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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549165/impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-for-pediatric-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy
#1
Adam L Hersh, Jared Olson, Chris Stockmann, Emily A Thorell, Elizabeth D Knackstedt, Lawanda Esquibel, Susan Sanderson, Andrew T Pavia
We developed an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) stewardship program in a freestanding children's hospital to improve the appropriateness of OPAT prescribing. Introduction of the program enabled expert review of nearly 90% of the patients being prepared for discharge with OPAT and was associated with a 24% reduction in OPAT use.
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549148/risk-factors-for-invasive-fungal-disease-in-pediatric-cancer-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#2
Brian T Fisher, Paula D Robinson, Thomas Lehrnbecher, William J Steinbach, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Bob Phillips, Lillian Sung
Background.: Although a number of risk factors have been associated with invasive fungal disease (IFD), a systematic review of the literature to document pediatric-specific factors has not been performed. Methods.: We used the Ovid SP platform to search Medline, Medline In-Process, and Embase for studies that identified risk factors for IFD in children with cancer or those who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We included studies if they consisted of children or adolescents (<25 years) who were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing HSCT and if the study evaluated risk factors among patients with and those without IFD...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548996/distal-junctional-failure-following-pediatric-spinal-fusion
#3
Lorena V Floccari, Alvin W Su, Amy L McIntosh, Karl Rathjen, William J Shaughnessy, A Noelle Larson
BACKGROUND: Adjacent segment pathology is a known complication after spinal fusion, but little has been reported on junctional failure. A series of adolescent patients presented with acute distal junctional failure (DJF). We sought to determine any common features of these patients to develop a prevention strategy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of pediatric patients who developed DJF after instrumented spinal fusion performed at 2 institutions from 1999 to 2013...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548873/students-with-asthma-and-its-impacts
#4
Elif Isik, Ismet S Isik
Asthma is a common chronic disease in children. Uncontrolled asthma is a significant contributor to school absenteeism, emergency room visits, and hospitalization, all of which can lead to low school performance, financial burdens, and emotional problems for children and their parents. Asthma in children restricts the activities of school-aged children, such as participating in before- and after-school activity and extracurricular activities such as sports. Uncontrolled asthma has the potential to impact a student's self-confidence and social interactions...
May 1, 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548617/sporadic-pediatric-meningiomas-a-neuroradiological-and-neuropathological-study-of-15-cases
#5
Kristin Huntoon, Charles P Pluto, Lynne Ruess, Daniel R Boué, Christopher R Pierson, Jerome A Rusin, Jeffrey Leonard
OBJECTIVE Sporadic meningiomas have been classified in many different ways. Radiographically, these lesions can be described as occurring in either typical or atypical locations. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any histopathological differences between sporadic meningiomas that arise in these varying locations in children. METHODS The neuroimaging, histopathological findings, and clinical records in patients with sporadic pediatric meningiomas not associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2 or prior radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548616/pediatric-superior-semicircular-canal-dehiscence-illustrative-case-and-systematic-review
#6
Carlito Lagman, Vera Ong, Lawrance K Chung, Lekaa Elhajjmoussa, Christina Fong, Anthony C Wang, Quinton Gopen, Isaac Yang
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to present an illustrative case of pediatric superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and to systematically review the current published literature in the pediatric population. METHODS An electronic search of the Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Embase databases was performed by 2 independent authors through January 2017. Search term combinations included "pediatrics," "children," "canal," and "dehiscence." Inclusion criteria were as follows: English, full-text clinical studies, case reports, and case series describing pediatric patient(s) (younger than 18 years) with CT evidence of SSCD...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548542/a-systematic-review-of-the-impact-of-educational-programs-on-factors-that-affect-nurses-post-operative-pain-management-for-children
#7
Nahar AlReshidi, Tony Long, Angela Darvill
Despite extensive research in the international arena into pain and its management, there is, as yet, little research on the topic of pain in children in Saudi Arabia and in the Gulf countries generally. A systematic review was conducted to explore the impact of education programs on factors affecting paediatric nurses' postoperative pain management practice. This was done in order to advise the creation of an educational program for nurses in Saudi Arabia. Knowledge about pain, attitudes towards pain, beliefs about children's pain, perceptions of children's reports of pain, self-efficacy with regard to pain management, and perceptions of barriers to optimal practice were all considered to be relevant factors...
May 26, 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#8
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548291/practitioner-review-empirical-evolution-of-youth-psychotherapy-toward-transdiagnostic-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Lauren Krumholz Marchette, John R Weisz
BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy for children and adolescents (herein, 'youths') has grown more precise and focused over the decades, shifting toward empirically supported treatments standardized via therapist manuals. The manuals have increasingly emphasized precise targeting of single disorders or problems, or homogenous clusters. These focal treatments represent a valuable advance, with intervention benefit documented in hundreds of studies. However, relatively few of these treatments are widely used in everyday clinical practice, and their level of benefit may not be ideal, particularly in practice contexts and when compared to usual clinical care...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547875/primary-cutaneous-b-cell-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-arising-from-a-long-standing-lesion-in-a-child-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Hannah Song, Patricia Todd, Roberto Chiarle, Amy L Billett, Stephen Gellis
Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) is a rare entity and primary cutaneous B-LBL is an even more uncommon diagnosis that typically affects children. A 4-year-old boy presented with a persistent rash on his left cheek for almost 2 years and was found to have primary cutaneous B-LBL. We report this case to emphasize that B-LBL should be in the differential diagnosis for an otherwise unimpressive persistent lesion in the head and neck region and review all reported pediatric cases of primary cutaneous B-LBL without extracutaneous involvement...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547678/immunosuppression-drug-therapy-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Pamela Burcham, Lisa Sarzynski, Sabrina Khalfoun, Kimberly J Novak, Julie C Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Don Hayes
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common indication for lung transplantation (LTx) in children and adults with severe and irreversible lung disease. In the setting of LTx in the CF population, immunosuppressive medications are used to prevent allograft rejection despite the majority of these patients being chronically infected with numerous, and often antibiotic-resistant, pathogens. There is limited evidence for the optimal post-LTx immunosuppression regimen in patients with CF, particularly in children. This article provides a review of immunosuppression regimens in the pediatric and adult CF post-LTx population, investigating drug dosing and monitoring, and medication combinations...
May 25, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547676/femoral-malrotation-after-surgical-treatment-of-femoral-shaft-fractures-in-children-a-retrospective-ct-based-analysis
#12
Christian Zeckey, Fergal Monsell, Mark Jackson, Philipp Mommsen, Musa Citak, Christian Krettek, Mohamed Omar
BACKGROUND: Rotational malalignment is an important and not always avoidable complication after surgical treatment of femoral shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of rotational malalignment in children after surgical treatment of femoral shaft fractures and to identify potential patient- and treatment-related risk factors based on data obtained from CT scans. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients aged less than 15 years with femoral shaft fractures admitted to our level 1 trauma centre between January 2004 and July 2014...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547648/clinical-and-phenotypic-differences-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-among-arab-and-jewish-children-in-israel
#13
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Husam Bashir, Sarit Peleg, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: Data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes among the Arab population in Israel or in the neighboring Arab countries is scarce. AIM: We aimed to assess differences in disease phenotype among Arab and Jewish children living in Israel. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric IBD cases, which were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center and Ha'Emek Medical Center in Israel between 2000 and 2014...
May 25, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547538/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-multilingualism-on-novel-language-learning-an-integrative-review
#14
Zoya Hirosh, Tamar Degani
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547532/prehospital-blood-transfusions-in-pediatric-trauma-and-nontrauma-patients-a-single-center-review-of-safety-and-outcomes
#15
Aodhnait S Fahy, Cornelius A Thiels, Stephanie F Polites, Maile Parker, Michael B Ishitani, Christopher R Moir, Kathleen Berns, James R Stubbs, Donald H Jenkins, Scott P Zietlow, Martin D Zielinski
PURPOSE: Prehospital transfusions are a novel yet increasingly accepted intervention in the adult population as part of remote damage control resuscitation, but prehospital transfusions remain controversial in children. Our purpose was to review our pediatric prehospital transfusion experience over 12 years to describe the safety of prehospital transfusion in appropriately triaged trauma and nontrauma patients. METHODS: Children (<18 years) transfused with packed red blood cells (pRBC) or plasma during transport to a single regional academic medical center between 2002 and 2014 were identified...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547317/pelvic-pain-in-the-middle-of-the-night-use-of-mri-for-evaluation-of-pediatric-female-pathology-in-the-emergent-setting
#16
Rama S Ayyala, Asef Khwaja, Sudha A Anupindi
Acute pelvic pain in pediatric female patients is a common cause of emergency room visits. Imaging plays a crucial role in the clinical evaluation of these patients. Pelvic pain in female children can result from various pathologies. Ultrasound is the preferred first line imaging study; however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a helpful adjunct after hours, as it is available 24/7 in many institutions. Advantages of MRI include superior delineation of anatomy and higher tissue contrast resolution, particularly of the small pelvic structures...
May 25, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547135/sedentary-behaviour-and-bone-health-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
J B Koedijk, J van Rijswijk, W A Oranje, J P van den Bergh, S P Bours, H H Savelberg, N C Schaper
Sedentary behaviour (SB) is increasing in Western societies and some studies suggest a deleterious effect of SB on bone. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between SB and bone health in children, adolescents and young adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Science Citation Index) were searched for relevant articles up to January 9, 2017. Studies were included when results on bone health (e.g. strength, mass and structure) and either subjectively (questionnaires) or objectively (accelerometry) measured SB were reported in healthy participants ≤24 years...
May 26, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547119/systematic-review-of-meditation-based-interventions-for-children-with-adhd
#18
REVIEW
Subhadra Evans, Mathew Ling, Briony Hill, Nicole Rinehart, David Austin, Emma Sciberras
Meditation-based interventions such as mindfulness and yoga are commonly practiced in the general community to improve mental and physical health. Parents, teachers and healthcare providers are also increasingly using such interventions with children. This review examines the use of meditation-based interventions in the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Electronic databases searched included PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and AMED. Inclusion criteria involved children (aged to 18 years) diagnosed with ADHD, delivery of a meditation-based intervention to children and/or parents, and publication in a peer-reviewed journal...
May 25, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546936/clinical-characteristics-of-sibling-patients-with-comitant-strabismus
#19
Haeng Jin Lee, Seong-Joon Kim, Young Suk Yu
AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics of sibling patients with comitant strabismus. METHODS: Sibling patients who were diagnosed with comitant strabismus from January 2005 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Factors including age, sex, types of strabismus, refractive errors, angle of deviation, and coexistence of other strabismus were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients (31 pairs of siblings) were included. Of these, 26 pairs had intermittent exotropia, 3 had accommodative esotropia, and 2 had infantile esotropia...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546883/how-much-do-we-know-about-adult-onset-primary-tics-prevalence-epidemiology-and-clinical-features
#20
REVIEW
Daphne Robakis
BACKGROUND: Tic disorders are generally considered to be of pediatric onset; however, reports of adult-onset tics exist in the literature. Tics can be categorized as either primary or secondary, with the latter being the larger group in adults. Primary or idiopathic tics that arise in adulthood make up a subset of tic disorders whose epidemiologic and clinical features have not been well delineated. METHODS: Articles to be included in this review were identified by searching PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science using the terms adult- and late-onset tics, which resulted in 120 unique articles...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
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