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reverse mineralization

S Y Zhu, P L Wang, C S Liao, Y Q Yang, C Y Yuan, S Wang, W L Dissanayaka, B C Heng, C F Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate/reconstruct the damaged supporting tissues of diseased teeth and to facilitate recovery of their physiological functions. Combination of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy offers a viable method for accelerating periodontal repair and regeneration. In this study, the role of the ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling pathway in regulating osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and crosstalk between PDLSCs and pre-osteoblasts within co-culture was investigated through ephrinB2 transgenic expression in PDLSCs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
Cornelia U Welte, Olivia Rasigraf, Annika Vaksmaa, Wouter Versantvoort, Arslan Arshad, Huub J M Op den Camp, Mike S M Jetten, Claudia Lüke, Joachim Reimann
Microbial methane oxidation is an important process to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gas methane. Anaerobic microorganisms couple the oxidation of methane to the reduction of sulfate, nitrate and nitrite, and possibly oxidized iron and manganese minerals. In this article, we review the recent finding of the intriguing nitrate- and nitrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Nitrate-dependent AOM is catalyzed by anaerobic archaea belonging to the ANME-2d clade closely related to Methanosarcina methanogens...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Jiaquan Luo, Yu Zhong, Sheng Huang, Liangping Li, Chi Zhang, Xuenong Zou
Ginkgolide B (GB) is one of the ginkgolides isolated from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. Our previous study indicated that GB promotes the proliferation, migration and adhesion of endothelial progenitor cells, and the induction of angiogenesis through vascular endothelial factor (VEGF). In the present study, the effects of GB on the differentiation of MC3T3‑E1 cells and the signaling pathway involved were investigated in vitro. The MC3T3‑E1 cell viability activities were assessed using an MTS assay...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Domenico Ricucci, José F Siqueira, Simona Loghin, Louis M Lin
: Descriptions of the pathologic changes in the pulp and associated apical structures of human immature teeth in response to deep caries are lacking in the literature. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the histologic events associated with the radicular pulp and the apical tissues of human immature teeth following pulp inflammation and necrosis. METHODS: Twelve immature teeth with destructive caries lesions were obtained from 8 patients. Two intact immature teeth served as controls...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Salah Huwais, Eric G Meyer
PURPOSE: It is essential to have sufficient bone bulk and density at the implant site in order to achieve good bone-to-implant contact and primary stability, which are crucial for osseointegration. A new osteotomy preparation technique was recently introduced that uses a bone preservation method that creates a layer of compacted bone along the surface of the osteotomy. The hypothesis of this study was that this novel technique would increase primary implant stability, bone mineral density, and the percentage of bone at the implant surface compared with drilling technique...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Sivakumar Nuvvula, Swapna Manepalli, Abinash Mohapatra, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
Cementoblastoma is a benign lesion of the odontogenic ectomesenchymal origin. It rarely occurs in primary dentition. This report describes a case of a cementoblastoma relating to the right mandibular second primary molar in a 7-year-old girl. Her panoramic radiograph revealed a well-defined radiopaque lesion with a radiolucent border extending from the distal surface of the mandibular right first primary molar to the distal surface of mandibular second primary molar. The tumor was attached to the mesial root of primary second molar and was excised along with the teeth involved and sent for histopathological evaluation, which showed irregular trabeculae of mineralized tissue interspersed with fibrovascular connective tissue, trabeculae of mineralized tissue with prominent reversal lines, and peripheral rimming of the mineralized tissue with blast cells...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
L J W Tack, C Tatsi, C A Stratakis, M B Lodish
Chronic exposure to supraphysiologic levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) is associated with impaired bone mineral density, an increase in fracture rates, and, in growing children, compromised linear growth. GCs inhibit bone formation in part by decreasing the number of osteoblasts and by increasing bone resorption by stimulating osteoclasts. While GCs are used to treat many chronic diseases, it is difficult to isolate the effects of the steroids on the bone from the effects of the underlying disease itself. Investigation into the effects of GC exposure on the bone in endogenous Cushing syndrome have contributed to our understanding of bone microarchitecture, growth, healing, and regeneration...
October 11, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Limei Wang, Jin Zhang, Cunwei Wang, Yuping Qi, Mi Du, Wenhua Liu, Chengzhe Yang, Pishan Yang
OBJECTIVES: Low concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) have been reported to promote osteogenic differentiation. In this study, a series of in vitro experiments was performed to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MC3T3-E1 murine preosteoblasts were treated with TNF-α at doses of 0, 0.1 or 1 ng/mL. The ephrinB2-EphB4 signalling pathway was activated using ephrinB2-fc, or inhibited using lentiviruses encoding siRNAs specifically targeting EphB4...
October 11, 2016: Cell Proliferation
Lisandra Martin, Lizhi Tao, Alexandr Simonov, Christine Romano, Cristina Butterfield, Monika Fekete, Bradley Tebo, Alan Bond, Leone Spiccia, Willian Casey
In a natural geochemical cycle, manganese-oxide minerals (MnOx) are principally formed via a diurnal microbial process, where a putative multicopper oxidase MnxG plays an essential role. Recent success in isolating the ca. 230 kDa, enzymatically active MnxEFG protein complex has advance our understanding the biogenic MnOx mineralization. Herein, the kinetics of MnOx formation catalyzed by MnxEFG are examined using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and the first electrochemical characterization of the MnxEFG complex is reported using Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry...
October 11, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cristina Emilia Chițu-Tișu, Ecaterina Constanța Barbu, Mihai Lazăr, Mihai Bojincă, Ana-Maria Tudor, Adriana Hristea, Adrian Octavian Abagiu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Anca Ioana Bădărău
BACKGROUND: The development of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) represents a significant advance in the treatment of (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV infection. However, several studies report that a large percentage of individuals with HIV, particularly those receiving cART, present body composition differences compared with the general population. The aim of this study was to explore body composition differences by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), among HIV-positive patients receiving cART, in comparison to healthy controls...
October 11, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Shengzhe S, Yongna Z, Song L, Yan L, Jing Z
AIM: To investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the regulation of odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). METHODOLOGY: SCAPs were obtained from human impacted third molars (n=15). Isolated SCAPs were transfected with CREB overexpressing/silenced lentivirus. Transfected cells were stained with alizarin red to investigate mineralized nodule formation. The expression of the mineralization-related genes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I (Col I), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OCN), was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 7, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
William P Hedges, Marwan Bukhari
OBJECTIVE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for osteoporosis and is part of the FRAX™ 10-year fracture risk stratification tool for predicting fragility fractures. Little is known regarding the effects of changing body composition on bone mineral density (BMD). However, increasing fat mass (FM) improves BMD in young women with anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to assess whether changes in FM over time affected BMD in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data was collected from patients who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessment between 2004 and 2011...
March 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Nasim Nosoudi, Aniqa Chowdhury, Steven Siclari, Saketh Karamched, Vaideesh Parasaram, Joe Parrish, Patrick Gerard, Narendra Vyavahare
Degeneration of elastic lamina and vascular calcification are common features of vascular pathology such as aortic aneurysms. We tested whether dual therapy with targeted nanoparticles (NPs) can remove mineral deposits (by delivery of a chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)) and restore elastic lamina (by delivery of a polyphenol, pentagalloyl glucose (PGG)) to reverse moderate aneurysm development. EDTA followed by PGG NP delivery led to reduction in macrophage recruitment, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, elastin degradation and calcification in the aorta as compared to delivery of control blank NPs...
2016: Theranostics
Ensanya Ali Abou Neel, Anas Aljabo, Adam Strange, Salwa Ibrahim, Melanie Coathup, Anne M Young, Laurent Bozec, Vivek Mudera
Biomineralization is a dynamic, complex, lifelong process by which living organisms control precipitations of inorganic nanocrystals within organic matrices to form unique hybrid biological tissues, for example, enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. Understanding the process of mineral deposition is important for the development of treatments for mineralization-related diseases and also for the innovation and development of scaffolds. This review provides a thorough overview of the up-to-date information on the theories describing the possible mechanisms and the factors implicated as agonists and antagonists of mineralization...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Boran Cao, Ning Liu, Wenbo Wang
BACKGROUND: High glucose (HG) often induces unfavorable effects on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study aimed to explore potential molecular pathways underlying HG functional mechanism during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, involving lncRNA AK028326 and CXCL13. METHODS: Murine bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured in osteogenic-inducing medium supplemented with high glucose level at 25mM or 5.5mM as normal control. Expression levels of lncRNA AK028326 and CXCL13 were measured by using real-time PCR...
September 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ainslie L K Derrick-Roberts, Kavita Panir, Carmen E Pyragius, Krystyna H Zarrinkalam, Gerald J Atkins, Sharon Byers
Severe, progressive skeletal dysplasia is a major symptom of multiple mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) types. While a gene therapy approach initiated at birth has been shown to prevent the development of bone pathology in different animal models of MPS, the capacity to correct developed bone disease is unknown. In this study, ex vivo micro-computed tomography was used to demonstrate that bone mass and architecture of murine MPS VII L5 vertebrae were within the normal range at 1month of age but by 2months of age were significantly different to normal...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Toshifumi Sugatani, Olga A Agapova, Yifu Fang, Alycia G Berman, Joseph M Wallace, Hartmut H Malluche, Marie-Claude Faugere, William Smith, Victoria Sung, Keith A Hruska
Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr-/- high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes...
September 22, 2016: Kidney International
Reiko Watanabe, Daisuke Inoue
Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density(BMD)and increased fracture risk. Conversely, smoking cessation results in BMD gain and decreased fracture risk, suggesting that smoking-induced bone metabolic changes are partially reversible. However, the mechanism of bone fragility induced by smoking is unknown. Meta-analyses have shown that aberrant PTH-vitamin D axis may affect bone metabolism in smokers. Previous animal studies have also reveled that nicotine, one of the major toxic substances of cigarettes, negatively regulates bone formation...
2016: Clinical Calcium
Jan Rossaint, Mark Unruh, Alexander Zarbock
During chronic kidney disease (CKD), bone mineral metabolism is disturbed owing in part to the endogenous hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Elevated FGF23 levels are seen in CKD patients. Current research has demonstrated that FGF23 directly modulates the immune response and host defense to bacterial infections. FGF23 also impairs the activation and recruitment of neutrophils, which are the main immune effector cells required for host defense against bacterial infections. In addition, while FGF23 levels reduce leukocyte recruitment and functions, inflammatory conditions may also-in a reverse fashion-contribute to elevated FGF23 levels in the circulation...
September 22, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Zongliang Wang, Li Chen, Yu Wang, Xuesi Chen, Peibiao Zhang
A nanocomposite of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a different grafting ratio of l-lactic acid oligomer (op-HA) showed better interface compatibility, mineralization, and osteogenetic abilities. However, surface modification of the composite is crucial to improve the osteointegration for bone regeneration. In this study, a biomimetic process via poly(dopamine) coating was utilized to prepare functional substrate surfaces with immobilized bioactive peptides that efficiently regulate the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1)...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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