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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787035/hair-toe-tourniquets-a-review-of-two-case-studies
#1
Julia Booth, Tim Morse
Digit hair tourniquets are relatively uncommon. There are reports in the literature of hair tourniquets involving other appendages, such as the penis and uvula, however the phenomenon is not widely recognised and is often overlooked by healthcare professionals. This article discusses two case studies in which hair was responsible for creating a tourniquet around a digit. The article explores possible causes and management options for patients, with reference to the case studies. Midwives and health visitors are central to minimising the risk of injury to children as they can educate expectant mothers about this potential problem...
May 22, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786809/-diagnosing-epileptic-seizures-and-epilepsy
#2
Kristina Malmgren, Tommy Stödberg, Åsa Amandusson, Maria Strandberg
There are many episodic conditions which may be confused with epileptic seizures. The diagnosis of epileptic seizures is still dependent on a good history and witness report, as well as good knowledge of seizure semiology, and of the symptoms of a variety of differential diagnostic conditions. The principal differential diagnoses in adults and children are outlined in this review. The diagnostic problems do not exist only initially, so it is important to reconsider the diagnosis when deemed relevant. The possibility of home video recordings of recurring attacks may be helpful...
May 21, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786589/bacterial-factors-of-cariogenicity-literature-review
#3
Mariia O Faustova, Maiia M Ananieva, Yaroslav O Basarab, Oksana V Dobrobolska, Iryna M Vovk, Galina A Loban'
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: According to the 2003 WHO report, dental caries affects from 60% to 90% of school-age children and adults that makes it one of the most common diseases worldwide. The aim was to systematize data about the modern conception of plaque formation and role of microorganisms in its development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Biblosemantic, 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785989/cerebral-visual-impairment-in-children-causes-and-associated-ophthalmological-problems
#4
Niranjan Pehere, Pratik Chougule, Gordon N Dutton
Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Methods: A retrospective review of case records of all children aged <16 years with diagnosis of CVI seen between January 2016 and December 2016 was carried out. Data were collected for their age, gender, cause of CVI, refraction, accommodation, anterior and posterior segment examination findings, and systemic problems...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785838/learning-and-processing-abstract-words-and-concepts-insights-from-typical-and-atypical-development
#6
Gabriella Vigliocco, Marta Ponari, Courtenay Norbury
The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785805/fairness-severe-intellectual-disability-and-the-special-case-of-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Aaron Wightman, Aviva Goldberg, Douglas Diekema
Children with severe intellectual disability have historically been excluded from solid organ transplantation. The purpose of this article was to review the arguments for excluding this population, including claims of poorer recipient and graft survival, a lower QoL as pediatric recipients become adults, and poorer outcomes for other, more deserving pediatric transplant candidates, and make the case that these arguments are no longer persuasive. We will argue that pediatric transplant centers for reasons of social justice, value of relationships, power differential, and fairness should generally not consider intellectual ability or disability as a criterion when making decisions regarding organ transplant eligibility...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785508/lacosamide-a-review-in-focal-onset-seizures-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
Sheridan M Hoy
Lacosamide (Vimpat® ) is a functionalized amino acid (available orally and intravenously) approved in the EU and the USA for use as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal-onset seizures in adults, adolescents and children aged ≥ 4 years with epilepsy. In adults and adolescents (aged ≥ 16 years), oral lacosamide as adjunctive therapy to other antiepileptic drugs was generally effective in reducing seizure frequency during short-term (up to 18 weeks) treatment, with efficacy sustained over the longer-term (up to 8 years)...
May 21, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785408/stroke-prevalence-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Lianna J Marks, Deogratias Munube, Philip Kasirye, Ezekiel Mupere, Zhezhen Jin, Philip LaRussa, Richard Idro, Nancy S Green
Objectives . The prevalence of stroke among children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa was systematically reviewed. Methods . Comprehensive searches of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were performed for articles published between 1980 and 2016 (English or French) reporting stroke prevalence. Using preselected inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts were screened and full-text articles were reviewed. Results . Ten full-text articles met selection criteria. Cross-sectional clinic-based data reported 2...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785076/role-of-osteoprotegerin-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-axis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Lucia Pacifico, Gian Marco Andreoli, Miriam D'Avanzo, Delia De Mitri, Pasquale Pierimarchi
Concomitantly with the increase in the prevalences of overweight/obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has worldwide become the main cause of chronic liver disease in both adults and children. Patients with fatty liver display features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), like insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recently, epidemiological studies have linked obesity, MetS, and NAFLD to decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, highlighting an intricate interplay among bone, adipose tissue, and liver...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785053/management-of-children-and-young-people-cyp-with-asthma-a-clinical-audit-report
#11
Mark L Levy, Angela Ward, Sara Nelson
An asthma attack or exacerbation signals treatment failure. Most attacks are preventable and failure to recognize risk of asthma attacks are well recognized as risk factors for future attacks and even death. Of the 19 recommendations made by the United Kingdom National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) (1) only one has been partially implemented-a National Asthma Audit; however, this hasn't reported yet. The Harrow Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) in London implemented a clinical asthma audit on 291 children and young people aged under 19 years (CYP) who had been treated for asthma attacks in 2016...
May 21, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784512/epidemiology-and-etiology-of-invasive-bacterial-infection-in-infants-%C3%A2-60-days-old-treated-in-emergency-departments
#13
Christopher Woll, Mark I Neuman, Christopher M Pruitt, Marie E Wang, Eugene D Shapiro, Samir S Shah, Russell J McCulloh, Lise E Nigrovic, Sanyukta Desai, Adrienne G DePorre, Rianna C Leazer, Richard D Marble, Fran Balamuth, Elana A Feldman, Laura F Sartori, Whitney L Browning, Paul L Aronson
OBJECTIVES: To help guide empiric treatment of infants ≤60 days old with suspected invasive bacterial infection by describing pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis) evaluated in the emergency departments of 11 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Each site's microbiology laboratory database or electronic medical record system was queried to identify infants from whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from either blood or cerebrospinal fluid...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784284/routine-surveillance-imaging-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-intracranial-hemorrhage-may-not-be-necessary
#14
Smruti K Patel, Yair M Gozal, Bryan M Krueger, James C Bayley, Suzanne Moody, Norberto Andaluz, Richard A Falcone, Karin S Bierbrauer
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) comprises the majority of pediatric traumatic brain injury. Children with mTBI even with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) rarely experience a clinically significant neurologic decline (CSND). The utility of routine surveillance imaging in the pediatric population also remains controversial, especially owing to concerns about the risks of radiation exposure at a young age. This study aims to identify demographic or injury-related characteristics that may facilitate recognition of children at risk of progression with mTBI...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784236/a-review-associations-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-physical-activity-medication-use-eating-behaviors-and-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
REVIEW
Danielle Quesada, Nasar U Ahmed, Kristopher P Fennie, Erica L Gollub, Boubakari Ibrahimou
In the past few years we have become increasingly aware of strong associations between obesity and ADHD. Both conditions are major public health issues, affecting children, adolescents and adults alike. OBJECTIVE: This review seeks to (1) examine prior research on the association between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents; (2) discuss mechanisms and consequent behavioral attributes to gain understanding of the path association between ADHD and obesity, (3) review studies examining the role of physical activity, medication, eating behavior and gender on the relationship between ADHD and obesity in children and adolescents...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784054/systematic-literature-review-and-assessment-of-patient-reported-outcome-instruments-in-sickle-cell-disease
#16
Grammati Sarri, Menaka Bhor, Seye Abogunrin, Caroline Farmer, Savita Nandal, Rashid Halloway, Dennis A Revicki
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic condition associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is characterized by acute clinical symptoms such as painful vaso-occlusive crises, which can impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study was conducted to identify validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for use in future trials of potential treatments for SCD. METHODS: A systematic literature review (SLR) was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify United States (US)-based studies published in English between 1997 and 2017 that reported on validated PRO instruments used in randomized controlled trials and real-world settings...
May 21, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784051/contributions-of-a-survey-and-retrospective-cohort-study-to-the-planning-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-corticosteroids-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-septic-shock
#17
Anna Liu, Kusum Menon
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are challenging to conduct in a paediatric critical-care environment. Background work, including surveys and observational studies, is often used to determine disease estimates, sample sizes and design protocols when planning such RCTs. Our objective was to determine the necessity of performing a survey or a retrospective chart review or both when planning an RCT on corticosteroids in the treatment of paediatric septic shock. METHODS: We compared information on corticosteroid use for moderate to severe paediatric septic shock obtained from a survey of physician beliefs and stated practices with that obtained from a retrospective cohort study...
May 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784007/reporting-to-parents-on-children-s-exposures-to-asthma-triggers-in-low-income-and-public-housing-an-interview-based-case-study-of-ethics-environmental-literacy-individual-action-and-public-health-benefits
#18
Laura J Perovich, Jennifer Liss Ohayon, Elicia Mayuri Cousins, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Phil Brown, Gary Adamkiewicz, Julia Green Brody
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783930/primary-headaches-in-children-and-adolescents-experiences-at-a-single-headache-center-in-korea
#19
Yun Jin Jeong, Yun Tae Lee, In Goo Lee, Ji Yoon Han
BACKGROUND: Headache is a common complaint in children and adolescents. Recently, an increased prevalence of headache in children and adolescents has been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children and adolescents attending the Headache Clinic of Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital during the period from January 2005 through December 2016. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 2466 children, aged between 3 and 18 years (mean age: 10...
May 21, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783881/lemierre-s-syndrome-a-case-study-with-a-short-review-of-literature
#20
Ken De Smet, Paul-Emile Claus, Gudrun Alliet, An Simpelaere, Geert Desmet
Objective and Importance Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is a rare condition that typically starts with a bacterial oropharyngeal infection complicated by a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and septic emboli to the lungs or other organs. The most common organism isolated is Fusobacterium necrophorum, although other causative organisms are isolated in rare cases. Case presentation We discuss a case of LS in a 44-year-old, previously healthy man presenting with an oropharyngeal infection. F. necrophorum was isolated from blood cultures and Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated septic emboli in the lungs...
May 21, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
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