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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922741/genomic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-sialic-acid-acetylesterase-siae-in-zebrafish
#1
Viola Ravasio, Eufemia Damiati, Daniela Zizioli, Flavia Orizio, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Marta Manzoni, Roberto Bresciani, Giuseppe Borsani, Eugenio Monti
Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the carbon 9 and 4 hydroxyl groups of sialic acid and recently a debate has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. Trying to get new insights on this intriguing enzyme we have studied siae in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this teleost siae encodes for a polypeptide with a high degree of sequence identity to human and mouse counterparts. Zebrafish Siae behavior upon transient expression in COS7 cells is comparable to human enzyme concerning pH optimum of enzyme activity, subcellular localization and glycosylation...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921928/inverted-formins-a-sub-family-of-atypical-formins
#2
REVIEW
Anna Hegsted, Curtis V Yingling, David Pruyne
Formins are a family of regulators of actin and microtubule dynamics that are present in almost all eukaryotes. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes, including cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and cell polarization. Here we review one sub-family of formins, the inverted formins. Inverted formins as a group break several formin stereotypes, having atypical biochemical properties and domain organization, and they have been linked to kidney disease and neuropathy in humans. In this review, we will explore recent research on members of the inverted formin sub-family in mammals, zebrafish, fruit flies, and worms...
September 16, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910320/differential-gene-expression-following-tlr-stimulation-in-rag1-mutant-zebrafish-tissues-and-morphological-descriptions-of-lymphocyte-like-cell-populations
#3
Preeti J Muire, Larry A Hanson, Robert Wills, Lora Petrie-Hanson
In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In fish, these cells include NK cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCCs). We also evaluated the transcriptional expression response of select genes that are important indicators of NK and macrophage activation after exposure to specific TLR ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890382/in-vitro-genotoxicity-and-in-vivo-subchronic-evaluation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-pyrazole-compound-lqfm021
#4
Soraia Santa de Moura, Renato Ivan de Ávila, Lara Barroso Brito, Rhaul de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Francine Pazini, Ricardo Menegatti, Aline Carvalho Batista, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Marize Campos Valadares
Scientific evidences have highlighted 5-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole (LQFM021) as a promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive agent due to its effects on peripheral opioid receptors associated with activation of the nitric oxide/cGMP/KATP pathway. Despite these important pharmacological findings, toxicity data of LQFM021 are scarce. Thus, this study investigated the in vitro genotoxicity of LQFM021 through cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (OECD Nº 487/2014). Moreover, zebrafish model was used to assess the embryotoxicity potential of LQFM021 using fish embryo toxicity test (OECD Nº 236/2013) with extended exposure to evaluate subchronic larval development...
September 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878000/dissecting-hematopoietic-and-renal-cell-heterogeneity-in-adult-zebrafish-at-single-cell-resolution-using-rna-sequencing
#5
Qin Tang, Sowmya Iyer, Riadh Lobbardi, John C Moore, Huidong Chen, Caleb Lareau, Christine Hebert, McKenzie L Shaw, Cyril Neftel, Mario L Suva, Craig J Ceol, Andre Bernards, Martin Aryee, Luca Pinello, Iain A Drummond, David M Langenau
Recent advances in single-cell, transcriptomic profiling have provided unprecedented access to investigate cell heterogeneity during tissue and organ development. In this study, we used massively parallel, single-cell RNA sequencing to define cell heterogeneity within the zebrafish kidney marrow, constructing a comprehensive molecular atlas of definitive hematopoiesis and functionally distinct renal cells found in adult zebrafish. Because our method analyzed blood and kidney cells in an unbiased manner, our approach was useful in characterizing immune-cell deficiencies within DNA-protein kinase catalytic subunit (prkdc), interleukin-2 receptor γ a (il2rga), and double-homozygous-mutant fish, identifying blood cell losses in T, B, and natural killer cells within specific genetic mutants...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860076/the-antiviral-role-of-heat-shock-protein-27-against-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus-infection-in-sea-perch
#6
Yao Le, Peng Jia, Yilin Jin, Wei Liu, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), functioning as a stress induced protective protein, has been reported to participate in various biological processes, including apoptosis, thermal protection, and virus infection. In this study, a HSP27-like gene from the seawater fish sea perch, designated as LjHSP27, was characterized. The 1361 bp full-length cDNA of LjHSP27 encoded a 221 amino acid protein containing a conserved α-crystallin domain, two variable amino- and carboxy-terminal extensions, a WD/EPF motif, two serine phosphorylation sites, and two putative actin binding regions...
August 30, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852872/amino-acids-are-major-energy-substrates-for-tissues-of-hybrid-striped-bass-and-zebrafish
#7
Sichao Jia, Xinyu Li, Shixuan Zheng, Guoyao Wu
Fish generally have much higher requirements for dietary protein than mammals, and this long-standing puzzle remains unsolved. The present study was conducted with zebrafish (omnivores) and hybrid striped bass (HSB, carnivores) to test the hypothesis that AAs are oxidized at a higher rate than carbohydrates (e.g., glucose) and fatty acids (e.g., palmitate) to provide ATP for their tissues. Liver, proximal intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle isolated from zebrafish and HSB were incubated at 28.5 °C (zebrafish) or 26 °C (HSB) for 2 h in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7...
August 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844929/distribution-properties-and-inhibitor-sensitivity-of-zebrafish-catechol-o-methyl-transferases-comt
#8
Svetlana Semenova, Stanislav Rozov, Pertti Panula
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) is an enzyme with multiple functions in vertebrates. COMT methylates and thus inactivates catecholamine neurotransmitters and metabolizes xenobiotic catechols. Gene polymorphism rs4680 that influences the enzymatic activity of COMT affects cognition and behavior in humans. The zebrafish is widely used as an experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research, but most aspects of COMT function in this species have remained uncharacterized. We hypothesized that both comt genes play essential roles in zebrafish...
August 24, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841206/overexpression-of-sox4-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-is-leukemogenic-in-zebrafish
#9
J-W Lu, M-S Hsieh, H-A Hou, C-Y Chen, H-F Tien, L-I Lin
The SOX4 transcription factor is a key regulator of embryonic development, cell-fate decision, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. Abnormal expression of SOX4 is related to malignant tumor transformation and cancer metastasis. However, no reports are available regarding the clinical significance of SOX4 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the role of SOX4 in leukemogenesis. In the current study, we found that AML patients with low bone marrow (BM) SOX4 expression had higher remission rates and longer overall survival than those with high SOX4 expression, regardless of age, white blood cell count at diagnosis, karyotype profile and NPM1/FLT3-ITD status...
August 25, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800244/exploiting-analysis-of-heterogeneity-to-increase-the-information-content-extracted-from-fluorescence-micrographs-of-transgenic-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Tongying Shun, Albert H Gough, Subramaniam Sanker, Neil A Hukriede, Andreas Vogt
Zebrafish embryos are a near-ideal animal model for drug discovery because of their high genetic and physiological similarity to mammals, small size, high fecundity, and optical transparency. The latter properties make zebrafish at larval stages especially suited for high-content analysis and high throughput screening (HTS). However, inherent biological complexity and the inability to screen multiple specimens in a single well present a challenge for HTS because limiting replicates and high variability often prevent assays from reaching the stringent performance criteria demanded of large-scale screening assays...
August 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791769/fluorescent-polymer-nanoparticles-for-cell-barcoding-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Bohdan Andreiuk, Andreas Reisch, Marion Lindecker, Gautier Follain, Nadine Peyriéras, Jacky G Goetz, Andrey S Klymchenko
Fluorescent polymer nanoparticles for long-term labeling and tracking of living cells with any desired color code are developed. They are built from biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer loaded with cyanine dyes (DiO, DiI, and DiD) with the help of bulky fluorinated counterions, which minimize aggregation-caused quenching. At the single particle level, these particles are ≈20-fold brighter than quantum dots of similar color. Due to their identical 40 nm size and surface properties, these nanoparticles are endocytosed equally well by living cells...
August 9, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769124/metformin-inhibits-cyst-formation-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-polycystin-2-deficiency
#12
Ming-Yang Chang, Tsu-Lin Ma, Cheng-Chieh Hung, Ya-Chung Tian, Yung-Chang Chen, Chih-Wei Yang, Yi-Chuan Cheng
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common kidney disease caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2. Metformin reduces cyst growth in mouse models of PKD1. However, metformin has not been studied in animal models of PKD2, and the cellular mechanism underlying its effectiveness is not entirely clear. This study investigated the effects of metformin on cyst formation in a zebrafish model of polycystin-2 deficiency resulting from morpholino knockdown of pkd2. We added metformin (2.5 to 20 mM) to the embryo media between 4 and 48 hours post fertilisation and observed pronephric cyst formation by using the wt1b promoter-driven GFP signal in Tg(wt1b:GFP) pkd2 morphants...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762163/polycystin-2-dependent-cardio-protective-mechanisms-revealed-by-cardiac-stress
#13
Esther Giehl, Fernanda O Lemos, Yan Huang, Frank J Giordano, Ivana Y Kuo, Barbara E Ehrlich
Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the development of multiple kidney cysts, the most frequent cause of death in ADPKD patients is cardiovascular disease. ADPKD is linked to mutations in PKD1 or pkd2, the genes that encode for the proteins polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 (PC1 and PC2, respectively). The cardiovascular complications have been assumed to be a consequence of renal hypertension and activation of renin/angiotensin/aldosterone (RAAS) pathway. However, the expression of PC1 and PC2 in cardiac tissue suggests additional direct effects of these proteins on cardiac function...
July 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753595/clinico-biological-significance-of-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-expression-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#14
H-A Hou, J-W Lu, T-Y Lin, C-H Tsai, W-C Chou, C-C Lin, Y-Y Kuo, C-Y Liu, M-H Tseng, Y-C Chiang, Y-L Peng, J-L Tang, Z Gong, L-I Lin, H-F Tien
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) protein, which encodes a member of signal transducers and activators of transcription-induced inhibitors, takes part in a negative regulation of cytokine signaling. The mechanism of SOCS1 in tumor carcinogenesis is complex and there have been no studies concerning the clinic-biologic implication of SOCS1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we first identified that higher bone marrow (BM) SOCS1 expression was closely associated with older age, FLT3-ITD, NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations, but negatively correlated with CEBPA mutation in patients with de novo AML...
July 28, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750036/generation-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-pde1a-mutant-mice
#15
Xiaofang Wang, Satsuki Yamada, Wells B LaRiviere, Hong Ye, Jason L Bakeberg, María V Irazabal, Fouad T Chebib, Jan van Deursen, Peter C Harris, Caroline R Sussman, Atta Behfar, Christopher J Ward, Vicente E Torres
It has been proposed that a reduction in intracellular calcium causes an increase in intracellular cAMP and PKA activity through stimulation of calcium inhibitable adenylyl cyclase 6 and inhibition of phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1), the main enzymes generating and degrading cAMP in the distal nephron and collecting duct, thus contributing to the development and progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In zebrafish pde1a depletion aggravates and overexpression ameliorates the cystic phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739882/zebrafish-b-cell-development-without-a-pre-b-cell-stage-revealed-by-cd79-fluorescence-reporter-transgenes
#16
Xingjun Liu, Yue-Sheng Li, Susan A Shinton, Jennifer Rhodes, Lingjuan Tang, Hui Feng, Cicely A Jette, A Thomas Look, Kyoko Hayakawa, Richard R Hardy
CD79a and CD79b proteins associate with Ig receptors as integral signaling components of the B cell Ag receptor complex. To study B cell development in zebrafish, we isolated orthologs of these genes and performed in situ hybridization, finding that their expression colocalized with IgH-μ in the kidney, which is the site of B cell development. CD79 transgenic lines were made by linking the promoter and upstream regulatory segments of CD79a and CD79b to enhanced GFP to identify B cells, as demonstrated by PCR analysis of IgH-μ expression in sorted cells...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739660/a-gene-implicated-in-activation-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-targets-is-a-novel-renal-agenesis-gene-in-humans
#17
Patrick D Brophy, Maria Rasmussen, Mrutyunjaya Parida, Greg Bonde, Benjamin W Darbro, Xiaojing Hong, Jason C Clarke, Kevin A Peterson, James Denegre, Michael Schneider, Caroline R Sussman, Lone Sunde, Dorte L Lildballe, Jens Michael Hertz, Robert A Cornell, Stephen A Murray, J Robert Manak
Renal agenesis (RA) is one of the more extreme examples of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Bilateral renal agenesis is almost invariably fatal at birth, and unilateral renal agenesis can lead to future health issues including end-stage renal disease. Genetic investigations have identified several gene variants that cause RA, including EYA1, LHX1, and WT1 However, whereas compound null mutations of genes encoding α and γ retinoic acid receptors (RARs) cause RA in mice, to date there have been no reports of variants in RAR genes causing RA in humans...
September 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735502/regenerative-medicine-in-kidney-disease-where-we-stand-and-where-to-go
#18
REVIEW
Fernanda T Borges, Nestor Schor
The kidney is a complex organ with more than 20 types of specialized cells that play an important role in maintaining the body's homeostasis. The epithelial tubular cell is formed during embryonic development and has little proliferative capacity under physiological conditions, but after acute injury the kidney does have regenerative capacity. However, after repetitive or severe lesions, it may undergo a maladaptation process that predisposes it to chronic kidney injury. Regenerative medicine includes various repair and regeneration techniques, and these have gained increasing attention in the scientific literature...
July 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729419/the-exocyst-is-required-for-photoreceptor-ciliogenesis-and-retinal-development
#19
Glenn P Lobo, Diana Fulmer, Lilong Guo, Xiaofeng Zuo, Yujing Dang, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yanhui Su, Kola George, Elisabeth Obert, Ben Fogelgren, Deepak Nihalani, Russell A Norris, Bärbel Rohrer, Joshua H Lipschutz
We previously have shown that the highly conserved eight-protein exocyst trafficking complex is required for ciliogenesis in kidney tubule cells. We hypothesized here that ciliogenic programs are conserved across organs and species. To determine whether renal primary ciliogenic programs are conserved in the eye, and to characterize the function and mechanisms by which the exocyst regulates eye development in zebrafish, we focused on exoc5, a central component of the exocyst complex, by analyzing both exoc5 zebrafish mutants, and photoreceptor-specific Exoc5 knock-out mice...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719799/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-a-new-player-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-diseases-structure-biology-and-therapeutic-roles
#20
REVIEW
Yeawon Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Ying Maggie Chen
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a newly identified 18-kDa soluble protein, localizes to the luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whose stress can stimulate MANF expression and secretion. In Drosophila and zebrafish, MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development. In contrast, in mice, MANF deficiency leads to diabetes and activation of the unfolded protein response. Recent studies in rodent models have demonstrated that MANF mitigates diabetes, exerts neurotrophic function in neurodegenerative disease, protects cardiomyocytes and neurons in myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia, respectively, and promotes immune cell phenotype switch from proinflammatory macrophages to prorepair anti-inflammatory macrophages...
October 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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