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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921146/bone-loss-at-the-distal-femur-and-proximal-tibia-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-imaging-approaches-risk-of-fracture-and-potential-treatment-options
#1
REVIEW
C M Cirnigliaro, M J Myslinski, M F La Fountaine, S C Kirshblum, G F Forrest, W A Bauman
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo immediate unloading of the skeleton and, as a result, have severe bone loss below the level of lesion associated with increased risk of long-bone fractures. The pattern of bone loss in individuals with SCI differs from other forms of secondary osteoporosis because the skeleton above the level of lesion remains unaffected, while marked bone loss occurs in the regions of neurological impairment. Striking demineralization of the trabecular epiphyses of the distal femur (supracondylar) and proximal tibia occurs, with the knee region being highly vulnerable to fracture because many accidents occur while sitting in a wheelchair, making the knee region the first point of contact to any applied force...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920129/chronic-inhibition-of-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-not-only-prevented-but-also-reversed-development-of-hypertension-and-end-organ-damage-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#2
Xiaoyan Zhou, Michael J Forrest, Wanda Sharif-Rodriguez, Gail Forrest, Daphne Szeto, Olga Urosevic-Price, Yonghua Zhu, Andra S Stevenson, Yuchen Zhou, Sloan Stribling, Maya Dajee, Shawn P Walsh, Alexander Pasternak, Kathleen A Sullivan
The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Evidence from the phenotype of humans and rodents with functional ROMK deficiency supports the contention that selective ROMK inhibitors (ROMKi) will represent a novel diuretic with potential of therapeutic benefit for hypertension. ROMKi have recently been synthesized by Merck & Co, Inc...
December 5, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918081/st1926-attenuates-steroid-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-response
#3
Hong-Xing Zhao, Yuan-Xia Huang, Jin-Gang Tao
Steroid, also known as glucocorticoid, induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young adults, which has been a challenging disorder for the frequent incidence of collapse of femoral head, leading to dysfunction of hip joint and impairing life quality of human. Bioavailable and less toxic synthetic retinoids, such as the atypical adamantyl retinoid ST1926, have been developed and investigated in clinical trials for many diseases. Serum lipid-related indicators were assessed to elucidate the role of ST1926 in regulating lipid metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916260/arsenic-solid-phase-speciation-and-reversible-binding-in-long-term-contaminated-soils
#4
M S Rahman, M W Clark, L H Yee, M J Comarmond, T E Payne, P Kappen, L Mokhber-Shahin
Historic arsenic contamination of soils occurs throughout the world from mining, industrial and agricultural activities. In Australia, the control of cattle ticks using arsenicals from the late 19th to mid 20th century has led to some 1600 contaminated sites in northern New South Wales. The effect of aging in As-mobility in two dip-site soil types, ferralitic and sandy soils, are investigated utilizing isotopic exchange techniques, and synchrotron X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). Findings show that historic soil arsenic is highly bound to the soils with >90% irreversibly bound...
December 1, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908549/noni-leaf-and-black-tea-enhance-bone-regeneration-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#5
Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohd Shalan, Noordin M Mustapha, Suhaila Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Black tea and Nonileaf are among the dietary compounds that can benefit patients with bone resorption disorders. Their bone regeneration effects and their mechanisms were studied in estrogen-deficient rats. METHODS: Noni leaves (three doses) and black tea water extracts were fed to ovariectomized rats for 4 mo, and their effects (analyzed via mechanical measurements, micro-computed tomography scan, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction mRNA) were compared with Remifemin (a commercial phytoestrogen product from black cohosh)...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894973/is-there-nothing-new-under-the-sun-the-influence-of-herbals-and-pharmacopoeias-on-ethnobotanical-traditions-in-albacete-spain
#6
Diego Rivera, Alonso Verde, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Candelaria Moreno, Teresa Egea, José Fajardo, José Antonio Palazón, Arturo Valdés, Maria Adele Signorini, Piero Bruschi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876388/depth-related-response-of-macroinvertebrates-to-the-reversal-of-eutrophication-in-a-mediterranean-lake-implications-for-ecological-assessment
#7
Marcello Bazzanti, Luciana Mastrantuono, Francesca Pilotto
A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic wastewater...
November 19, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876193/effect-of-adenovirus-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-1-gene-transfer-on-the-function-of-rabbit-articular-chondrocytes
#8
Yuan Tang, Jun Xiao, Yeyang Wang, Ming Li, Zhanjun Shi
BACKGROUND: Articular chondrocytes are important in maintaining normal cartilage tissue and preventing articular degeneration. Exogenous genes have previously been transduced into articular cells using adenoviral vectors to contribute to the maintenance of cell function. This study aimed to transfer the transforming growth factor-β1 gene (TGF-β1) into rabbit articular chondrocytes by adenovirus infection to elucidate its effects on cell function. METHODS: Rabbit chondrocytes were isolated and cultured both as monolayers and three-dimensional culture systems...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875767/enhanced-bioelectricity-generation-and-azo-dye-treatment-in-a-reversible-photo-bioelectrochemical-cell-by-using-novel-anthraquinone-2-6-disulfonate-aqds-mnox-doped-polypyrrole-film-electrodes
#9
Jian Sun, Bihai Cai, Wenjing Xu, Yu Huang, Yaping Zhang, Yenping Peng, Kenlin Chang, Jiahong Kuo, Kufan Chen, Xunan Ning, Guoguang Liu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Jingyong Liu
A novel anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate/MnOx-doped polypyrrole film (AQDS/Mn/PPy) electrode was prepared by one-step electropolymerization method and was used to improve performance of a reversible photo-bioelectrochemical cell (RPBEC). The RPBEC was operated in polarity reversion depended on dark/light reaction of alga Chlorella vulgaris by which sequential decolorization of azo dye and mineralization of decolorization products coupled with bioelectricity generation can be achieved. The results showed that formation of uniform AQDS/Mn/PPy film significantly enhanced electroactive surface area and electrocatalytic activity of carbon electrode...
November 10, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872015/self-hardening-and-thermoresponsive-alpha-tricalcium-phosphate-pluronic-pastes
#10
Yassine Maazouz, Edgar B Montufar, Julien Malbert, Montserrat Espanol, Maria-Pau Ginebra
: Although calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are used for bone regeneration in a wide range of clinical applications, various physicochemical phenomena are known to hinder their potential use in minimally invasive surgery or in highly vascularized surgical sites, mainly because of their lack of injectability or their low washout resistance. The present work shows that the combination of CPCs with an inverse-thermoresponsive hydrogel is a good strategy for finely tuning the cohesive and rheological properties of CPCs to achieve clinical acceptable injectability to prevent phase separation during implantation and cohesion to avoid washout of the paste...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865001/romosozumab-improves-bone-mass-and-strength-while-maintaining-bone-quality-in-ovariectomized-cynomolgus-monkeys
#11
Michael S Ominsky, Steven K Boyd, Aurore Varela, Jacquelin Jolette, Melanie Felx, Nancy Doyle, Nacera Mellal, Susan Y Smith, Kathrin Locher, Sabina Buntich, Ian Pyrah, Rogely W Boyce
Romosozumab (Romo), a humanized sclerostin antibody, is a bone-forming agent under development for treatment of osteoporosis. To examine the effects of Romo on bone quality, mature cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) were treated 4 months post-ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle, 3, or 30 mg/kg Romo for 12 months, or with 30 mg/kg Romo for 6 months followed by vehicle for 6 months (30/0). Serum bone formation markers were increased by Romo during the first 6 months, corresponding to increased cancellous, endocortical, and periosteal bone formation in rib and iliac biopsies at months 3 and 6...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861789/geographic-variation-in-apparent-competition-between-native-and-invasive-phragmites-australis
#12
Ganesh P Bhattarai, Laura A Meyerson, James T Cronin
Apparent competition, the negative interaction between species mediated by shared natural enemies, is thought to play an important role in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. However, its importance in driving species invasions, and whether the strength of this indirect interaction varies across the latitudinal range of the invasion, has not been fully explored. We performed replicated field experiments at four sites spanning 900 km along the Atlantic Coast of the United States to assess the presence and strength of apparent competition between sympatric native and invasive lineages of Phragmites australis...
November 11, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859586/lactation-induced-changes-in-the-volume-of-osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular-space-alter-mechanical-properties-in-cortical-bone-tissue
#13
Serra Kaya, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Zeynep Seref-Ferlengez, Robert J Majeska, Luis Cardoso, Timothy Bromage, Qihong Zhang, Carol R Flach, Richard Mendelsohn, Shoshana Yakar, Susannah P Fritton, Mitchell B Schaffler
Osteocytes can remove and remodel small amounts of their surrounding bone matrix through osteocytic osteolysis, which results in increased volume occupied by lacunar and canalicular space (LCS). It is well established that cortical bone stiffness and strength are strongly and inversely correlated with vascular porosity, but whether changes in LCS volume caused by osteocytic osteolysis are large enough to affect bone mechanical properties is not known. In the current studies we tested the hypotheses that i) lactation and post-lactation recovery in mice alter the elastic modulus of bone tissue, and ii) such local changes in mechanical properties are related predominantly to alterations in lacunar and canalicular volume rather than bone matrix composition...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844446/severe-infliximab-induced-alopecia-and-scalp-psoriasis-in-a-woman-with-crohn-s-disease-dramatic-improvement-after-drug-discontinuation-and-treatment-with-adjuvant-systemic-and-topical-therapies
#14
Jeremy Udkoff, Philip R Cohen
Scalp psoriasis with alopecia is a rare cutaneous reaction to tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. This reaction often reverses with discontinuation of the offending drug and initiation of topical treatments; however, irreversible hair loss may occur if a scarring alopecia develops. We describe a woman with Crohn's disease who developed scalp psoriasis and alopecia secondary to infliximab. She had a remarkable recovery after discontinuation of infliximab and treatment with oral minocycline and topical therapy: mineral oil under occlusion, betamethasone lotion, and sequential coal tar, salicylic acid, and ketoconazole shampoos each day...
November 14, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843711/iron-overload-induced-death-of-osteoblasts-in-vitro-involvement-of-the-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#15
Qing Tian, Shilei Wu, Zhipeng Dai, Jingjing Yang, Jin Zheng, Qixin Zheng, Yong Liu
BACKGROUND: Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. PURPOSE: In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836529/twelve-years-of-experience-with-miglustat-in-the-treatment-of-type-1-gaucher-disease-the-spanish-zagal-project
#16
Pilar Giraldo, Marcio Andrade-Campos, Pilar Alfonso, Pilar Irun, Koldo Atutxa, Antonio Acedo, Abelardo Barez, Margarita Blanes, Vicente Diaz-Morant, Ma Angeles Fernández-Galán, Rafael Franco, Cristina Gil-Cortes, Vicente Giner, Angela Ibañez, Paz Latre, Ines Loyola, Elisa Luño, Roberto Hernández-Martin, Blanca Medrano-Engay, José Puerta, Inmaculada Roig, Javier de la Serna, Olga Salamero, Lucia Villalón, Miguel Pocovi
We report data from a prospective, observational study (ZAGAL) evaluating miglustat 100mg three times daily orally. in treatment-naïve patients and patients with type 1 Gaucher Disease (GD1) switched from previous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Clinical evolution, changes in organ size, blood counts, disease biomarkers, bone marrow infiltration (S-MRI), bone mineral density by broadband ultrasound densitometry (BMD), safety and tolerability annual reports were analysed. Between May 2004 and April 2016, 63 patients received miglustat therapy; 20 (32%) untreated and 43 (68%) switched...
October 24, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833148/igf-1-igf-1r-hsa-let-7c-axis-regulates-the-committed-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-apical-papilla
#17
Shu Ma, Genxia Liu, Lin Jin, Xiyao Pang, Yanqiu Wang, Zilu Wang, Yan Yu, Jinhua Yu
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor IGF-1R play a paramount role in tooth/bone formation while hsa-let-7c actively participates in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the interaction between IGF-1/IGF-1R and hsa-let-7c on the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remains unclear. In this study, human SCAPs were isolated and treated with IGF-1 and hsa-let-7c over/low-expression viruses. The odonto/osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were subsequently investigated...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832946/role-of-human-amnion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-promoting-osteogenic-differentiation-by-influencing-p38-mapk-signaling-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Yuli Wang, Hongxia Wu, Ming Shen, Siyang Ding, Jing Miao, Ning Chen
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial pathogens,which not only affect connective tissue attachments but also cause alveolar bone loss.In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions. Proliferation levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)...
November 7, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827928/comparative-transcriptional-analysis-of-loquat-fruit-identifies-major-signal-networks-involved-in-fruit-development-and-ripening-process
#19
Huwei Song, Xiangxiang Zhao, Weicheng Hu, Xinfeng Wang, Ting Shen, Liming Yang
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important non-climacteric fruit and rich in essential nutrients such as minerals and carotenoids. During fruit development and ripening, thousands of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from various metabolic pathways cause a series of physiological and biochemical changes. To better understand the underlying mechanism of fruit development, the Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the global changes of gene transcription levels...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790988/molecular-insight-into-the-nanoconfined-calcite-solution-interface
#20
Yijue Diao, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
Little is known about the influence of nanoconfinement on calcium carbonate mineralization. Here, colloidal probe atomic force microscopy is used to confine the calcite-solution interface with a silica microsphere and to measure Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO forces as a function of the calcium concentration, also after charge reversal of both surfaces occurs. Through the statistical analysis of the oscillatory component of a strong hydration force, the subnanometer interfacial structure of the confined atomically flat calcite is resolved in aqueous solution...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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