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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096468/marked-alterations-in-the-structure-dynamics-and-maturation-of-growth-plate-likely-explain-growth-retardation-and-bone-deformities-of-young-hyp-mice
#1
Rocío Fuente, Helena Gil-Peña, Débora Claramunt-Taberner, Olaya Hernández-Frías, Ángela Fernández-Iglesias, Francisco Hermida-Prado, Gonzalo Anes-González, Isabel Rubio-Aliaga, Jose Manuel Lopez, Fernando Santos
Mechanisms underlying growth impairment and bone deformities in X-linked hypophosphatemia are not fully understood. We here describe marked alterations in the structure, dynamics and maturation of growth plate in growth-retarded young Hyp mice, in comparison with wild type mice. Hyp mice exhibited reduced proliferation and apoptosis rates of chondrocytes as well as severe disturbance in the process of chondrocyte hypertrophy disclosed by abnormal expression of proteins likely involved in cell enlargement, irregular chondro-osseous junction and disordered bone trabecular pattern and vascular invasion in the primary spongiosa...
August 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922221/trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification-regulates-the-blood-nerve-barrier
#2
REVIEW
Zbigniew Gugala, Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis, Yuqing Xiong, Eleanor L Davis, Alan R Davis
De novo bone formation can occur in soft tissues as a result of traumatic injury. This process, known as heterotopic ossification (HO), has recently been linked to the peripheral nervous system. Studies suggest that HO may resemble neural crest-derived bone formation and is activated through the release of key bone matrix proteins leading to opening of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB). One of the first steps in this process is the activation of a neuro-inflammatory cascade, which results in migration of chondro-osseous progenitors, and other cells from both the endoneurial and perineurial regions of the peripheral nerves...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619368/the-chondro-osseous-continuum-is-it-possible-to-unlock-the-potential-assigned-within
#3
REVIEW
Behzad Javaheri, Soraia P Caetano-Silva, Ioannis Kanakis, George Bou-Gharios, Andrew A Pitsillides
Endochondral ossification (EO), by which long bones of the axial skeleton form, is a tightly regulated process involving chondrocyte maturation with successive stages of proliferation, maturation, and hypertrophy, accompanied by cartilage matrix synthesis, calcification, and angiogenesis, followed by osteoblast-mediated ossification. This developmental sequence reappears during fracture repair and in osteoarthritic etiopathology. These similarities suggest that EO, and the cells involved, are of great clinical importance for bone regeneration as it could provide novel targeted approaches to increase specific signaling to promote fracture healing, and if regulated appropriately in the treatment of osteoarthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464321/origin-and-development-of-septoclasts-in-endochondral-ossification-of-mice
#4
Yasuhiko Bando, Hide Sakashita, Fuyoko Taira, Genki Miyake, Yudai Ogasawara, Koji Sakiyama, Yuji Owada, Osamu Amano
Septoclasts are mononuclear spindle-shaped phagocytes with their long processes in uncalcified cartilage matrices and locate adjacent to the capillary endothelium at the chondro-osseous junction of the growth plate. We have previously revealed a selective expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP/FABP5) in septoclasts. Although, pericytes are known to distribute along capillaries and directly surround their endothelial cells in a situation similar to septoclasts, no clear evidence is available on the relationship between septoclasts and pericytes...
June 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356962/growth-plate-derived-hedgehog-signal-responsive-cells-provide-skeletal-tissue-components-in-growing-bone
#5
Ryuma Haraguchi, Riko Kitazawa, Yuuki Imai, Sohei Kitazawa
Longitudinal bone growth progresses by continuous bone replacement of epiphyseal cartilaginous tissue, known as "growth plate", produced by columnar proliferated- and differentiated-epiphyseal chondrocytes. The endochondral ossification process at the growth plate is governed by paracrine signals secreted from terminally differentiated chondrocytes (hypertrophic chondrocytes), and hedgehog signaling is one of the best known regulatory signaling pathways in this process. Here, to investigate the developmental relationship between longitudinal endochondral bone formation and osteogenic progenitors under the influence of hedgehog signaling at the growth plate, genetic lineage tracing was carried out with the use of Gli1CreERT2 mice line to follow the fate of hedgehog-signal-responsive cells during endochondral bone formation...
April 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170109/activin-a-amplifies-dysregulated-bmp-signaling-and-induces-chondro-osseous-differentiation-of-primary-connective-tissue-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-fop
#6
Haitao Wang, Eileen M Shore, Robert J Pignolo, Frederick S Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), is caused by mutations in the type I BMP receptor ACVR1 that lead to increased activation of the BMP-pSmad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Recent findings suggest that Activin A (Act A) promiscuously stimulates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in vitro and mediates heterotopic ossification (HO) in mouse models of FOP, but primary data from FOP patient cells are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine BMP-pSmad1/5/8 pathway signaling and chondro-osseous differentiation in response to endogenous and exogenous Act A in primary connective tissue progenitor cells [CTPCs; also known as stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cells] from patients with FOP...
April 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068062/primary-chondro-osseous-melanoma-chondrosarcomatous-and-osteosarcomatous-melanoma
#7
Ali M Ali, Wei-Lien Wang, Alexander J Lazar
Melanoma can rarely show malignant chondro-osseous differentiation and can cause diagnostic confusion. We report 3 cases of primary melanoma with extensive bone and cartilage matrix. The first case arose in the nasal mucosa of a 72-year-old woman, the second case in the left index finger of a 26-year-old woman and the third case in the left cheek of a 68-year-old woman. In tumors where osseous and chondroid differentiation appear in mucosa and skin, primary melanoma with chondro-osteosarcomatous differentiation should be considered in the differential...
February 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044618/ultrasonographic-screening-for-subclinical-osteochondrosis-of-the-femoral-trochlea-in-foals-28-166-days-old-a-prospective-farm-study
#8
G Martel, D Crowley, J Olive, J Halley, S Laverty
BACKGROUND: Extensive osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the lateral ridge of the trochlea of the femur (LRTF), the most common OCD-affected site in the stifle, have a poor outcome with surgical debridement and can be career ending. The early detection of osteochondrosis lesions and their conservative management holds the promise to enhance outcome. We hypothesise that ultrasonography is a valuable field screening tool to detect and monitor early subclinical LRTF osteochondrosis...
May 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794403/chronological-immunolocalization-of-sclerostin-and-fgf23-in-the-mouse-metaphyseal-trabecular-and-cortical-bone
#9
Atsunaka Sakurai, Tomoka Hasegawa, Ai Kudo, Zhao Shen, Tomoya Nagai, Miki Abe, Taiji Yoshida, Hiromi Hongo, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Kimimitsu Oda, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Hidehiko Sano, Norio Amizuka
To assess the chronological participation of sclerostin and FGF23 in bone metabolism, this study tracked the immunolocalization of sclerostin and FGF23 in the metaphyses of murine long bones from embryonic day 18 (E18) through 1 day after birth, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks of age. We have selected two regions in the metaphyseal trabeculae for assessing sclerostin and FGF23 localization: close to the chondro-osseous junction, i.e., bone modeling site even in the adult animals, and the trabecular region distant from the growth plate, where bone remodeling takes place...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725908/cyst-like-lesions-at-chondro-osseous-junction
#10
Zijun Zhang, Jeffrey Beckett, Lew Schon
This study described and histologically characterized a cyst-like lesion (CLL) at the chondro-osseous junction. Rat knees (n = 12), with or without excessive running-induced osteoarthritis (OA), were used for counting the incidence, morphological measurements, immunohistochemistry of the CLL. A typical CLL, appearing as a void space in the matrix, was located on the tidemark at the chondro-osseous junction. The content of the CLL included types II and VI collagen, proteoglycans but not intact chondrocytes. At least one CLL was found in 5/6 osteoarthritic knees and only 2/6 in the non-osteoarthritic knees...
November 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500502/retinoic-acid-regulates-cell-shape-and-death-of-e-fabp-fabp5-immunoreactive-septoclasts-in-the-growth-plate-cartilage-of-mice
#11
Yasuhiko Bando, Miyuki Yamamoto, Koji Sakiyama, Hide Sakashita, Fuyoko Taira, Genki Miyake, Shoichi Iseki, Yuji Owada, Osamu Amano
Septoclasts, which are mononuclear and spindle-shaped cells with many processes, have been considered to resorb the transverse septa of the growth plate (GP) cartilage at the chondro-osseous junction (COJ). We previously reported the expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP, FABP5) and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ, which mediates the cell survival or proliferation, in septoclasts. On the other hand, retinoic acid (RA) can bind to E-FABP and is stored abundantly in the GP cartilage...
September 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493803/soft-tissue-sarcomas-of-the-abdomen-and-pelvis-radiologic-pathologic-features-part-2-uncommon-sarcomas
#12
REVIEW
Angela D Levy, Maria A Manning, Markku M Miettinen
Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article...
May 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163952/unintended-targeting-of-dmp1-cre-reveals-a-critical-role-for-bmpr1a-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-mesenchyme-of-adult-mice
#13
Joohyun Lim, Joseph Burclaff, Guangxu He, Jason C Mills, Fanxin Long
Cre/loxP technology has been widely used to study cell type-specific functions of genes. Proper interpretation of such data critically depends on a clear understanding of the tissue specificity of Cre expression. The Dmp1-Cre mouse, expressing Cre from a 14-kb DNA fragment of the mouse Dmp1 gene, has become a common tool for studying gene function in osteocytes, but the presumed cell specificity is yet to be fully established. By using the Ai9 reporter line that expresses a red fluorescent protein upon Cre recombination, we find that in 2-month-old mice, Dmp1-Cre targets not only osteocytes within the bone matrix but also osteoblasts on the bone surface and preosteoblasts at the metaphyseal chondro-osseous junction...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149724/endoscopic-accessory-navicular-synchondrosis-fusion
#14
Tun Hing Lui
The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of accessory navicular bones are symptomatic, and most of these are type II accessory navicular bones. A separation of the synchondrosis is considered one of the main causes of pain. After an injury to the synchondrosis has resulted in a chondro-osseous disruption, the combined forces of tension and shear from the posterior tibial tendon and the foot aggravate the injury and prevent it from healing. Fusion of the synchondrosis is a logical surgical treatment option if the pain is recalcitrant to conservative measures...
December 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096214/cartilage-to-bone-transformation-during-fracture-healing-is-coordinated-by-the-invading-vasculature-and-induction-of-the-core-pluripotency-genes
#15
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012106/osteogenic-potential-of-the-transcription-factor-c-myb
#16
V Oralova, E Matalova, M Killinger, L Knopfova, J Smarda, M Buchtova
The transcription factor c-MYB is a well-known marker of undifferentiated cells such as haematopoietic cell precursors, but recently it has also been observed in differentiated cells that produce hard tissues. Our previous findings showed the presence of c-MYB in intramembranous bones and its involvement in the chondrogenic steps of endochondral ossification, where the up-regulation of early chondrogenic markers after c-myb overexpression was observed. Since we previously detected c-MYB in osteoblasts, we aimed to analyse the localisation of c-MYB during later stages of endochondral bone formation and address its function during bone matrix production...
March 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002442/overexpression-of-timp-3-in-chondrocytes-produces-transient-reduction-in-growth-plate-length-but-permanently-reduces-adult-bone-quality-and-quantity
#17
Blandine Poulet, Ke Liu, Darren Plumb, Phoung Vo, Mittal Shah, Katherine Staines, Alexandra Sampson, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Hideaki Nagase, Alessandra Carriero, Sandra Shefelbine, Andrew A Pitsillides, George Bou-Gharios
Bone development and length relies on the growth plate formation, which is dependent on degradative enzymes such as MMPs. Indeed, deletion of specific members of this enzyme family in mice results in important joint and bone abnormalities, suggesting a role in skeletal development. As such, the control of MMP activity is vital in the complex process of bone formation and growth. We generated a transgenic mouse line to overexpress TIMP3 in mouse chondrocytes using the Col2a1-chondrocyte promoter. This overexpression in cartilage resulted in a transient shortening of growth plate in homozygote mice but bone length was restored at eight weeks of age...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#18
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiates into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
March 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621061/%C3%AE-catenin-activity-in-late-hypertrophic-chondrocytes-locally-orchestrates-osteoblastogenesis-and-osteoclastogenesis
#19
Astrid Houben, Daniela Kostanova-Poliakova, Martina Weissenböck, Julian Graf, Stefan Teufel, Klaus von der Mark, Christine Hartmann
Trabecular bone formation is the last step in endochondral ossification. This remodeling process of cartilage into bone involves blood vessel invasion and removal of hypertrophic chondrocytes (HTCs) by chondroclasts and osteoclasts. Periosteal- and chondrocyte-derived osteoprogenitors utilize the leftover mineralized HTC matrix as a scaffold for primary spongiosa formation. Here, we show genetically that β-catenin (encoded by Ctnnb1), a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, orchestrates this remodeling process at multiple levels...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492611/acvr1-fc-suppresses-bmp-signaling-and-chondro-osseous-differentiation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva
#20
Jing Pang, Yue Zuo, Yi Chen, Lige Song, Qi Zhu, Jing Yu, Chang Shan, Zeling Cai, Jijun Hao, Frederick S Kaplan, Eileen M Shore, Keqin Zhang
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and devastating genetic disease of heterotopic endochondral ossification (HEO), and currently no effective therapies are available for this disease. A recurrent causative heterozygous mutation (c.617 G>A; R206H) for FOP was identified in activin receptor type IA (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. This mutation aberrantly activates the BMP-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway and leads to HEO in FOP patients. Here we report development of a soluble recombinant ACVR1-Fc fusion protein by combining the extracellular domain of human wild type ACVR1 and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1)...
November 2016: Bone
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