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posterior fossa first trimester

Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Manoel Sarno, Marcelo Aquino, Kleber Pimentel, Renata Cabral, Gisela Costa, Fernanda Bastos, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the pattern and progression of Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions of microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly after a routine primary care ultrasound scan suspect a fetal microcephaly in Salvador, Brazil, from July/2015 to February/2016 and these pregnancies were followed until delivery. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was below two or more standard deviation for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to World Health Organization criteria...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Reinhard Altmann, Iris Scharnreitner, Thomas Scheier, Richard Mayer, Wolfgang Arzt, Matthias Scheier
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sonographic appearance and temporal changes of the structures of the posterior cranial fossa in fetuses at a crown-rump length (CRL) between 45 and 84 mm in transvaginal acquired three-dimensional volume blocks. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study including 80 fetuses, whose mothers attended Kepler University Hospital Linz or the Ambulatorium für Fetalmedizin Feldkirch for first-trimester sonography...
August 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Yoshiyuki Okada, Junichi Hasegawa, Takashi Mimura, Tatsuya Arakaki, Shinichiro Yoshikawa, Yuka Yamashita, Tomohiro Oba, Masamitsu Nakamura, Ryu Matsuoka, Akihiko Sekizawa
The patient had a previous history of laparoscopic myomectomy. At 10 weeks of gestation, she visited our emergency center due to sudden abdominal pain. An ultrasound examination and MRI showed complete rupture of the uterine myometrium in the fundal wall and a floating gestation sac in Douglas' fossa with fluid. Emergency abdominal laparotomy was immediately performed due to the diagnosis of uterine rupture. During surgery, a small defect of the myometrium was found in the posterior fundal wall of the uterus...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
P Mace, E Quarello
The diagnosis of an abnormal fetal posterior fossa is usually done during the second trimester scan. However, some forms of open spina bifida with Arnold-Chiari malformation can be detected from the first trimester ultrasound with a precise examination of the posterior fossa and intracranial translucency. Furthermore, other abnormalities of the posterior fossa such as cystic malformations also seem to be accessible to early detection. This work detailed the possible usual and unusual aspects of the posterior fossa individualized during the first trimester ultrasound scan...
January 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Emanuela Orlandi, Cinzia Rossi, Antonio Perino, Gaspare Cucinella, Francesco Orlandi
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review to assess the effectiveness of first trimester ultrasonographic markers of spina bifida (SB) integrating data with our prospective experience. METHODS: The analysis of the SB cases that we prospectively detected in the first trimester, between January 2012 and February 2014, and a systematic review of all the papers evaluating the effectiveness of SB ultrasonographic markers at 11-14 weeks, namely brain stem diameter (BS), fourth ventricle/intracranial translucency (IT), cisterna magna (CM), brain stem/occipital bone distance (BSOB), the ratio between BS and BSOB...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
P Volpe, E Contro, T Fanelli, B Muto, G Pilu, M Gentile
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sonographic appearance of fetal posterior fossa anatomy at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy and to assess the outcome of fetuses with increased intracranial translucency (IT) and/or brainstem-to-occipital bone (BSOB) diameter. METHODS: Reference ranges for brainstem (BS), IT and cisterna magna (CM) measurements, BSOB diameter and the BS : BSOB ratio were obtained from the first-trimester ultrasound examination of 233 fetuses with normal postnatal outcome (control group)...
June 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ching Hua Hsiao, Po Jen Cheng, S W Steven Shaw, Yin Jiun Tseng, Ran Chou Chen, Woei-Chyn Chu
OBJECTIVE: The posterior fossa of normal fetuses was evaluated and compared with those having chromosomal abnormalities at 11-13+6 weeks' gestation in Chinese population. METHODS: In 518 normal fetuses referred to first trimester screening, fetal brain stem (BS) and brain stem to occipital bone distance (BSOB) were measured prospectively. The BS and BSOB were also measured on stored images in fetuses with confirmed trisomy 21 (n = 38), Trisomy 18 (n = 26), Trisomy 13 (n = 8), and monosomy X (n = 8)...
2015: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Simcha Yagel, Sarah M Cohen, Shay Porat, Hagit Daum, Michal Lipschuetz, Hagai Amsalem, Baruch Messing, Dan V Valsky
OBJECTIVES: To compare visualization rates for early targeted organ scanning at gestational ages ranging from 11 weeks 3 days to 13 weeks 2 days versus 14 weeks 3 days to 16 weeks 2 days. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of patients who presented for nuchal translucency (NT) screening and targeted organ scanning. Extended targeted organ scanning, including the central nervous system, face and neck, chest, heart (including complete echocardiography), digestive system, abdominal wall, urinary system, skeleton, and umbilical cord with its insertion and placenta, was performed on gravidas in 2 age ranges...
January 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Feng-Zhen Qin, Sheng-Li Li, Hua-Xuan Wen, Yu-Rong Ouyang, Qiong Zheng, Jing-Ru Bi
OBJECTIVE: To establish the normal reference ranges of transabdominal ultrasound measurements of the posterior fossa structure in fetuses at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks and explore their clinical value in screening open spina bifida (OSB). METHODS: Between January, 2013 and September, 541 randomly selected normal fetuses underwent nuchal translucency at the gestational age 11 to 13⁺⁶ weeks. The parameters of the posterior fossa were measured in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face and the axial view of the transverse cerebellum insonated through the anterior fontanel by transabdominal ultrasound to establish the normal reference ranges...
June 2014: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Marcela Buitrago-Leal, Saulo Molina-Giraldo
BACKGROUND: The intracranial translucency (IT) is described as echolucid space located in the fetal central nervous system corresponding to the fourth ventricle. Alteration in the first trimester is associated with neural tube defects (NTDs). OBJECTIVE: To describe as part of the ultrasonographic assessment of the first quarter, the technical and the normal values of intracranial translucency, factors that affect its display, variability and reproducibility, diagnostic operational characteristics (sensitivity and specificity) and other utilities in the prenatal diagnosis...
April 2014: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Marcela Buitrago-Leal, Saulo Molina-Giraldo
BACKGROUND: The intracranial translucency (IT) is described as echolucid space located in the fetal central nervous system corresponding to the fourth ventricle. Alteration in the first trimester is associated with neural tube defects (NTDs). OBJECTIVE: Describe the technique and normal values of translucency and everything that makes this resourse a useful option in the detection of defects and abnormalities. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of the literature registered in: PubMed, Ovid, and ProQuest, between September 2009 and January 2013...
January 2014: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Buddhika Tb Wijerathne, Geetha K Rathnayake, Sisira K Ranaraja
Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by the absence and replacement of the cerebral hemispheres with cerebrospinal fluid. Here, we present an ultrasonographic diagnosis of a case of a rare variant of fetal hydranencephaly at 38 weeks of gestation. Obstetric sonography revealed the absence of the cerebral cortex, thalami and basal ganglia with a disrupted falx and preserved posterior fossa structures. This is the first reported case of hydranencephaly with the absence of the thalami and basal ganglia, which was diagnosed prenatally...
2012: F1000Research
Aydın Köşüş, Nermin Köşüş, Betül Usluoğulları, Müzeyyen Duran, Nilgün Öztürk Turhan, Mehmet Tekşam
Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary imaging method for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities since its discovery. Although it is the primary method of fetal imaging, it cannot provide sufficient information about the fetus in some conditions such as maternal obesity, oligohydramnios and engagement of the fetal head. At this stage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates examination by providing more specific information. The need and importance of fetal MRI applications further increased by the intrauterine surgery which is currently gaining popularity...
2011: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Tiran Dias, Shanthi Sairam, Shanya Kumarasiri
Development of the urogenital system in humans is a complex process; consequently, renal anomalies are among the most common congenital anomalies. The fetal urinary tract can be visualised ultrasonically from 11 weeks onwards, allowing recognition of megacystis at 11-14 weeks, which warrants comprehensive risk assessment of possible underlying chromosomal aneuploidy or obstructive uropathy. A mid-trimester anomaly scan enables detection of most renal anomalies with higher sensitivity. Bilateral renal agenesis can be confirmed ultrasonically, with empty renal fossae and absent bladder filling, along with severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios...
April 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
E Contro, P Volpe, F De Musso, B Muto, T Ghi, V De Robertis, G Pilu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the brainstem-vermis (BV) angle in the diagnosis of fetal posterior fossa abnormalities at 15-18 weeks' gestation. METHODS: We examined retrospectively three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes acquired at 15-18 gestational weeks in fetuses with normal posterior fossa (controls) and in those with cystic posterior fossa. Whether the fourth ventricle appeared open posteriorly in axial views was noted and the BV angle was measured...
February 2014: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gabriele Tonni, Tonni Gabriele, Gianpaolo Grisolia, Grisolia Gianpaolo
PURPOSE: Sirenomelia is caused by atrophy of the lower extremities that is commonly associated with gastrointestinal and urogenital malformations. METHODS: Embryogenic environmental theories and systematic review of the literature are reported. RESULTS: Genetic basis of the condition has been demonstrated in the animal model. In humans, association with de novo balanced translocation has only recently been documented. CONCLUSIONS: A case of triploidy mosaic fetus with sirenomelia and posterior fossa anomaly diagnosed at first trimester using novel three-dimensional ultrasound imaging techniques is presented...
July 2013: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
M Rousian, I A L Groenenberg, W C Hop, A H J Koning, P J van der Spek, N Exalto, E A P Steegers
The aim of our study was to evaluate the first trimester cerebellar growth and development using 2 different measuring techniques: 3-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) ultrasound visualization. The cerebellum measurements were related to gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL). Finally, the reproducibility of both the methods was tested. In a prospective cohort study, we collected 630 first trimester, serially obtained, 3D ultrasound scans of 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 7 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of GA...
August 2013: Reproductive Sciences
R Garcia-Posada, E Eixarch, M Sanz, B Puerto, F Figueras, A Borrell
OBJECTIVE: To construct reference ranges for cisterna magna (CM) width at 11-13 weeks' gestation in healthy fetuses and determine whether open spina bifida and posterior fossa anomalies could be diagnosed in the first trimester. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. CM width reference ranges were constructed based on the measurements obtained from 80 healthy fetuses with normal postnatal outcome undergoing routine first-trimester ultrasound at 11-13 weeks, using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method...
May 2013: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ana Fatima A Ferreira, Argyro Syngelaki, Anna Smolin, Ana-Maria Vayna, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in the posterior fossa of first-trimester fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and triploidy. METHODS: Brain stem (BS) diameter and BS to occipital bone (BSOB) diameter were measured in images of the midsagittal view of the face at 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks from 45 trisomy 18, 21 trisomy 13 and 15 triploid fetuses and compared with values in 162 euploid fetuses. RESULTS: In euploid fetuses BS and BSOB diameters increased significantly with crown-rum length and the BS to BSOB ratio decreased...
September 2012: Prenatal Diagnosis
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