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reverse mineralization

Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rui Mu, Juan Ma, Lei Zhu, Ruiqiao Zhu, Feng Chen, Xiaocui Wei, Xiaolei Shi, Shengqi Zang, Lei Jin
AIMS: in vitro effects of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) on proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have not been investigated, nor has an appropriate dose been established. MAIN METHODS: Human DPSCs obtained from healthy volunteers were cultured with BMP-7 at 25, 50, and 100 ng/ml. Cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Expression profiles of selected odontogenic differentiation-related markers in DPSCs were evaluated using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Yujing Huang, Jia Wang, Yao Tan, Lingqiao Wang, Hui Lin, Lan Lan, Yu Xiong, Wei Huang, Weiqun Shu
Although direct drinking water (DDW) systems that utilize a reverse-osmosis technique are thought to be harmful to children's development by reducing their daily mineral intake, few population data are available regarding this topic. We conducted an eco-epidemiological study to investigate the influence of low-mineral DDW on the development of schoolchildren. We collected developmental parameters of 13,723 girls and 16,161 boys before and after the introduction of DDW systems in 25 schools and measured the mineral levels in the DDW of each school...
March 16, 2018: Environment International
Yanmao Wang, Yu Zhu, Shengdi Lu, Chengfang Hu, Wanrun Zhong, Yimin Chai
Osteoporosis is linked to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) as a major risk factor for fragility fractures. Recent studies indicated an association between BMD and abnormally elevated lipid levels in blood as common indicators for hyperlipidemia. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of paeoniflorin, a phytochemical compound with multiple pharmacological activities, against hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF). The special diet-fed rats were subjected to an 8-week treatment with either paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg, daily) or vehicle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Benedikt Wynands, Christoph Lenzen, Maike Otto, Falk Koch, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx
Aromatic chemicals are important building blocks for the production of a multitude of everyday commodities. Currently, aromatics production relies almost exclusively on petrochemical processes. To achieve sustainability, alternative synthesis methods need to be developed. Here, we strived for an efficient production of phenol, a model aromatic compound of industrial relevance, from renewable carbon sources using the solvent-tolerant biocatalyst Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. First, multiple catabolic routes for the degradation of aromatics and related compounds were inactivated, thereby obtaining the chassis strain P...
March 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Caterina Musolino, Giacomo Oteri, Alessandro Allegra, Manuela Mania, Angela D'Ascola, Angela Avenoso, Vanessa Innao, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Salvatore Campo
Bisphosphonates are formidable inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption employed for therapy of multiple myeloma (MM) subjects with osteolytic lesions. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an uncommon drug-induced adverse event of these agents. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, noncoding RNAs nucleotides, which are essential post-transcriptional controllers of gene expression. They have a central role in the normal bone development. The goal of our study was to investigate 18 miRNAs, whose targets were previously validated and described in MM subjects without ONJ, in peripheral lymphocytes of MM subjects with bisphosphonate-induced ONJ...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hyun-Soo Kim, Mingzhen Zheng, Do-Kyung Kim, Won-Pyo Lee, Sang-Joun Yu, Byung-Ock Kim
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells in vitro. Methods: MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared. Cytotoxic effects and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, ALP staining, alizarin red S staining, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for osteogenic differentiation markers such as ALP, collagen type I (Col-I), osteocalcin (OCN), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase...
February 2018: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Maria I Pikilidou, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Elias V Balaskas, Pantelis E Zebekakis
Arterial stiffness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Arterial stiffness aggravates cardiovascular risk via multiple pathways, such as augmentation of aortic systolic pressure, subendocardial hypoperfusion, and excess pulsatile energy transmission from macro- to microcirculation. Pathogenesis of the arteriosclerotic process in ESRD is complex and not yet fully understood. Several factors unique to ESRD, such as mineral metabolism disturbances, vascular calcifications, formation of advanced glycation end-products, and acute and chronic volume overload, are proposed to play a particular role in the progression of arteriosclerosis in ESRD...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Tao Ye, Dongliang Sun, Tong Mu, Yi Chu, Hui Miao, Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Qian Liu, Lei Lu, Xianghui Xing, Shibin Yu
The striking predilection of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in women, especially during gonad-intact puberty or reproductive years, indicates that oestrogen plays an important role in the progression of TMD, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was used to create temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) models in rats, while 17β-estradiol (E2 ) injections were applied to mimic patients with high-physiological levels of oestrogen. Micro-CT scanning, histological staining and real-time PCR assays were preformed to observe the degenerative changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage and subchondral bone...
March 9, 2018: Bone
Hsien-Chun Chiu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUND: A global consensus on the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans refers as sarcopenia and cachexia including diabetes, obesity, renal failure, and osteoporosis. Despite a current improvement of sarcopenia or cachexia with exercise training and supportive therapies, alternative and specific managements are needed to discover for whom are unable or unwilling to embark on these treatments. Alendronate is a widely used drug for osteoporosis in the elderly and postmenopausal women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
M Bournazel, M Lessire, S Klein, N Même, C Peyronnet, A Quinsac, M J Duclos, A Narcy
Two experiments were conducted on broilers to assess the effect of dietary fiber from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and retention (AR) during the growing (Exp1: 10 to 21 d) or finishing period (Exp2: 21 to 31 d) in diets supplemented or not with microbial phytase. Each experiment involved 144 male Cobb 500 fed one of 8 diets. Fiber content was modulated by incorporating whole RSM, RSM from dehulled rapeseeds, either raw or supplemented with 2 levels of defatted rapeseed hulls...
February 28, 2018: Poultry Science
M Mervan Çakar, Juan Mangas-Sanchez, William R Birmingham, Nicholas J Turner, Barış Binay
Over the next decades, with the growing concern of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels, the importance of investigating new approaches for its reduction becomes crutial. Reclamation of CO2 for conversion into biofuels represents an alternative and attractive production method that has been studied in recent years, now with enzymatic methods gaining more attention. Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyse the conversion of formate into CO2 and have been extensively used for cofactor recycling in chemoenzymatic processes...
March 5, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Juan C Domínguez-Romero, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Miriam Beneito-Cambra, Antonio Molina-Díaz
In this work, the implementation of Bead Injection with multicommutation-based flow systems is reported. A surface renewable chemiluminescence (CL) flow sensor is presented based on the use of CL reaction of luminol with H2 O2 . Dowex 1 × 8 beads with immobilized luminol onto them were injected in the flow system by means of a six-port rotary valve and were accommodated into a 1 mm optical glass flow cell placed just in front of the rectangular photosensor window with the same size than the cell wall. Automatic computer-controlled manipulation of both reagents and sample solutions was undertaken using a multicommutated flow system which comprises five three-way solenoid valves, a home-made electronic interface and a Java-written software...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Feng Lian, Chengbin Zhao, Jing Qu, Yongyun Lian, Yong Cui, Liang Shan, Jinglong Yan
Inhibition of bone regeneration by wear debris is the main cause of peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Here, we investigated the effect of icariin on cell proliferation, apoptosis, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of osteoblasts in an in vitro model of titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis. In the present study, MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with 10-8 M icariin for 4 h and then incubated with Ti particles (0.1 mg/ml). The results showed that Ti particles inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells, whereas icariin pretreatment blocked the effect of Ti particles...
March 3, 2018: Cell Biology International
Annette R Rowe, Pournami Rajeev, Abhiney Jain, Sahand Pirbadian, Akihiro Okamoto, Jeffrey A Gralnick, Mohamed Y El-Naggar, Kenneth H Nealson
While typically investigated as a microorganism capable of extracellular electron transfer to minerals or anodes, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can also facilitate electron flow from a cathode to terminal electron acceptors, such as fumarate or oxygen, thereby providing a model system for a process that has significant environmental and technological implications. This work demonstrates that cathodic electrons enter the electron transport chain of S. oneidensis when oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Yi Li, Jiajia Su, Wenchao Sun, Lin Cai, Zhouming Deng
Previous studies have reported that adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation can enhance osteoblast differentiation and mineralization; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Autophagy also serves an important role in osteoblast mineralization and bone homeostasis. The present study aimed to explore whether activation of AMPK could enhance osteoblast differentiation and mineralization via the induction of autophagy. The fracture healing and nonunion animal models were established and verified by X-ray imaging...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ganesh Pathare, Manuel Anderegg, Giuseppe Albano, Florian Lang, Daniel G Fuster
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) participates in the orchestration of mineral metabolism by inducing phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25(OH)2 D3 . It is known that FGF23 release is stimulated by aldosterone and extracellular volume depletion. To characterize this effect further in a model of mild hypovolemia, we studied mice lacking the thiazide sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). Our data indicate that NCC knockout mice (KO) have significantly higher FGF23, PTH and aldosterone concentrations than corresponding wild type (WT) mice...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gina N Woods, Mei-Hua Huang, Peggy M Cawthon, Corinne McDaniels-Davidson, Howard A Fink, Deborah M Kado
OBJECTIVE: Hyperkyphosis, an exaggerated anterior curvature of the thoracic spine, is associated with poor physical function, falls, fractures, and earlier mortality. Low bone mineral density, bone loss, and vertebral fractures are strong risk factors for hyperkyphosis. Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) reverses bone loss, prevents vertebral fractures, and, therefore, we hypothesize, may reduce the risk for developing hyperkyphosis. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional association between Cobb angle of kyphosis from lateral spine radiographs and pattern of self-reported HT use during the prior 15-year period in 1,063 women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures...
February 16, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Shuhong Han, Haoyang Zhuang, Stepan Shumyak, Jingfan Wu, Chao Xie, Hui Li, Li-Jun Yang, Westley H Reeves
The generation of CD138+ phagocytic macrophages with an alternative (M2) phenotype that clear apoptotic cells from tissues is defective in lupus. Liver X receptor-alpha (LXRα) is an oxysterol-regulated transcription factor that promotes reverse cholesterol transport and alternative (M2) macrophage activation. Conversely, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1α) promotes classical (M1) macrophage activation. The objective of this study was to see if lupus can be treated by enhancing the generation of M2-like macrophages using LXR agonists...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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