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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100862/-bone-flap-resorption-after-cranioplasty-in-pediatric-patients-report-of-2-cases
#1
Rintaro Yokoyama, Takeshi Mikami, Shouhei Noshiro, Kei Miyata, Kentaro Toyama, Katsuya Komatsu, Noriaki Kikuchi, Tadashi Hasegawa, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Aseptic bone flap resorption, a rare complication after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy, is more likely to develop in children. We experienced two cases of aseptic bone flap resorption and identified potential pathophysiological mechanisms through histological findings. In the first case, an 11-year-old girl underwent decompressive craniectomy due to brain swelling with contusion. An autologous bone flap was cryopreserved for four months. Twenty-five months after cranioplasty with autologous bone flap, aseptic bone flap resorption was observed, and cranioplasty was performed with ceramic bone...
January 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097087/identification-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-signalling-pathway-by-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-rat-condylar-cartilage
#2
Liting Jiang, Yinyin Xie, Li Wei, Qi Zhou, Xing Shen, Xinquan Jiang, Yiming Gao
Angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play an important role in regulating cartilage remodelling and endochondral ossification. However, the details of how VEGF signalling mechanisms affect condyle remodelling in response to alterations in functional loading remains unclear. To explore this, eighty 16-day-old male SD rats were divided into two equal groups which were fed either a soft/powdery diet or a hard diet for 4 weeks; the stiffness of the diet results in alteration of mastication force and hence temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096214/cartilage-to-bone-transformation-during-fracture-healing-is-coordinated-by-the-invading-vasculature-and-induction-of-the-core-pluripotency-genes
#3
Diane P Hu, Federico Ferro, Frank Yang, Aaron J Taylor, Wenhan Chang, Theodore Miclau, Ralph S Marcucio, Chelsea S Bahney
Fractures heal predominantly through the process of endochondral ossification. The classic model of endochondral ossification holds that chondrocytes mature to hypertrophy, undergo apoptosis and new bone forms by invading osteoprogenitors. However, recent data demonstrate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate to osteoblasts in the growth plate and during regeneration, yet the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain unknown. Here, we show a spatially-dependent phenotypic overlap between hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous border in the fracture callus, in a region we define as the transition zone (TZ)...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073913/raf-kinases-are-essential-for-phosphate-induction-of-erk1-2-phosphorylation-in-hypertrophic-chondrocytes-and-normal-endochondral-bone-development
#4
Garyfallia Papaioannou, Elizabeth T Petit, Eva S Liu, Manuela Baccarini, Catrin Pritchard, Marie B Demay
Hypophosphatemia causes rickets by impairing hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis. Phosphate induction of Mek1/2;Erk1/2 phosphorylation in hypertrophic chondrocytes is required for phosphate-mediated apoptosis and growth plate maturation. Mek1/2 can be activated by numerous molecules including Raf isoforms. A- and B-Raf ablation in chondrocytes does not alter skeletal development while ablation of C-Raf decreases hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis and impairs vascularization of the growth plate. However, ablation of C-Raf does not impair phosphate-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation in vitro, but leads to rickets by decreasing VEGF protein stability...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069589/analysis-of-the-fgfr2c342y-mouse-model-shows-condensation-defects-due-to-misregulation-of-sox9-expression-in-prechondrocytic-mesenchyme
#5
Emma Peskett, Samin Kumar, William Baird, Janhvi Jaiswal, Ming Li, Priyanca Patel, Jonathan A Britto, Erwin Pauws
Syndromic craniosynostosis caused by mutations in FGFR2 is characterised by developmental pathology in both endochondral and membranous skeletogenesis. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of features in the membranous calvarium, the endochondral cranial base and other structures in the axial and appendicular skeleton has not been performed at embryonic stages. We investigated bone development in the Crouzon mouse model (Fgfr2(C342Y)) at pre- and post-ossification stages to improve understanding of the underlying pathogenesis...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062900/melorheostosis-with-recurrent-soft-tissue-components-a-histologically-confirmed-case
#6
Shoichi Hasegawa, Shotaro Kanda, Hiroki Imada, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Toru Akiyama
Melorheostosis is a very rare disorder characterized by irregular cortical thickening seen on radiographs. In this paper, we present a case of melorheostosis with microscopically confirmed soft-tissue components. The patient was a 51-year-old man who complained of severe pain in the lateral aspect of his right knee. The excision of an ossified soft-tissue lesion relieved intractable pain that had lasted 20 years. Microscopically, the cortex of the affected fibula was composed of thick compact bone and the soft-tissue component consisted of dense compact bone without endochondral ossification...
January 6, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060328/culture-of-murine-embryonic-metatarsals-a-physiological-model-of-endochondral-ossification
#7
Dean A Houston, Katherine A Staines, Vicky E MacRae, Colin Farquharson
The fundamental process of endochondral ossification is under tight regulation in the healthy individual so as to prevent disturbed development and/or longitudinal bone growth. As such, it is imperative that we further our understanding of the underpinning molecular mechanisms involved in such disorders so as to provide advances towards human and animal patient benefit. The mouse metatarsal organ explant culture is a highly physiological ex vivo model for studying endochondral ossification and bone growth as the growth rate of the bones in culture mimic that observed in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032157/a-rare-case-of-endochondral-pseudocyst-of-the-auricle
#8
Yahya Baltu, Utku Can Dölen, Orhan Aydin
: Endochondral pseudocyst of the auricle is a very rare, benign, non-inflammatory cystic lesion. It most commonly develops in the scaphoid or triangular fossa of the ear. In this case report, we present a 46-year-old man with a painless lesion on the scaphoid fossa of the right ear. We removed the hypertrophic perichondrium forming the anterior wall of the pseudocyst, curetted the ear cartilage, and dressed it with compression. No complications, such as infection, seroma, or hematoma, occurred during the postoperative period...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012106/osteogenic-potential-of-the-transcription-factor-c-myb
#9
V Oralova, E Matalova, M Killinger, L Knopfova, J Smarda, M Buchtova
The transcription factor c-MYB is a well-known marker of undifferentiated cells such as haematopoietic cell precursors, but recently it has also been observed in differentiated cells that produce hard tissues. Our previous findings showed the presence of c-MYB in intramembranous bones and its involvement in the chondrogenic steps of endochondral ossification, where the up-regulation of early chondrogenic markers after c-myb overexpression was observed. Since we previously detected c-MYB in osteoblasts, we aimed to analyse the localisation of c-MYB during later stages of endochondral bone formation and address its function during bone matrix production...
December 24, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995118/use-of-mandibular-chin-bone-for-alveolar-bone-grafting-in-cleft-patients
#10
Young-Wook Park, Jang-Ha Lee
BACKGROUND: We evaluated and compared the outcomes of different ossification processes in patients with alveolar cleft in whom correction was performed using endochondral bone graft or intramembranous bone graft. METHODS: The patients were divided into two groups: the endochondral bone (iliac bone or rib bone) graft group and the intramembranous bone (mandibular bone) graft group. Medical records and radiologic images of patients who underwent alveolar bone grafting due to alveolar cleft were analyzed retrospectively...
December 2016: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987249/achondroplasia-development-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
David M Ornitz, Laurence Legeai-Mallet
Autosomal dominant mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) cause Achondroplasia (Ach), the most common form of dwarfism in humans, and related chondrodysplasia syndromes that include Hypochondroplasia (Hch), Severe Achondroplasia with Developmental Delay and Acanthosis Nigricans (SADDAN), and Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). FGFR3 is expressed in chondrocytes and mature osteoblasts where it functions to regulate bone growth. Analysis of the mutations in FGFR3 revealed increased signaling through a combination of mechanisms that include stabilization of the receptor, enhanced dimerization, and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity...
December 17, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979613/mucopolysaccharidosis-iva-and-glycosaminoglycans
#12
REVIEW
Shaukat Khan, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz, Kazuki Sawamoto, William G Mackenzie, Mary C Theroux, Christian Pizarro, Robert W Mason, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A: OMIM 253000) is a lysosomal storage disease with an autosomal recessive trait caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). C6S and KS are mainly produced in the cartilage. Therefore, the undegraded substrates are stored primarily in cartilage and in its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on cartilage and bone development, and successive systemic skeletal dysplasia...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966008/-mechanobiology-of-fracture-healing%C3%A2-part-1-principles
#13
L Claes
It is undisputed that the stability of fracture fixation influences the fracture healing process; however, up until now the mechanical conditions which guide bone healing were unknown and it was therefore not possible to optimize the design of fracture fixation devices. This article presents how the stability of fracture fixation, interfragmentary movement and interfragmentary tissue strain depend on each other and how the mechanical environment influences the cellular processes in the healing tissue. A tissue transformation hypothesis is presented which was developed taking into consideration the results of animal experimental studies, cellular biomechanical investigations and numerical methods...
January 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965138/the-str-ort-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-osteoarthritis-an-update
#14
REVIEW
K A Staines, B Poulet, D N Wentworth, A A Pitsillides
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease and a world-wide healthcare burden. Characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, osteoarthritis inflicts much pain and suffering, for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. Mouse models of osteoarthritis are proving critical in advancing our understanding of the underpinning molecular mechanisms. The STR/ort mouse is a well-recognized model which develops a natural form of osteoarthritis very similar to the human disease...
December 11, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959934/mice-with-an-n-ethyl-n-nitrosourea-enu-induced-tyr209asn-mutation-in-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-3-npr3-provide-a-model-for-kyphosis-associated-with-activation-of-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#15
Christopher T Esapa, Sian E Piret, M Andrew Nesbit, Nellie Y Loh, Gethin Thomas, Peter I Croucher, Matthew A Brown, Steve D M Brown, Roger D Cox, Rajesh V Thakker
Non-syndromic kyphosis is a common disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and has a strong genetic involvement; however, the causative genes remain to be identified, as such studies are hampered by genetic heterogeneity, small families and various modes of inheritance. To overcome these limitations, we investigated 12 week old progeny of mice treated with the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) using phenotypic assessments including dysmorphology, radiography, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932058/tnap-stimulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-trans-differentiation-into-chondrocytes-through-calcium-deposition-and-bmp-2-activation-possible-implication-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability
#16
Maya Fakhry, Monika Roszkowska, Anne Briolay, Carole Bougault, Alain Guignandon, Juan Ignacio Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel Diaz-Hernandez, Slawomir Pikula, René Buchet, Eva Hamade, Bassam Badran, Laurence Bessueille, David Magne
Atherosclerotic plaque calcification varies from early, diffuse microcalcifications to a bone-like tissue formed by endochondral ossification. Recently, a paradigm has emerged suggesting that if the bone metaplasia stabilizes the plaques, microcalcifications are harmful. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an ectoenzyme necessary for mineralization by its ability to hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), is stimulated by inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Our objective was to determine the role of TNAP in trans-differentiation of VSMCs and calcification...
December 6, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931263/extracellular-matrix-components-and-culture-regimen-selectively-regulate-cartilage-formation-by-self-assembling-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Johnathan Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
BACKGROUND: Cartilage formation from self-assembling mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro recapitulate important cellular events during mesenchymal condensation that precedes native cartilage development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) components and culture regimen on cartilage formation by self-assembling human MSCs in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded and compacted in 6...
December 9, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929439/cell-death-in-chondrocytes-osteoblasts-and-osteocytes
#18
REVIEW
Toshihisa Komori
Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. Although the inactivation of P53 and RB is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas, the deletion of p53 and inactivation of Rb are insufficient to enhance chondrocyte proliferation, indicating the presence of multiple inhibitory mechanisms against sarcomagenesis in chondrocytes...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925286/bone-resorption-is-regulated-by-circadian-clock-in-osteoblasts
#19
Takeshi Takarada, Cheng Xu, Hiroki Ochi, Ryota Nakazato, Daisuke Yamada, Saki Nakamura, Ayumi Kodama, Shigeki Shimba, Michihiro Mieda, Kazuya Fukasawa, Kakeru Ozaki, Takashi Iezaki, Koichi Fujikawa, Yukio Yoneda, Rika Numano, Akiko Hida, Hajime Tei, Shu Takeda, Eiichi Hinoi
We have previously shown that endochondral ossification is finely regulated by the Clock system expressed in chondrocytes during postnatal skeletogenesis. Here we show a sophisticated modulation of bone resorption and bone mass by the Clock system through its expression in bone-forming osteoblasts. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and Period1 (Per1) were expressed with oscillatory rhythmicity in the bone in vivo, and circadian rhythm was also observed in cultured osteoblasts of Per1::luciferase transgenic mice...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912680/biomimetic-approaches-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#20
Johnathan Ng, Kara Spiller, Jonathan Bernhard, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Although autologous bone grafts are considered a gold standard for the treatment of bone defects, they are limited by donor site morbidities and geometric requirements. Tissue engineering can overcome such limitations by creating fully viable biological bone grafts. We review here the use of native bone matrix, autologous mesenchymal cells and perfusion bioreactor systems as a tissue-engineering paradigm to grow bone in vitro. We also discuss emergent vascularization strategies to promote graft survival in vivo, and the role of inflammation in bone repair...
December 2, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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