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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680707/mice-selectively-bred-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-behavior-conserve-more-fat-despite-increased-exercise
#1
Layla Hiramatsu, Theodore Garland
Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes...
April 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669697/the-prevalence-of-sarcopaenia-in-a-vascular-surgical-patient-cohort-and-its-impact-on-outcome
#2
Rachel Heard, Douglas Black, George Ramsay, Neil Scott, Diane Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: Sarcopaenia, loss of lean muscle mass and quality, has prognostic significance and can be used to guide the management of oncology patients.1 However, there is limited research into the prevalence and effect of sarcopaenia in vascular populations. We aim to investigate the prevalence of this measure of physiological reserve in a vascular patient group. METHODS: All patients admitted to a tertiary vascular unit in a single year were considered for the study...
April 16, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659969/aspartame-consumption-for-12-weeks-does-not-affect-glycemia-appetite-or-body-weight-of-healthy-lean-adults-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Kelly A Higgins, Robert V Considine, Richard D Mattes
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims. Objective: The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims. Methods: One hundred lean [body mass index (kg/m2): 18-25] adults aged 18-60 y were randomly assigned to consume 0, 350, or 1050 mg aspartame/d (ASP groups) in a beverage for 12 wk in a parallel-arm design...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656743/prognostic-stratification-model-for-patients-with-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-adenocarcinoma-treated-with-surgical-resection-without-adjuvant-therapies-using-metabolic-features-measured-on-f-18-fdg-pet-and-postoperative-pathologic-factors
#4
Yeon-Koo Kang, Yoo Sung Song, Sukki Cho, Sanghoon Jheon, Won Woo Lee, Kwhanmien Kim, Sang Eun Kim
PURPOSE: In the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the prognostic stratification of stage I tumors without indication of adjuvant therapy, remains to be elucidated in order to better select patients who can benefit from additional therapies. We aimed to stratify the prognosis of patients with stage I NSCLC adenocarcinoma using clinicopathologic factors and F-18 FDG PET. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 128 patients with stage I NSCLC without any high-risk factors, who underwent curative surgical resection without adjuvant therapies...
May 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652901/early-postnatal-soluble-fgfr3-therapy-prevents-the-atypical-development-of-obesity-in-achondroplasia
#5
Celine Saint-Laurent, Stephanie Garcia, Vincent Sarrazy, Karine Dumas, Florence Authier, Sophie Sore, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Isabelle Gennero, Jean-Pierre Salles, Elvire Gouze
BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650459/examining-the-feasibility-of-healthy-minimum-stocking-standards-for-small-food-stores
#6
Allison Karpyn, Robin S DeWeese, Jennifer E Pelletier, Melissa N Laska, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Amy Deahl-Greenlaw, Ogheneruona Ughwanogho, Stephanie Bell Jilcott Pitts
OBJECTIVE: In response to recent national efforts to increase the availability of healthy food in small stores, we sought to understand the extent to which small food stores could implement the newly published Healthy Small Store Minimum Stocking Recommendations and reflect on the new US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service's final rule for stocking of staple foods for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-approved retailers. DESIGN: We collected qualitative and quantitative data from 57 small stores in four states (Arizona, Delaware, Minnesota, and North Carolina) that accepted Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program but not Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children benefits...
April 9, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642955/successful-implementation-of-lean-as-a-managerial-principle-in-health-care-a-conceptual-analysis-from-systematic-literature-review
#7
Riikka Maijala, Sini Eloranta, Tero Reunanen, Tuija S Ikonen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the characteristics of leadership and management associated with a successful Lean thinking adaptation in healthcare. DESIGN: A systematic literature review was undertaken using electronic databases: PubMed, PubMed Systematic Review, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Complete, Emerald, JBI, and Cinahl. Inclusion criteria were: (i) a description of Lean management or leadership in health care, (ii) a reference to Lean thinking, (iii) a peer-reviewed original research article or a literature review, and (iv) a full text article available in English...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642612/ponseti-technique-for-the-management-of-congenital-talipes-equinovarus-in-a-rural-set-up-in-india-experience-of-356-patients
#8
Rohit Malhotra, Ashutosh Mohapatra, Geetika Arora, Priyam Choudhury, Hitesh Joshi, Pranav Patel
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also known as clubfoot, is a complex congenital deformity of the foot that, left untreated, can limit a person's mobility by making it difficult and painful to walk. Worldwide, 80% of children born with clubfoot are in low- and middle-income countries. The management of clubfoot has a long history. Non-operative management did not become popular, as an increasing number of orthopaedists started leaning towards surgical treatment. The late Dr. Ignacio Ponseti developed a method of clubfoot correction that successfully realigns clubfoot in infants without extensive and major surgery...
April 10, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624141/management-simulations-for-lean-healthcare-exploiting-the-potentials-of-role-playing
#9
Federico Barnabè, Maria Cleofe Giorgino, Jacopo Guercini, Caterina Bianciardi, Vincenzo Mezzatesta
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potentials of role-playing (RP) both in training healthcare (HC) professionals to implement tools and improvement actions based on Lean principles, and in supporting group discussion and the sharing of different competencies for the development of Lean HC. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents the case study of an RP simulation called LEAN HEALTHCARE LAB, which is used to train HC professionals at Siena University Hospital. The paper reports and discusses the results of a specific two-day simulation session and of a questionnaire that was distributed to gather feedback from the participants...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619669/longitudinal-associations-of-lifetime-adiposity-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number
#10
Dong Hang, Hongmei Nan, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Immaculata De Vivo, Andrew Tan Chan, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Edward Giovannucci, Mingyang Song
Adiposity may cause adverse health outcomes by increasing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which can be reflected by altered telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtCN) in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on TL and mtCN in later life. This study was performed to investigate the associations of lifetime adiposity with leukocyte TL and mtCN in 9613 participants from the Nurses' Health Study. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was used to create trajectories of body shape from age 5 through 60 years, and a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on 97 known adiposity susceptibility variants...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605330/effects-of-nutrition-on-the-fertility-of-lactating-dairy-cattle
#11
R M Rodney, P Celi, W Scott, K Breinhild, J E P Santos, I J Lean
This meta-analysis of 39 experiments containing 118 treatments explored the effects of diet interventions in early lactation on the proportion of dairy cows pregnant to artificial insemination (AI; pregnancy to AI) and on calving to pregnancy interval. It also identified factors that may explain variation in these responses. The objectives were to identify effects of diet on reproduction, rather than differences between specific dietary interventions. The examination of calving to pregnancy interval used the more traditional method of analyzing differences between a treatment and the reference treatment used for comparison within a given experiment...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587703/programming-and-supervision-of-resistance-training-leads-to-positive-effects-on-strength-and-body-composition-results-from-two-randomised-trials-of-community-fitness-programmes
#12
Steven Mann, Alfonso Jimenez, James Steele, Sarah Domone, Matthew Wade, Chris Beedie
BACKGROUND: Many sedentary adults have high body fat along with low fitness, strength, and lean body mass (LBM) which are associated with poor health independently of body mass. Physical activity can aid in prevention, management, and treatment of numerous chronic conditions. The potential efficacy of resistance training (RT) in modifying risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disease is clear. However, RT is under researched in public health. We report community-based studies of RT in sedentary (Study 1), and overweight and pre-diabetic (Study 2) populations...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565986/an-unfavorable-body-composition-is-common-in-early-arthritis-patients-a-case-control-study
#13
Samina A Turk, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg, Maarten Boers, Sylvia de Boer, Cindy Fokker, Willem F Lems, Michael T Nurmohamed
BACKGROUND: An unfavorable body composition is often present in chronic arthritis patients. This unfavorable composition is a loss of muscle mass, with a stable or increased (abdominal) fat mass. Since it is unknown when this unfavorable composition develops, we compared body composition in disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD)-naive early arthritis patients with non-arthritis controls and explored the association, in early arthritis patients, with disease activity and traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543658/preoperative-pain-sensitization-is-associated-with-postoperative-pillar-pain-after-open-carpal-tunnel-release
#14
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523411/applying-lean-six-sigma-methodology-in-radiotherapy-lessons-learned-by-the-breast-daily-repositioning-case
#15
Pietro Mancosu, Giorgia Nicolini, Giulia Goretti, Fiorenza De Rose, Davide Franceschini, Chiara Ferrari, Giacomo Reggiori, Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Lean Six Sigma Methodology (LSSM) was introduced in industry to provide near-perfect services to large processes, by reducing improbable occurrence. LSSM has been applied to redesign the 2D-2D breast repositioning process (Lean) by the retrospective analysis of the database (Six Sigma). MATERIALS & METHODS: Breast patients with daily 2D-2D matching before RT were considered. The five DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) LSSM steps were applied...
March 6, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522861/association-of-regular-walking-and-body-mass-index-on-metabolic-syndrome-among-an-elderly-korean-population
#16
Soon-Young Kim, Dong-Il Kim
Aging is associated with increased body fat and lower lean body mass, which leads to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the association of regular participation in walking and body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria in elderly Koreans. A total of 3554 (male = 1581, female = 1973) elderly subjects (age ≥ 65 years), who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517495/hydroxychloroquine-balancing-the-need-to-maintain-therapeutic-levels-with-ocular-safety-an-update
#17
Nada Abdulaziz, Anjali R Shah, William J McCune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimalarial drugs including chloroquine, its less toxic quinolone-derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and quinacrine have become cornerstones in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, and Sjogren syndrome; cutaneous disorders, antiphospholipid syndrome, and have recently been employed at higher dioses in oncology. Benefits include anti-inflammatory effects, protection against thrombosis, and improved control of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506228/sarcopenic-obesity-hidden-muscle-wasting-and-its-impact-for-survival-and-complications-of-cancer-therapy
#18
V E Baracos, L Arribas
Body composition, defined as the proportions and distribution of lean and fat tissues in the human body, is an emergent theme in clinical oncology. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) is most easily overlooked in obese patients; the advent of secondary analysis of oncologic images provides a precise and specific assessment of sarcopenia. Here, we review the definitions, prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in medical and surgical oncology. Reported prevalence of SO varies due to the heterogeneity in the definitions and the variability in the cut points used to define low muscle mass and high fat mass...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500672/preoperative-detection-of-sarcopenic-obesity-helps-to-predict-the-occurrence-of-gastric-leak-after-sleeve-gastrectomy
#19
Martin Gaillard, Hadrien Tranchart, Sophie Maitre, Gabriel Perlemuter, Panagiotis Lainas, Ibrahim Dagher
BACKGROUND: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the primary procedure for many bariatric teams and staple-line leak represents its most feared complication. Sarcopenic obesity combines the risks of obesity and depleted lean mass leading possibly to an inferior surgical outcome after abdominal surgery. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of a potential link between radiologically determined sarcopenic obesity and staple-line leak risk after SG...
March 2, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490721/the-efficacy-of-daily-snack-replacement-with-oligofructose-enriched-granola-bars-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-12-week-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Korrie Pol, Cees de Graaf, Diederick Meyer, Monica Mars
Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention...
March 1, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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