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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335520/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-in-cartilage-pathophysiology-contributing-factors-to-apoptosis-and-osteoarthritis
#1
REVIEW
Alexandria Hughes, Alexandra E Oxford, Ken Tawara, Cheryl L Jorcyk, Julia Thom Oxford
Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333972/evaluation-of-high-resolution-in-vivo-mri-for-longitudinal-analysis-of-endochondral-fracture-healing-in-mice
#2
Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Fabian Müller-Graf, Romano Matthys, Yvonne Hägele, Verena Fischer, René Jonas, Alireza Abaei, Florian Gebhard, Volker Rasche, Anita Ignatius
Mice are extensively used for experimental bone-healing studies. However, there are few established nondestructive in vivo techniques for longitudinal fracture-healing analysis in mice, including in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) and radiography. Importantly, none of the established methods can discriminate between non-mineralized fibrous tissue and cartilage in the soft fracture callus. Therefore, the objective was to establish high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the longitudinal assessment of soft callus formation during bone healing in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332167/controlled-release-of-vanadium-from-a-composite-scaffold-stimulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-osteochondrogenesis
#3
S D Schussler, K Uske, P Marwah, F W Kemp, J D Bogden, S S Lin, Treena Livingston Arinzeh
Large bone defects often require the use of autograft, allograft, or synthetic bone graft augmentation; however, these treatments can result in delayed osseous integration. A tissue engineering strategy would be the use of a scaffold that could promote the normal fracture healing process of endochondral ossification, where an intermediate cartilage phase is later transformed to bone. This study investigated vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC), an insulin mimetic, combined with a fibrous composite scaffold, consisting of polycaprolactone with nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate, as a potential bone tissue engineering scaffold...
March 22, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323137/defects-in-chondrocyte-maturation-and-secondary-ossification-in-mouse-knee-joint-epiphyses-due-to-snorc-deficiency
#4
J Heinonen, F-P Zhang, C Surmann-Schmitt, S Honkala, M Stock, M Poutanen, A-M Säämänen
OBJECTIVE: The role of Snorc, a novel cartilage specific transmembrane proteoglycan, was studied during skeletal development using two Snorc knockout mouse models. Hypothesizing that Snorc, like the other transmembrane proteoglycans, may be a coreceptor, we also studied its interaction with growth factors. METHODS: Skeletal development was studied in wild type and Snorc knockout mice during postnatal development by whole mount staining, X-ray imaging, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR...
March 17, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319320/the-endochondral-bone-protein-chm1-sustains-an-undifferentiated-invasive-phenotype-promoting-lung-metastasis-in-ewing-sarcoma
#5
Kristina von Heyking, Julia Calzada-Wack, Stefanie Göllner, Frauke Neff, Oxana Schmidt, Tim Hensel, David Schirmer, Annette Fasan, Irene Esposito, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Poul H Sorensen, Stefan Burdach, Günther H S Richter
Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant, osteolytic bone or soft tissue tumors, which are characterized by EWS-ETS translocations and early metastasis to lung and bone. In this study, we investigated the role of the BRICHOS chaperone domain-containing endochondral bone protein chondromodulin I (CHM1) in ES pathogenesis. CHM1 is significantly over-expressed in ES, and chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data demonstrate CHM1 to be directly bound by an EWS-ETS translocation, EWS-FLI1. Using RNA interference we observed that CHM1 promoted chondrogenic differentiation capacity of ES cells but decreased the expression of osteolytic genes such as HIF1A, IL6, JAG1 and VEGF...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304100/cartilage-specific-autophagy-deficiency-promotes-er-stress-and-impairs-chondrogenesis-in-perk-atf4-chop-dependent-manner
#6
Xiaomin Kang, Wei Yang, Dongxu Feng, Xinxin Jin, Zhengmin Ma, Zhuang Qian, Tianping Xie, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Ruiqi Wang, Fang Li, Danhui Li, Hongzhi Sun, Shufang Wu
Autophagy is activated during nutritionally depleted or hypoxic conditions to facilitate cell survival. As growth plate is an avascular and hypoxic tissue, autophagy may have a crucial role during chondrogenesis, however the functional role and underlying mechanism of autophagy in regulation of growth plate remains elusive. In this study, we generated (TamCart) Atg7(-/-) (Atg7cKO) mice to explore the role of autophagy during endochondral ossification. Atg7cKO mice exhibited growth retardation associated with reduced chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and increased chondrocyte apoptosis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290981/case-report-of-clinical-vignette-osteopetrosis
#7
John B Moore, Thanh D Hoang, Alfred F Shwayhat
INTRODUCTION: Osteopetrosis is a connective tissue disorder resulting from abnormally dense bone predisposing patients to fracture. The clinical pattern of fractures across time and space as well as suggestive radiographic findings usually raises diagnostic suspicion. Multiple genetic mutations resulting in dysfunctional osteoclasts have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteopetrosis with variable inheritance patterns. In severe cases, usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, the medullary cavity important in the production of normal blood cell progenitors is replaced by defective endochondral bone, leading to pancytopenia and consequential extramedullary hematopoiesis...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285015/tnf%C3%AE-contributes-to-diabetes-impaired-angiogenesis-in-fracture-healing
#8
Jason C Lim, Kang I Ko, Marcelo Mattos, Miao Fang, Citong Zhang, Daniel Feinberg, Hisham Sindi, Shuai Li, Jazia Alblowi, Rayyan A Kayal, Thomas A Einhorn, Louis Gerstenfeld, Dana Graves
Diabetes increases the likelihood of fracture, interferes with fracture healing and impairs angiogenesis. The latter may be significant due to the critical nature of angiogenesis in fracture healing. Although it is known that diabetes interferes with angiogenesis the mechanisms remain poorly defined. We examined fracture healing in normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and quantified the degree of angiogenesis with antibodies to three different vascular markers, CD34, CD31 and Factor VIII. The role of diabetes-enhanced inflammation was investigated by treatment of the TNFα-specific inhibitor, pegsunercept starting 10days after induction of fractures...
March 8, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284715/hyaluronan-binding-protein-involved-in-hyaluronan-depolymerization-controls-endochondral-ossification-through-hyaluronan-metabolism
#9
Masayuki Shimoda, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Sakiko Mizuno, Toru Hirozane, Keisuke Horiuchi, Yuta Yoshino, Hideaki Hara, Yae Kanai, Shintaro Inoue, Muneaki Ishijima, Yasunori Okada
Hyaluronan (HA) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of tissues, and its degradation is implicated in many pathologic conditions. We recently reported that HA-binding protein involved in HA depolymerization (HYBID/KIAA1199; encoded by CEMIP) is a key molecule in HA depolymerization, but its developmental and pathologic functions remain elusive. We generated Hybid-deficient mice using the Cre/locus of crossover in P1 (loxP) system and analyzed their phenotypes. Hybid-deficient mice were viable and fertile, but their adult long bones were shorter than those of wild-type animals...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282242/influence-of-the-injury-to-surgery-interval-on-the-healing-potential-of-human-anterior-cruciate-ligament-derived-cells
#10
Takao Inokuchi, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Koji Takayama, Naoki Nakano, Shurong Zhang, Daisuke Araki, Takehiko Matsushita, Ryosuke Kuroda
BACKGROUND: Vascular CD34+ cells in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tissue have the potential for high proliferation and multilineage differentiation that can accelerate tendon-bone healing. While patient characteristics, such as age, can affect tendon-bone healing, the influence of elapsed time after injury on the healing process is unclear. HYPOTHESIS: Cells obtained during the early phase after injury will exhibit a greater tendon-bone healing potential compared with chronic phase counterparts when applied to an immunodeficient rat model of ACL reconstruction...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257738/atorvastatin-induced-osteoclast-inhibition-reduces-orthodontic-relapse
#11
Gabriel Schmidt Dolci, Luis Valmor Portela, Diogo Onofre de Souza, Anna Christina Medeiros Fossati
INTRODUCTION: The statin class of drugs enhances osteogenesis and suppresses bone resorption, which could be a plausible biologic mechanism for mitigation of orthodontic relapse. We aimed to determine whether atorvastatin (ATV) might affect orthodontic relapse and osteoclastogenesis by modulating expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG), crucial molecules involved in bone turnover. Furthermore, we analyzed the adverse effects of ATV on femur turnover and endochondral ossification...
March 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250250/establishment-of-heterotopic-ossification-via-sharp-instrument-injury-in-rats
#12
J-C Xu, G-H Wu, L-L Zhou, X-J Yang, J-T Liu
OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for heterotopic ossification (HO) induced by sharp instrument injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat and to investigate its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 48 male SD rats were divided into 3 groups (n=16). In sham group, incision and suture were performed only in the left leg. Partial tenotomy was performed in the left Achilles tendons in the PAT group. In Achilles' tenotomy (AT) group, tenotomy was performed in the left Achilles tendons to establish animal model of EO...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241124/skull-base-and-cervical-spine-involvement-in-jansen-syndrome-case-report
#13
Rabia Khan, Peter Oakes, Christian Fisahn, Brittni Burgess, Kristina M Kirkpatrick, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs, Jeffrey P Blount
INTRODUCTION: Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Jansen type (JMD), is a rare form of endochondral ossification resulting in short limbs and dwarfism. CASE REPORT: A child presented with JMD and was found to have involvement of the cervical spine. Conservative treatment was given to the patient who at the long-term follow-up continues to have no neurological findings or cervical spine instability. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of involvement of the superior cervical spine in a patient with JMD...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228529/recapitulation-of-physiological-spatiotemporal-signals-promotes-in-vitro-formation-of-phenotypically-stable-human-articular-cartilage
#14
Johnathan J Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Jonathan Bernhard, Samuel Robinson, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, X Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Standard isotropic culture fails to recapitulate the spatiotemporal gradients present during native development. Cartilage grown from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is poorly organized and unstable in vivo. We report that human cartilage with physiologic organization and in vivo stability can be grown in vitro from self-assembling hMSCs by implementing spatiotemporal regulation during induction. Self-assembling hMSCs formed cartilage discs in Transwell inserts following isotropic chondrogenic induction with transforming growth factor β to set up a dual-compartment culture...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220293/effects-of-bisphosphonates-on-osteogenesis-and-osteoclastogenesis-signaling-during-the-endochondral-ossification-of-growing-rats
#15
Eloiza Rezende, Vivian Bradaschia-Correa, Fabio Siviero, Lucas M B Ambrosio, Victor E Arana-Chavez
Osteoclasts and chondroclasts are necessary, during endochondral ossification, for the resorption of primary bone and calcified cartilage septa, respectively. The bisphosphonates inhibit mineralized tissue resorption by various mechanisms according to the different types of this drug, which can affect bone remodeling during skeletal growth. The objective of the present study is to analyze the way that alendronate (ALN) and etidronate (ETN) can affect osteoclastogenesis and bone formation during endochondral ossification of the long bones of growing rats...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219956/mineral-status-in-canine-medial-coronoid-process-disease-a-cohort-study-using-analysis-of-hair-by-mass-spectrometry
#16
M Davies, J West, C Williams, D S Gardner
In several species, developmental skeletal diseases involving abnormal endochondral ossification have been associated with imbalanced mineral intake. Hair analysis reflects long-term mineral status. To determine the mineral content of hair from dogs with or without medial coronoid process disease (MCPD). Dogs with MCPD have a different profile of minerals known to influence metalloenzymes involved in endochondral ossification. After cleansing, chelation and acid digestion of hair samples (n=79 in total: control dogs, n=70 v MCPD, n=9), mineral profile (7 major and 25 trace elements) was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
February 20, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218908/cell-matrix-signals-specify-bone-endothelial-cells-during-developmental-osteogenesis
#17
Urs H Langen, Mara E Pitulescu, Jung Mo Kim, Rocio Enriquez-Gasca, Kishor K Sivaraj, Anjali P Kusumbe, Amit Singh, Jacopo Di Russo, M Gabriele Bixel, Bin Zhou, Lydia Sorokin, Juan M Vaquerizas, Ralf H Adams
Blood vessels in the mammalian skeletal system control bone formation and support haematopoiesis by generating local niche environments. While a specialized capillary subtype, termed type H, has been recently shown to couple angiogenesis and osteogenesis in adolescent, adult and ageing mice, little is known about the formation of specific endothelial cell populations during early developmental endochondral bone formation. Here, we report that embryonic and early postnatal long bone contains a specialized endothelial cell subtype, termed type E, which strongly supports osteoblast lineage cells and later gives rise to other endothelial cell subpopulations...
February 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217849/how-long-bones-grow-children-mechanistic-paths-to-variation-in-human-height-growth
#18
REVIEW
Michelle Lampl, Meriah Schoen
OBJECTIVES: Eveleth and Tanner's descriptive documentation of worldwide variability in human growth provided evidence of the interaction between genetics and environment during development that has been foundational to the science of human growth. There remains a need, however, to describe the mechanistic foundations of variability in human height growth patterns. METHODS: A review of research documenting cellular activities at the endochondral growth plate aims to show how the unique microenvironment and cell functions during the sequential phases of the chondrocyte lifecycle affect long bone elongation, a fundamental source of height growth...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197989/growth-plate-extracellular-matrix-derived-scaffolds-for-large-bone-defect-healing
#19
G M Cunniffe, P J Díaz-Payno, J S Ramey, O R Mahon, A Dunne, E M Thompson, F J O'Brien, D J Kelly
Limitations associated with demineralised bone matrix and other grafting materials have motivated the development of alternative strategies to enhance the repair of large bone defects. The growth plate (GP) of developing limbs contain a plethora of growth factors and matrix cues which contribute to long bone growth, suggesting that biomaterials derived from its extracellular matrix (ECM) may be uniquely suited to promoting bone regeneration. The goal of this study was to generate porous scaffolds from decellularised GP ECM and to evaluate their ability to enhance host mediated bone regeneration following their implantation into critically-sized rat cranial defects...
February 14, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196691/healing-of-a-large-long-bone-defect-through-serum-free-in%C3%A2-vitro-priming-of%C3%A2-human-periosteum-derived-cells
#20
Johanna Bolander, Wei Ji, Jeroen Leijten, Liliana Moreira Teixeira, Veerle Bloemen, Dennis Lambrechts, Malay Chaklader, Frank P Luyten
Clinical translation of cell-based strategies for regenerative medicine demands predictable in vivo performance where the use of sera during in vitro preparation inherently limits the efficacy and reproducibility. Here, we present a bioinspired approach by serum-free pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells, followed by their assembly into microaggregates simultaneously primed with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Pre-conditioning resulted in a more potent progenitor cell population, while aggregation induced osteochondrogenic differentiation, further enhanced by BMP-2 stimulation...
March 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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