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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197989/growth-plate-extracellular-matrix-derived-scaffolds-for-large-bone-defect-healing
#1
G M Cunniffe, P J Díaz-Payno, J S Ramey, O R Mahon, A Dunne, E M Thompson, F J O'Brien, D J Kelly
Limitations associated with demineralised bone matrix and other grafting materials have motivated the development of alternative strategies to enhance the repair of large bone defects. The growth plate (GP) of developing limbs contain a plethora of growth factors and matrix cues which contribute to long bone growth, suggesting that biomaterials derived from its extracellular matrix (ECM) may be uniquely suited to promoting bone regeneration. The goal of this study was to generate porous scaffolds from decellularised GP ECM and to evaluate their ability to enhance host mediated bone regeneration following their implantation into critically-sized rat cranial defects...
February 14, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196691/healing-of-a-large-long-bone-defect-through-serum-free-in%C3%A2-vitro-priming-of%C3%A2-human-periosteum-derived-cells
#2
Johanna Bolander, Wei Ji, Jeroen Leijten, Liliana Moreira Teixeira, Veerle Bloemen, Dennis Lambrechts, Malay Chaklader, Frank P Luyten
Clinical translation of cell-based strategies for regenerative medicine demands predictable in vivo performance where the use of sera during in vitro preparation inherently limits the efficacy and reproducibility. Here, we present a bioinspired approach by serum-free pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells, followed by their assembly into microaggregates simultaneously primed with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Pre-conditioning resulted in a more potent progenitor cell population, while aggregation induced osteochondrogenic differentiation, further enhanced by BMP-2 stimulation...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191761/angiogenic-potential-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-chondrocyte-brick-enriched-constructs-promoted-stable-regeneration-of-craniofacial-cartilage
#3
Zhiye Li, Ruikai Ba, Zhifa Wang, Jianhua Wei, Yimin Zhao, Wei Wu
Craniofacial deformities caused by congenital defects or trauma remain challenges for clinicians, whereas current surgical interventions present limited therapeutic outcomes. Injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into the defect is highly desirable because such a procedure is microinvasive and grafts are more flexible to fill the lesions. However, preventing hypertrophic transition and morphological contraction remain significant challenges. We have developed an "all host derived" cell transplantation system composed of chondrocyte brick (CB)-enriched platelet-rich plasma (P) gel and BMSCs (B)...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191465/pedf-is-associated-with-the-termination-of-chondrocyte-phenotype-and-catabolism-of-cartilage-tissue
#4
P Klinger, S Lukassen, F Ferrazzi, A B Ekici, T Hotfiel, B Swoboda, T Aigner, K Gelse
Objective. To investigate the expression and target genes of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in cartilage and chondrocytes, respectively. Methods. We analyzed the expression pattern of PEDF in different human cartilaginous tissues including articular cartilage, osteophytic cartilage, and fetal epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage, by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Transcriptome analysis after stimulation of human articular chondrocytes with rhPEDF was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and confirmed by qRT-PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186356/bone-robusticity-in-two-distinct-skeletal-dysplasias-diverges-from-established-patterns
#5
Kate Citron, Cosmo Veneziale, Josephine Marino, Erin M Carter, Karl J Jepsen, Cathleen Raggio
Achondroplasia is a heritable disorder of endochondral bone formation characterized by disproportionate short stature. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable bone and connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility. To investigate bone morphology of these groups, we retrospectively reviewed 169 de-identified bone age films from 20 individuals with achondroplasia, 39 individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta and 37 age- and sex-matched controls (matched to historical measurements from the Bolton-Brush Collection)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178186/exogenous-pthrp-repairs-the-damaged-fracture-healing-of-pthrp-mice-and-accelerates-fracture-healing-of-wild-mice
#6
Yinhe Wang, Xin Fang, Chun Wang, Congzhu Ding, Hua Lin, Anlong Liu, Lei Wang, Yang Cao
Bone fracture healing is a complicated physiological regenerative process initiated in response to injury and is similar to bone development. To demonstrate whether an exogenous supply of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) helps in bone fracture healing, closed mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were created and stabilized with intramedullary pins in eight-week-old wild-type (WT) PTHrP+/+ and PTHrP+/- mice. After administering PTHrP for two weeks, callus tissue properties were analyzed at one, two, and four weeks post-fracture (PF) by various methods...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166636/cartilaginous-metabolomic-study-reveals-potential-mechanisms-of-osteophyte-formation-in-osteoarthritis
#7
Zhongwei Xu, Tingmei Chen, Jiao Luo, Shijia Ding, Sichuan Gao, Jian Zhang
Osteophyte is one of the inevitable consequences of progressive osteoarthritis with the main characteristics of cartilage degeneration and endochondral ossification. The pathogenesis of osteophyte formation is not fully understood to date. In this work, metabolomic approaches were employed to explore potential mechanisms of osteophyte formation by detecting metabolic variations between extracts of osteophyte cartilage tissues (n=32) and uninvolved control cartilage tissues (n=34), based on the platform of ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS), as well as the use of multivariate statistic analysis and univariate statistic analysis...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166224/mesoderm-specific-stat3-deletion-affects-expression-of-sox9-yielding-sox9-dependent-phenotypes
#8
Michael D Hall, Caroline A Murray, Michael J Valdez, Alan O Perantoni
To date, mutations within the coding region and translocations around the SOX9 gene both constitute the majority of genetic lesions underpinning human campomelic dysplasia (CD). While pathological coding-region mutations typically result in a non-functional SOX9 protein, little is known about what mechanism(s) controls normal SOX9 expression, and subsequently, which signaling pathways may be interrupted by alterations occurring around the SOX9 gene. Here, we report the identification of Stat3 as a key modulator of Sox9 expression in nascent cartilage and developing chondrocytes...
February 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164198/sialoglycoprotein-isolated-from-the-eggs-of-gadus-morhua-enhances-fracture-healing-in-osteoporotic-mice
#9
Qiping Zhan, Xiong Gui, Fei Wang, Peng Yu, Meihui Zhao, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
Osteoporosis is a common disease in the elderly, which is related to fracture healing delay. In this study, the effects of treatment with sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of Gadus morhua (Gm-SGP) on tibial fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic female C57BL/6J mice for 56 days post-fracture were investigated. The result showed that Gm-SGP treatment significantly increased serum angiogenic factors and bone formation markers on day 5 and 11 post-fracture when compared with the OVX group...
February 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148490/characterisation-of-osteophytes-as-an-autologous-bone-graft-source-an-experimental-study-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
K Ishihara, K Okazaki, T Akiyama, Y Akasaki, Y Nakashima
OBJECTIVES: Osteophytes are products of active endochondral and intramembranous ossification, and therefore could theoretically provide significant efficacy as bone grafts. In this study, we compared the bone mineralisation effectiveness of osteophytes and cancellous bone, including their effects on secretion of growth factors and anabolic effects on osteoblasts. METHODS: Osteophytes and cancellous bone obtained from human patients were transplanted onto the calvaria of severe combined immunodeficient mice, with Calcein administered intra-peritoneally for fluorescent labelling of bone mineralisation...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145573/static-osteogenesis-does-not-precede-dynamic-osteogenesis-in-periosteal-ossification-of-pleurodeles-caudata-amphibia-and-pogona-squamata-lepidosauria
#11
Jorge Cubo, Mylaine Hui, François Clarac, Alexandra Quilhac
Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143847/correction-chondrocytic-ephrin-b2-promotes-cartilage-destruction-by-osteoclasts-in-endochondral-ossification
#12
Stephen Tonna, Ingrid J Poulton, Farzin Taykar, Patricia W M Ho, Brett Tonkin, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Liliana Tatarczuch, Narelle E McGregor, Eleanor J Mackie, T John Martin, Natalie A Sims
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140522/hybrid-extracellular-matrix-design-for-cartilage-mediated-bone-regeneration
#13
Paiyz E Mikael, Hyun S Kim, Syam P Nukavarapu
Recapitulating long bone repair through endochondral ossification (EO) is increasingly becoming a more popular approach. A successful EO Process depends greatly on the establishment of a healthy hypertrophic-cartilage template (HCT). The aim of this work is to design a hydrogel system, which closely mimics the extracellular matrix of HCT. We examined the combinatorial effect of two commonly used hydrogels for bone and cartilage regeneration strategies, hyaluronan (HA) and fibrin (FB), to induce HCT formation...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118357/endochondral-ossification-is-accelerated-in-cholinesterase-deficient-mice-and-in-avian-mesenchymal-micromass-cultures
#14
Janine Spieker, Thomas Mudersbach, Astrid Vogel-Höpker, Paul G Layer
Most components of the cholinergic system are detected in skeletogenic cell types in vitro, yet the function of this system in skeletogenesis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed endochondral ossification in mutant murine fetuses, in which genes of the rate-limiting cholinergic enzymes acetyl- (AChE), or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or both were deleted (called here A-B+, A+B-, A-B-, respectively). In all mutant embryos bone growth and cartilage remodeling into mineralizing bone were accelerated, as revealed by Alcian blue (A-blu) and Alizarin red (A-red) staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#15
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
January 23, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110067/poly-glycerol-sebacate-elastomer-supports-bone-regeneration-by-its-mechanical-properties-being-closer-to-osteoid-tissue-rather-than-to-mature-bone
#16
S H Zaky, K W Lee, J Gao, A Jensen, K Verdelis, Y Wang, A J Almarza, C Sfeir
: Mechanical load influences bone structure and mass. Arguing the importance of load-transduction, we investigated the mechanisms inducing bone formation using an elastomeric substrate. We characterized Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) in-vitro for its mechanical properties, compatibility with osteoprogenitor cells regarding adhesion, proliferation, differentiation under compression versus static cultures and in-vivo for the regeneration of a rabbit ulna critical size defect. The load-transducing properties of PGS were compared in-vitro to a stiffer poly lactic-co- glycolic-acid (PLA/PGA) scaffold of similar porosity and interconnectivity...
January 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100862/-bone-flap-resorption-after-cranioplasty-in-pediatric-patients-report-of-2-cases
#17
Rintaro Yokoyama, Takeshi Mikami, Shouhei Noshiro, Kei Miyata, Kentaro Toyama, Katsuya Komatsu, Noriaki Kikuchi, Tadashi Hasegawa, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Aseptic bone flap resorption, a rare complication after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy, is more likely to develop in children. We experienced two cases of aseptic bone flap resorption and identified potential pathophysiological mechanisms through histological findings. In the first case, an 11-year-old girl underwent decompressive craniectomy due to brain swelling with contusion. An autologous bone flap was cryopreserved for four months. Twenty-five months after cranioplasty with autologous bone flap, aseptic bone flap resorption was observed, and cranioplasty was performed with ceramic bone...
January 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097087/identification-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-signalling-pathway-by-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-rat-condylar-cartilage
#18
Liting Jiang, Yinyin Xie, Li Wei, Qi Zhou, Xing Shen, Xinquan Jiang, Yiming Gao
Angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play an important role in regulating cartilage remodelling and endochondral ossification. However, the details of how VEGF signalling mechanisms affect condyle remodelling in response to alterations in functional loading remains unclear. To explore this, eighty 16-day-old male SD rats were divided into two equal groups which were fed either a soft/powdery diet or a hard diet for 4 weeks; the stiffness of the diet results in alteration of mastication force and hence temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096214/cartilage-to-bone-transformation-during-fracture-healing-is-coordinated-by-the-invading-vasculature-and-induction-of-the-core-pluripotency-genes
#19
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073913/raf-kinases-are-essential-for-phosphate-induction-of-erk1-2-phosphorylation-in-hypertrophic-chondrocytes-and-normal-endochondral-bone-development
#20
Garyfallia Papaioannou, Elizabeth T Petit, Eva S Liu, Manuela Baccarini, Catrin Pritchard, Marie B Demay
Hypophosphatemia causes rickets by impairing hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis. Phosphate induction of Mek1/2;Erk1/2 phosphorylation in hypertrophic chondrocytes is required for phosphate-mediated apoptosis and growth plate maturation. Mek1/2 can be activated by numerous molecules including Raf isoforms. A- and B-Raf ablation in chondrocytes does not alter skeletal development while ablation of C-Raf decreases hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis and impairs vascularization of the growth plate. However, ablation of C-Raf does not impair phosphate-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation in vitro, but leads to rickets by decreasing VEGF protein stability...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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