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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745432/an-ectosteric-inhibitor-of-cathepsin-k-inhibits-bone-resorption-in-ovariectomized-mice
#1
Preety Panwar, Liming Xue, Kent Søe, Kamini Srivastava, Simon Law, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Dieter Brömme
The potent cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor, Tanshinone IIA Sulfonic Sodium (T06), was tested for its in vitro and in vivo antiresorptive activities. T06 binds in an ectosteric site of CatK remote from its active site and selectively inhibits collagen degradation with an IC50 value of 2.7±0.2 μM (CatK:T06 molar ratio of 1:5). However, it does not suppress fluorogenic peptide cleavage and gelatinolysis at a 2,500-fold molar excess. Contrary to active site-directed CatK inhibitors, such as odanacatib, T06 suppresses bone resorption in both human and mouse osteoclasts equally well (IC50 value for human and mouse osteoclasts: 237±60 nM and 245±55 nM, respectively) and its antiresorptive activity is fully reversible in both cell types...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744669/adsorption-of-ammonium-from-simulated-wastewater-by-montmorillonite-nanoclay-and-natural-vermiculite-experimental-study-and-simulation
#2
Farhad Mazloomi, Mohsen Jalali
In this research, montmorillonite nanoclay (MNC) and vermiculite were used to adsorb ammonium (NH4(+)) from simulated wastewater. The effect of organic acids, cations, and anions on adsorption of NH4(+) was also studied using batch experiments. The presence of organic acids significantly decreased the NH4(+) adsorption using both adsorbents and the reduction followed the order of citric acid > malic acid > oxalic acid. The presence of cations in wastewater could decrease the adsorption of NH4(+) and the ion exchange selectivity on the MNC and vermiculite followed the orders Mg > Ca ≥ K > Na and Mg > > Ca > Na > K, respectively...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737291/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-reducing-strategies-in-hiv-treatment-assessing-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
C Orkin, J M Llibre, S Gallien, A Antinori, Gmn Behrens, A Carr
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, comprising a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus another ARV, is the recognized standard of care (SOC), which has helped extend life expectancy in people living with HIV. In a quest to reduce lifelong drug exposure and minimize or avoid the toxicity of NRTIs, "NRTI-reducing" regimens have been investigated. This descriptive review assessing the results of NRTI-reducing strategies from the largest randomized trials focuses on virological efficacy, resistance, regimen safety (in terms of bone mineral density, renal function, lipids and central nervous system function) and simplicity...
July 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733136/unexpected-bone-formation-produced-by-rankl-blockade
#4
REVIEW
Sergio Portal-Núñez, Aranzazu Mediero, Pedro Esbrit, Olga Sánchez-Pernaute, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Denosumab (Dmab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand), thereby exerting a potent bone antiresorptive action. Dmab treatment leads to a dramatic and sustained increase in bone mass through mechanisms that are currently under debate. It is also a matter of controversy whether this potent action of Dmab could lead to intrabone dystrophic mineralization. Recent research has uncovered a possible anabolic role of Dmab involving RANKL-dependent reverse signaling in osteoblasts, and that bone marrow adipocytes can modulate osteoclastogenesis through the production of RANKL...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733032/pilose-antler-polypeptides-potentiates-osteoblast-differentiation-and-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-via-manipulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
Guangwang Liu, Chao Ma, Peian Wang, Peiying Zhang, Xinhua Qu, Shen Liu, Zanjing Zhai, Degang Yu, Juan Gao, Jun Liang, Weixiang Dai, Lindong Zhou, Mengjiao Xia, Huilin Yang
Bones are inflexible yet ever-changing metabolic organs, and bone homeostasis is maintained through two delicately regulated processes: bone construction and bone reabsorption. An imbalance in bone metabolism is linked to most orthopedic diseases, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocks osteoblast differentiation and stimulates osteoclast formation, resulting in delayed deposition of new bone and accelerated bone resorption, especially in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inflammatory conditions...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731168/osteoclast-regulation-of-osteoblasts-via-rank%C3%A2-rankl-reverse-signal-transduction-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Shiqian Zhang, Xiaoyu Wang, Guojun Li, Yang Chong, Jie Zhang, Xinzhen Guo, Baoxin Li, Zhenggang Bi
The treatment of osteoporosis typically inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, which subsequently results in the suppression of bone formation and maintenance, however the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κ‑B ligand (RANKL)‑receptor activator of nuclear factor κ‑B (RANK) signaling axis is important in the osteoblast regulation of osteoclasts. RANKL surface‑bound molecules expressed on T cells stimulate a reverse signaling transduction in order to regulate the T cells, therefore the present study hypothesized that RANKL expressed on osteoblasts may transfer reverse signals to regulate osteoblasts...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706508/assessment-of-the-potential-role-of-streptomyces-in-cave-moonmilk-formation
#7
Marta Maciejewska, Delphine Adam, Aymeric Naômé, Loïc Martinet, Elodie Tenconi, Magdalena Całusińska, Philippe Delfosse, Marc Hanikenne, Denis Baurain, Philippe Compère, Monique Carnol, Hazel A Barton, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk is a karstic speleothem mainly composed of fine calcium carbonate crystals (CaCO3) with different textures ranging from pasty to hard, in which the contribution of biotic rock-building processes is presumed to involve indigenous microorganisms. The real microbial input in the genesis of moonmilk is difficult to assess leading to controversial hypotheses explaining the origins and the mechanisms (biotic vs. abiotic) involved. In this work, we undertook a comprehensive approach in order to assess the potential role of filamentous bacteria, particularly a collection of moonmilk-originating Streptomyces, in the genesis of this speleothem...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692829/effects-of-melatonin-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-cells
#8
Qin Liu, Wenguo Fan, Yifan He, Fuping Zhang, Xiaoyan Guan, Qianyi Deng, Xianjun Lu, Hongwen He, Fang Huang
OBJECTIVE: Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of the hDPCs. DESIGN: Primary hDPCs were obtained from the third molar of volunteer aged from 18 to 25. CCK8 assay evaluated the effect of melatonin upon cell proliferation at day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. After 7days' osteogenic induction with melatonin or vehicle, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured with a commercial kit...
June 30, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674361/non-smoking-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-attributed-to-occupational-exposure-to-silica-dust
#9
Kazuo Tsuchiya, Mikio Toyoshima, Yosuke Kamiya, Yutaro Nakamura, Satoshi Baba, Takafumi Suda
An 85-year-old, never-smoking man presented with exertional dyspnea. He had been exposed to silica dust in the work place. Chest computed tomography revealed bronchial wall thickening without emphysema. A pulmonary function test showed airflow obstruction without impaired gas transfer. Airway hyperresponsiveness and reversibility were not evident. A transbronchial lung biopsy showed findings suggestive of mineral dust exposure, such as fibrosis and slight pigmentation of bronchioles. He was diagnosed with non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to occupational exposure to silica dust...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672891/osteogenic-potency-of-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-isolated-from-elderly-people-with-osteoporosis
#10
Wei Hao, Chuanqiang Jiang, Ming Jiang, Tian Wang, Xin Wang
Mature adipocytes are the major cell type in adipose tissue. This study aimed to explore the osteogenic potency of dedifferentiated fat cells obtained from osteoporotic patients (opDFATs) in vitro and in vivo. Mature adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells (opASCs) were harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Mature adipocytes were dedifferentiated to produce opDFATs by the ceiling culture method. OpDFATs were osteogenically induced in vitro with opASCs as a control. Cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity and cell mineralization were determined, and expression levels of osteogenesis-specific genes (collagen I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein) were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672722/electro-fenton-oxidation-of-reverse-osmosis-concentrate-from-sanitary-landfill-leachate-evaluation-of-operational-parameters
#11
Annabel Fernandes, Lazhar Labiadh, Lurdes Ciríaco, Maria José Pacheco, Abdellatif Gadri, Salah Ammar, Ana Lopes
The electro-Fenton oxidation of a concentrate from reverse osmosis of a sanitary landfill leachate, with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 42 g L(-1), was carried out using a carbon-felt cathode and a boron doped diamond anode. The influence of the applied current intensity, initial pH and dissolved iron initial concentration on the electro-Fenton process was assessed. For the experimental conditions used, results showed that the initial pH is the parameter that more strongly influences the current efficiency of the electro-Fenton process, being this influence more pronounced on the oxidation rate than on the mineralization rate of the organic matter...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656306/99tc-mdp-induced-human-osteoblast-proliferation-differentiation-and-expression-of-osteoprotegerin
#12
Jie Chen, Youyu Lan, Yue He, Chengsong He, Fen Xu, Yugao Zhang, Yi Zhao, Yi Liu
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of technetium methylenediphosphonate (99Tc-MDP) on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts. Human iliac cancellous bone was isolated and cultured with either 99Tc‑MDP, β fibroblast growth factor (as a positive control) or medium only (as a negative control). Proliferation was assessed by direct cell counting, CCK‑8 assay and bromodeoxyuridine staining. The cell cycle and rate of apoptosis was assessed by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644106/viability-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-progenitor-cells-are-maintained-after-incubation-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-protein-extract
#13
Mayra Laino Albiero, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Miki Taketomi Saito, Márcio Zaffalon Casati, Enilson Antonio Sallum, Francisco Humberto Nociti, Karina Gonzales Silvério
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a major periodontal pathogen that contains immunostimulatory components. Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) are responsible for regeneration of the periodontium that is lost due to periodontitis. Pathologic factors within the microenvironment that impair resident PDLSCs are not well understood. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of Pg protein extract (PgPE) on the biological properties of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105(+) cells)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643220/denosumab-an-emerging-therapy-in-pediatric-bone-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Alison M Boyce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Denosumab is an inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and has emerged as an important novel therapy for skeletal disorders. This article examines the use of denosumab in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Considerable safety and efficacy data exists for denosumab treatment of adults with osteoporosis, bone metastases, and giant cell tumors. Pediatric data is limited; however, evidence suggests denosumab may be beneficial in decreasing bone turnover, increasing bone density, and preventing growth of certain skeletal neoplasms in children...
June 22, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639995/recovery-of-bone-mineral-density-following-discontinuation-of-tenofovir-based-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#15
David V Glidden, Kathleen Mulligan, Vanessa McMahan, Peter L Anderson, Juan Guanira, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Susan P Buchbinder, Linda Gail Bekker, Mauro Schechter, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Robert M Grant
BACKGROUND: Oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for HIV prevention and treatment is associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). Previous reports suggest that these changes may be reversible after discontinuation of TDF. SETTING: A metabolic substudy of 498 participants in a randomized, placebo-controlled HIV prevention trial of oral co-formulated TDF with emtricitabine (TDF/FTC, Truvada®) for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) enrolling a global sample of men who have sex with men and trans women...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621459/microtubule-actin-crosslinking-factor-1-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-by-promoting-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf1-runx2-signaling-axis
#16
Lifang Hu, Peihong Su, Chong Yin, Yan Zhang, Runzhi Li, Kun Yan, Zhihao Chen, Dijie Li, Ge Zhang, Liping Wang, Zhiping Miao, Airong Qian, Cory J Xian
Osteoblast differentiation is a multistep process delicately regulated by many factors, including cytoskeletal dynamics and signaling pathways. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1), a key cytoskeletal linker, has been shown to play key roles in signal transduction and in diverse cellular processes; however, its role in regulating osteoblast differentiation is still needed to be elucidated. To further uncover the functions and mechanisms of action of MACF1 in osteoblast differentiation, we examined effects of MACF1 knockdown (MACF1-KD) in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on their osteoblast differentiation and associated molecular mechanisms...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617442/titanium-particle-induced-osteogenic-inhibition-and-bone-destruction-are-mediated-by-the-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-pathway
#17
Ye Gu, Zhirong Wang, Jiawei Shi, Liangliang Wang, Zhenyang Hou, Xiaobin Guo, Yunxia Tao, Xiexing Wu, Wei Zhou, Yu Liu, Wen Zhang, Yaozeng Xu, Huilin Yang, Feng Xue, Dechun Geng
Wear debris-induced osteogenic inhibition and bone destruction are critical in the initiation of peri-prosthetic osteolysis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of the GSK-3β/β-catenin signal pathway, which is important for bone formation in this pathological condition. We established a titanium (Ti) particle-stressed murine MC3T3-E1 cell culture system and calvariae osteolysis model to test the hypothesis that Ti particle-induced osteogenic inhibition and bone destruction are mediated by the GSK-3β/β-catenin signal pathway...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614950/grafting-of-architecture-controlled-poly-styrene-sodium-sulfonate-onto-titanium-surfaces-using-bio-adhesive-molecules-surface-characterization-and-biological-properties
#18
Hamza Chouirfa, Margaret D M Evans, David G Castner, Penny Bean, Dimitri Mercier, Anouk Galtayries, Céline Falentin-Daudré, Véronique Migonney
This contribution reports on grafting of bioactive polymers such as poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (polyNaSS) onto titanium (Ti) surfaces. This grafting process uses a modified dopamine as an anchor molecule to link polyNaSS to the Ti surface. The grafting process combines reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, postpolymerization modification, and thiol-ene chemistry. The first step in the process is to synthetize architecture controlled polyNaSS with a thiol end group. The second step is the adhesion of the dopamine acrylamide (DA) anchor onto the Ti surfaces...
June 14, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608628/the-role-of-microrna-143-5p-in-the-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-odontoblasts-by-targeting-runx2-via-the-opg-rankl-signaling-pathway
#19
Fu-Liang Zhan, Xin-Yang Liu, Xing-Bo Wang
This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which microRNA-143-5p (miR-143-5p) targets runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) into odontoblasts, through regulating the osteoprotegerin receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (OPG/RANKL) signaling pathway. Following transfection, DPSCs were divided into blank, control, miR-143-5p mimics, miR-143-5p inhibitors, miR-143-5p inhibitors + siRunx2 and siRunx2 groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodules were detected using ALP kit and alizarin red staining...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606672/three-dimensional-sphere-forming-cells-are-unique-multipotent-cell-population-in-dental-pulp-cells
#20
Sung Hee Lee, Andrew Inaba, Neha Mohindroo, Deepika Ganesh, Charlotte Ellen Martin, Nadia Chugal, Reuben H Kim, Mo K Kang, No-Hee Park, Ki-Hyuk Shin
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are typically cultured as adherent monolayer using a conventional tissue culture technique. However, this technique incompletely reproduces an in vivo microenvironment of stem cells and results in the loss of stemness properties. Three-dimensional (3D) sphere culture is one of the most widely used 3D culture techniques that have been developed to recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. However, the stemness and multilineage differentiation capacity of spheres derived from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have not been well investigated...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
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