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Yasuhiko Bando, Miyuki Yamamoto, Koji Sakiyama, Hide Sakashita, Fuyoko Taira, Genki Miyake, Shoichi Iseki, Yuji Owada, Osamu Amano
Septoclasts, which are mononuclear and spindle-shaped cells with many processes, have been considered to resorb the transverse septa of the growth plate (GP) cartilage at the chondro-osseous junction (COJ). We previously reported the expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP, FABP5) and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ, which mediates the cell survival or proliferation, in septoclasts. On the other hand, retinoic acid (RA) can bind to E-FABP and is stored abundantly in the GP cartilage...
May 12, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Angela D Levy, Maria A Manning, Markku M Miettinen
Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article...
May 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Joohyun Lim, Joseph Burclaff, Guangxu He, Jason C Mills, Fanxin Long
Cre/loxP technology has been widely used to study cell type-specific functions of genes. Proper interpretation of such data critically depends on a clear understanding of the tissue specificity of Cre expression. The Dmp1-Cre mouse, expressing Cre from a 14-kb DNA fragment of the mouse Dmp1 gene, has become a common tool for studying gene function in osteocytes, but the presumed cell specificity is yet to be fully established. By using the Ai9 reporter line that expresses a red fluorescent protein upon Cre recombination, we find that in 2-month-old mice, Dmp1-Cre targets not only osteocytes within the bone matrix but also osteoblasts on the bone surface and preosteoblasts at the metaphyseal chondro-osseous junction...
2017: Bone Research
Tun Hing Lui
The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of accessory navicular bones are symptomatic, and most of these are type II accessory navicular bones. A separation of the synchondrosis is considered one of the main causes of pain. After an injury to the synchondrosis has resulted in a chondro-osseous disruption, the combined forces of tension and shear from the posterior tibial tendon and the foot aggravate the injury and prevent it from healing. Fusion of the synchondrosis is a logical surgical treatment option if the pain is recalcitrant to conservative measures...
December 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
V Oralova, E Matalova, M Killinger, L Knopfova, J Smarda, M Buchtova
The transcription factor c-MYB is a well-known marker of undifferentiated cells such as haematopoietic cell precursors, but recently it has also been observed in differentiated cells that produce hard tissues. Our previous findings showed the presence of c-MYB in intramembranous bones and its involvement in the chondrogenic steps of endochondral ossification, where the up-regulation of early chondrogenic markers after c-myb overexpression was observed. Since we previously detected c-MYB in osteoblasts, we aimed to analyse the localisation of c-MYB during later stages of endochondral bone formation and address its function during bone matrix production...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Blandine Poulet, Ke Liu, Darren Plumb, Phoung Vo, Mittal Shah, Katherine Staines, Alexandra Sampson, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Hideaki Nagase, Alessandra Carriero, Sandra Shefelbine, Andrew A Pitsillides, George Bou-Gharios
Bone development and length relies on the growth plate formation, which is dependent on degradative enzymes such as MMPs. Indeed, deletion of specific members of this enzyme family in mice results in important joint and bone abnormalities, suggesting a role in skeletal development. As such, the control of MMP activity is vital in the complex process of bone formation and growth. We generated a transgenic mouse line to overexpress TIMP3 in mouse chondrocytes using the Col2a1-chondrocyte promoter. This overexpression in cartilage resulted in a transient shortening of growth plate in homozygote mice but bone length was restored at eight weeks of age...
2016: PloS One
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiates into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Astrid Houben, Daniela Kostanova-Poliakova, Martina Weissenböck, Julian Graf, Stefan Teufel, Klaus von der Mark, Christine Hartmann
Trabecular bone formation is the last step in endochondral ossification. This remodeling process of cartilage into bone involves blood vessel invasion and removal of hypertrophic chondrocytes (HTCs) by chondroclasts and osteoclasts. Periosteal- and chondrocyte-derived osteoprogenitors utilize the leftover mineralized HTC matrix as a scaffold for primary spongiosa formation. Here, we show genetically that β-catenin (encoded by Ctnnb1), a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, orchestrates this remodeling process at multiple levels...
October 15, 2016: Development
Jing Pang, Yue Zuo, Yi Chen, Lige Song, Qi Zhu, Jing Yu, Chang Shan, Zeling Cai, Jijun Hao, Frederick S Kaplan, Eileen M Shore, Keqin Zhang
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and devastating genetic disease of heterotopic endochondral ossification (HEO), and currently no effective therapies are available for this disease. A recurrent causative heterozygous mutation (c.617 G>A; R206H) for FOP was identified in activin receptor type IA (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. This mutation aberrantly activates the BMP-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway and leads to HEO in FOP patients. Here we report development of a soluble recombinant ACVR1-Fc fusion protein by combining the extracellular domain of human wild type ACVR1 and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1)...
November 2016: Bone
Zhengqi Pan, Xianrong Zhang, Yangfan Shangguan, Hang Hu, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) inhibits longitudinal growth of fetal bones, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate how PEE induces the retardation of long bone development in fetal rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with ethanol or distilled water (control group) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 9 to 20. Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section on GD20. Fetal sera were collected for assessing corticosterone (CORT) level. Fetal long bones were harvested for histochemical, immunohistochemical and gene expression analysis...
August 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Tomoka Hasegawa, Erika Tsuchiya, Miki Abe, Norio Amizuka
During endochondral bone development, the longitudinal vascular invasion into cartilage primordium initially takes place, by which mineralized cartilage matrix would be exposed into bone. Thereafter, osteogenic cells differentiate into mature osteoblasts to deposit new bone onto the exposed mineralized cartilage. New bone formation at the chondro-osseous junction appears to be achieved by the process of modeling, but not by bone remodeling based on cellular coupling between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Recently, a specific vessel subtype in bone was reported:Vascular endothelial cells close to the chondro-oseous junction showed intense CD31/Endomucin(CD31(hi)Emcn(hi), type H), while the endothelial cells of sinusoidal vessels in diaphysis revealed only weak CD31/Endomucin(CD31(lo)Emcnlo, type L)...
May 2016: Clinical Calcium
Joseph O Ugorji, Stephen J Pomeranz
The posterior glenoid labrum has numerous surrounding structures and any of them can undergo derangement. It is prudent to consider the posterior glenoid labrum complex (PGLC) as a whole rather than simply the labral tissue in isolation when evaluating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder. The PGLC contains the posterior capsulolabral junction, posterior capsule (posteroinferiorly , the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament), posterior chondro-osseous junction, posterior chondrolabral junction, posterior glenoid bone, posterior glenoid subchondral bone, posterior glenoid cartilage, posterior labrum, synovial fold (variably seen), and posterior glenoid periosteum (or periosteal sleeve)...
2016: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
Yusuke Tanaka, Tomoka Hasegawa, Tamaki Yamada, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Muneteru Sasaki, Hiromi Hongo, Kanako Tsuboi, Mai Haraguchi, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Kimimitsu Oda, Yasunori Totsuka, Kanchu Tei, Norio Amizuka
In order to provide a clue to understand the interplay between leptin and estrogen, we have examined femoral metaphyses of ovariectomized db/db mice carrying a mutated leptin receptor. We performed ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-operation (sham) on 12-week old female wild-type and db/db mice, and then, after 8 weeks, divided the animals into four groups: wild-type sham, wild-type OVX, db/db sham and db/db OVX. Samples from all groups were prepared for histochemical and ultrastructural examinations. As a result, db/db sham mice showed a reduced number and thickness of metaphyseal trabeculae and excessive adipose tissue when compared to wild-type sham mice...
December 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Gladys Valverde-Franco, Bertrand Lussier, David Hum, Jiangping Wu, Adjia Hamadjida, Numa Dancause, Hassan Fahmi, Mohit Kapoor, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Johanne Martel-Pelletier
BACKGROUND: Ephrins and their related receptors have been implicated in some developmental events. We have demonstrated that ephrin-B2 (EFNB2) could play a role in knee joint pathology associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we delineate the in vivo role of EFNB2 in musculoskeletal growth, development, and in OA using a cartilage-specific EFNB2 knockout (EFNB2(Col2)KO) mouse model. METHODS: EFNB2(Col2)KO was generated with Col2a1-Cre transgenic mice. The skeletal development was evaluated using macroscopy, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, radiology, densitometry, and micro-computed tomography...
March 15, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Gaoli Fang, Chengshuo Wang, Yingshi Piao, Luo Zhang
Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma is a rare hamartomatous lesion of the nasal cavity, with only five cases reported in the literature to date. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy who presented with nasal obstruction and a mass in the left nasal cavity. The mass was completely resected on endoscopy. On microscopy, hamartomatous proliferation of respiratory-type glands admixed with islands of immature hyaline cartilage, characteristic of chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma, was seen...
March 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
A Perić, B Vukomanović-Durđević, I Stanojević
OBJECTIVE: Chondroosseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamaroma (COREAH) is an extremely rare, developmental malformation. COREAH is characterized by a spectrum of chondro-osseous metaplasia that arise from the mesenchymal stroma, and it includes dilated submucosal glands lined with respiratory epithelium. This case report aimed to describe a COREAH that originated in the nasal cavity. CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old woman presented with unilateral nasal obstruction...
2015: B-ENT
Havva Serap Toru, Banu Guzel Nur, Cem Yasar Sanhal, Ercan Mihci, İnanç Mendilcioğlu, Elanur Yilmaz, Gulden Tasova Yilmaz, Irem Hicran Ozbudak, Kamil Karaali, Ozgul M Alper, Fatma Şeyda Karaveli
Skeletal dysplasias (SDs) constitute a group of heterogeneous disorders affecting growth morphology of the chondro-osseous tissues. Prenatal diagnosis of SD is a considerable clinical challenge due to phenotypic variability. We performed a retrospective analysis of the fetal autopsies series conducted between January 2006 and December 2012 at our center. SD was detected in 54 (10%) out of 542 fetal autopsy cases which included; 11.1% thanatophoric dysplasia (n = 6), 7.4% achondroplasia (n = 4), 3.7% osteogenesis imperfect (n = 2), 1...
2015: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Soo-Jin Cho, Andrew Horvai
Soft tissue lesions can contain bone or cartilage matrix as an incidental, often metaplastic, phenomenon or as a diagnostic feature. The latter category includes a diverse group ranging from self-limited proliferations to benign neoplasms to aggressive malignancies. Correlating imaging findings with pathology is mandatory to confirm that a tumor producing bone or cartilage, in fact, originates from soft tissue rather than from the skeleton. The distinction can have dramatic diagnostic and therapeutic implications...
September 2015: Surgical Pathology Clinics
E E B LaDouceur, A O Michel, B J Lindl Bylicki, F F Cifuentes, V K Affolter, B G Murphy
Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas (COREAHs) are rare tumors in the nasal cavity of people, which have not been described in other species. COREAHs in people are minimally invasive and rarely recur following excision. Histologically, these tumors are composed of disorganized, mature, nasal turbinate tissue that is organized into polypoid growths. These growths are lined by respiratory epithelium, contain glandular elements, and are organized around central cores of chondro-osseous matrix...
May 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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