects of urolithins (urolithins A, B, and C; 8-methyl-O-urolithin A; and 8,9-dimethyl-O-urolithin C) in BV2 murine microglia in vitro...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318244/metabolic-fate-of-strawberry-polyphenols-after-chronic-intake-in-healthy-older-adults
#16
Amandeep K Sandhu, Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Tammy M Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Indika Edirisinghe, Britt Burton-Freeman
Strawberries contain a wide array of nutrients and phytochemicals including polyphenols such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins. These polyphenols are absorbed and metabolized to various phenolic metabolites/conjugates in the body, which may play a role in disease risk reduction. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic fate of strawberry polyphenols after chronic (90 days) supplementation of freeze-dried strawberry (24 g d-1 , equivalent to 2 cups of fresh strawberries) vs. control powder in 19 healthy older adults...
January 24, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242216/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-new-urolithin-producing-bacterium-gordonibacter-urolithinfaciens-dsm-27213-t
#17
Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Daniel Ramón, David Beltrán, María Romo-Vaquero, Rocío García-Villalba, Juan C Espín, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Francisco M Codoñer, María V Selma
Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens DSM 27213T was isolated from human feces and is able to metabolize ellagic acid (a dietary phenolic compound present in various fruits) to urolithins. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
December 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143528/ellagitannins-from-strawberries-with-different-degrees-of-polymerization-showed-different-metabolism-through-gastrointestinal-tract-of-rats
#18
Joanna Milala, Monika Kosmala, Elżbieta Karlińska, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bartosz Fotschki
The present paper describes a comparative study of the metabolism of (1) ellagic acid, (2) monomeric ellagitannins (a mixture of α- and β-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose), and (3) dimeric ellagitannins (mainly agrimoniin with both glucose residues being esterified with hexahydroxydiphenoyl) in rats fed polyphenol-rich diets. Their metabolites were identified and quantified in selected parts of the gastrointestinal tract, i.e., the stomach, small intestine, and cecum, on the second, fourth, and seventh days of the experiment, as well as in the rats' feces, blood serum, and urine...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138782/vasorelaxant-activity-of-twenty-one-physiologically-relevant-poly-phenolic-metabolites-on-isolated-mouse-arteries
#19
E Van Rymenant, C Grootaert, K Beerens, P W Needs, P A Kroon, A Kerimi, G Williamson, R García-Villalba, A González-Sarrías, F Tomas-Barberan, J Van Camp, J Van de Voorde
Polyphenols are beneficial for health, but are metabolised after consumption. We compared the vasorelaxant capacity of twenty-one physiologically relevant polyphenol metabolites in isolated mouse arteries. Hesperetin, urolithins and ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate - not their glucuronidated forms or ferulic acid - caused vasorelaxation. Therefore, we advise the use of relevant conjugates in future mechanistic research.
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109959/probiotic-bacteria-for-healthier-aging-immunomodulation-and-metabolism-of-phytoestrogens
#20
REVIEW
José María Landete, Pilar Gaya, Eva Rodríguez, Susana Langa, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, Juan L Arqués
Age-related degeneration gives rise to a number of pathologies, many of them associated with imbalances of the microbiota and the gut-associated immune system. Thus, the intestine is considered a key target organ to improve the quality of life in senescence. Gut microbiota can have a powerful impact in the deterioration linked to aging by its nutritional and immunomodulatory activity. Reduced numbers of beneficial species and low microbial biodiversity in the elderly have been linked with pathogenesis of many diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
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