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Perception training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164549/-improving-the-accuracy-rate-of-analgesics-and-sedatives-administration-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#1
Hsiu-Chuan Lai, Ya-Huei Chen, Yi-Jene Li, Hui-Mei Huang, Chien-Hua Tseng, Ming-Cheng Chan
BACKGROUND: Patients with respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation are common in the intensive care unit. These patients often require sedative and analgesic agents to alleviate their discomfort and to avoid causing associated safety issues. However, prolonged post-awakening confusion and changes in perception after withdrawal from sedatives and analgesic agents are common in daily practice. Thus, the optimal use of sedative and analgesic agents remains an important issue in the intensive care unit...
December 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164171/health-care-students-attitudes-about-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-responses-to-narrative-vignettes
#2
Kelly D Coons, Shelley L Watson, Nicole M Yantzi, Nancy E Lightfoot, Sylvie Larocque
This article explores medical, midwifery, and nurse practitioner students' attitudes about women who may consume alcohol throughout their pregnancies. Twenty-one health care students responded to a scenario-based vignette addressing alcohol consumption during pregnancy, as well as a semistructured interview, which were analyzed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis approach. Two primary themes related to students' attitudes concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy were identified: (a) divergent recommendations for different women, based on perceptions of their level of education, culture/ethnicity, and ability to stop drinking; and (b) understanding the social determinants of health, including the normalization of women's alcohol consumption and potential partner violence...
January 2017: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163099/a-computational-analysis-of-neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-maturation-of-multisensory-speech-integration-in-neurotypical-children-and-those-on-the-autism-spectrum
#3
Cristiano Cuppini, Mauro Ursino, Elisa Magosso, Lars A Ross, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Failure to appropriately develop multisensory integration (MSI) of audiovisual speech may affect a child's ability to attain optimal communication. Studies have shown protracted development of MSI into late-childhood and identified deficits in MSI in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Currently, the neural basis of acquisition of this ability is not well understood. Here, we developed a computational model informed by neurophysiology to analyze possible mechanisms underlying MSI maturation, and its delayed development in ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162572/protocol-a-cluster-randomised-control-trial-study-exploring-stigmatisation-and-recovery-based-perspectives-regarding-mental-illness-and-substance-use-problems-among-primary-healthcare-providers-across-toronto-ontario
#4
Akwatu Khenti, Robert Mann, Jaime C Sapag, Sireesha J Bobbili, Emily K Lentinello, Mark van der Maas, Branka Agic, Hayley Hamilton, Heather Stuart, Scott Patten, Marcos Sanches, Patrick Corrigan
INTRODUCTION: Primary care settings are often the first and only point of contact for persons with mental health and/or substance use problems. However, staff experience and training in this area are often limited. These factors as well as a multitude of other components such as structural and systemic stigma experienced by staff can lead to clients being stigmatised, leading to poorer outcomes. By developing a comprehensive intervention for primary care staff working at community health centres (CHCs) aimed at reducing stigma towards people with mental health and substance use problems (MHSUP), we sought to test an innovative and contact-based intervention consisting of staff training, raising awareness, a recovery-focused art programme and an analysis of internal policies and procedures...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161949/learning-letters-with-the-whole-body-visuomotor-versus-visual-teaching-in-kindergarten
#5
Florence Bara, Nathalie Bonneton-Botté
What constitutes effective teaching of letter learning in early school years is still uncertain. We assessed the impact of a teacher-implemented visuomotor intervention program to teach 5-year-olds' cursive letter knowledge. We compared a program in which letters were explored with the arm and whole body, with a typical visual training program. Children were tested before and after the intervention with different measures of letter knowledge. We showed a greater improvement in letter recognition following the visuomotor intervention, compared with the visual intervention...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161375/health-system-factors-affecting-implementation-of-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-imci-qualitative-insights-from-a-south-african-province
#6
Himani Pandya, Wiedaad Slemming, Haroon Saloojee
The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has been adopted by 102 countries including South Africa, as the preferred primary health care (PHC) delivery strategy for sick children under 5 years. Despite substantial investment to support IMCI in South Africa, its delivery remains sub-optimal, with varied implementation in different settings. There is scarce research globally, and in the local context, examining the effects of health system characteristics on IMCI implementation. This study explored key determinants of IMCI delivery in a South African province, with a specific focus on health system building blocks using a health system dynamics framework...
November 17, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161227/motor-skill-learning-and-the-development-of-visual-perception-processes-supporting-action-identification
#7
Inchon Park, John J Buchanan
This study examined physical training and observational training influences on motor learning and the development of visual discrimination processes. Participants were trained on a bimanual task (relative phase of +90°) defined by a visual training stimulus. There were 2 observational contexts: 1) model-only, watch a learning model, and 2) stimulus-only, watch the visual training stimulus. After 2 d of training, the learning models performed the +90° pattern with reduced error in 2 retention tests. Each observer group showed improvement in performance of the +90° pattern, with the stimulus-only group characterized by a more significant improvement...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161113/disseminability-of-computerized-cognitive-training-performance-across-coaches
#8
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Jason M Ashford, Kellie N Clark, Karen Martin-Elbahesh, Kristina K Hardy, Thomas E Merchant, Sima Jeha, Robert J Ogg, Hui Zhang, Lei Wang, Heather M Conklin
Cogmed is a computerized cognitive intervention utilizing coaches who receive standardized instruction in analyzing training indices and tailoring feedback to remotely monitor participant's performance. The goal of this study was to examine adherence, satisfaction, and efficacy of Cogmed across coaches. Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 68) were randomized to intervention (Cogmed) or waitlist control. The intervention group was matched with one of two coaches. Cognitive assessments were completed before and after intervention, and participants and caregivers in the intervention group completed satisfaction surveys...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160002/a-randomized-double-blind-trial-of-needle-free-injected-lidocaine-versus-topical-anesthesia-for-infant-lumbar-puncture
#9
Ryan Caltagirone, Vidya R Raghavan, Kathleen Adelgais, Genie E Roosevelt
OBJECTIVES: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are commonly performed in febrile infants to evaluate for meningitis, and local anesthesia increases the likelihood of LP success. Traditional methods of local anesthesia require injection which may be painful or topical application which is not effective immediately. Recent advances in needle-free jet injection may offer a rapid alternative to these modalities. We compared a needle-free jet-injection system (J-Tip(™) ) with 1% buffered lidocaine to topical anesthetic (TA) cream for local anesthesia in infant LPs...
November 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159198/perceptions-of-safety-among-lgbtq-people-following-the-2016-pulse-nightclub-shooting
#10
Christopher B Stults, Sandra A Kupprat, Kristen D Krause, Farzana Kapadia, Perry N Halkitis
The goals of this manuscript are two-fold. First, we provide a brief reaction to this journal's "Special Section: Reflections on the Orlando Massacre on its First Anniversary." Second, we present findings from a study on perceptions of safety among LGBTQ individuals following the Pulse shooting. These issues are discussed within the historical context of hate crimes experienced by the LGBTQ population (Herek), media coverage following the shooting (Hancock & Halderman), and the immediate reaction of LGBTQ graduate students to the event (Jackson)...
September 2017: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157241/organizational-and-provider-level-factors-in-implementation-of-trauma-informed-care-after-a-city-wide-training-an-explanatory-mixed-methods-assessment
#11
April Joy Damian, Joseph Gallo, Philip Leaf, Tamar Mendelson
BACKGROUND: While there is increasing support for training youth-serving providers in trauma-informed care (TIC) as a means of addressing high prevalence of U.S. childhood trauma, we know little about the effects of TIC training on organizational culture and providers' professional quality of life. This mixed-methods study evaluated changes in organizational- and provider-level factors following participation in a citywide TIC training. METHODS: Government workers and nonprofit professionals (N = 90) who participated in a nine-month citywide TIC training completed a survey before and after the training to assess organizational culture and professional quality of life...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156548/patient-provider-communication-and-counseling-about-gestational-weight-gain-and-physical-activity-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perceptions-and-experiences-of-latinas-pregnant-with-their-first-child
#12
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Sherrie F Wallington, Mary L Greaney, Marcia M Tavares Machado, Gabriela P De Andrade
Latina women in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionately affected by obesity and are more likely to begin pregnancy overweight and gain excessive weight during pregnancy. The prenatal care period represents a window of opportunity for women to access the healthcare system and receive preventive services, education, nutritional support, and other social services to improve pregnancy outcomes. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) has numerous negative short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and newborn...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155182/inspector-perceptions-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-s-newest-recommended-food-facility-inspection-format-training-matters
#13
Jing Ma, Jooho Kim, Barbara Almanza
The Food and Drug Administration publishes the Food Code to guide restaurant inspections. The most recent version proposes a three-tier system categorizing violations as priority, priority foundation, and core. This study used a scenario-based questionnaire to examine inspector perceptions and preferences for inspection formats. Results suggest that inspectors would be able to maintain consistent evaluations when changing to the three-tier system, although the classifying terms under the three-tier system were confusing...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#14
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin R Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Y Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65-84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153983/perceptions-intentions-and-behavioral-norms-that-affect-pre-license-driving-among-arab-youth-in-israel
#15
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Mina Zemach, Tsippy Lotan, Wafa Elias, Einat Grimberg
The present study examines reported pre-license driving among youth from the population of Arab citizens of Israel. The purpose of the present study is to examine which sociodemographic variables, attitudes and perceptions about safe driving and individual and societal behavioral norms are associated with pre-license driving. The research distinguished between the factors that actually contribute to pre-license driving (reported behavior, peer norms, gender and parents' messages) and the factors that explain the intention (parental authority, social norms, parents' messages and fear of road crashes)...
November 15, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152714/scaffolding-as-a-key-role-for-teaching-assistants-perceptions-of-their-pedagogical-strategies
#16
David Bowles, Julie Radford, Ioanna Bakopoulou
BACKGROUND: Inclusive education policies have led to a worldwide increase in the number of teaching assistants (TAs) working in mainstream schools. TAs have a large amount of responsibility for supporting children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), a role which by default has become instructional in practice, and for which training and preparation are rarely adequate. While there is some research into the nature of TAs' interactions with pupils and the strategies they use which are helpful for children's learning, TAs' perspectives on their own classroom practice have yet to be explored...
November 19, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152687/utility-of-low-fidelity-manikins-for-learning-high-quality-chest-compressions
#17
Meenakshi Girish, Alka Rawekar, Sujo Jose, Umesh Chaudhari, Girish Nanoti
OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to measure the adequacy of chest compression depth after training on low fidelity manikins and secondarily to assess the comparative experience of the learners on high fidelity and low fidelity simulators. METHODS: An observational cohort study in which seventy-two first year postgraduate students underwent a Basic Life Support (BLS) workshop conducted by AHA accredited BLS trainers and they were then required to perform on a high fidelity manikin to objectively record the quality of their performance...
November 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150228/surgeons-perceptions-of-the-causes-of-preventable-harm-in-arterial-surgery-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Rachael Lear, Anthony D Godfrey, Celia Riga, Christine Norton, Charles Vincent, Colin D Bicknell
BACKGROUND: System factors contributing to preventable harm in vascular patients have not been previously reported in detail. The aim of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to describe vascular surgeons' perceptions of factors contributing to adverse events (AEs) in arterial surgery. A secondary aim was to report recommendations to improve patient safety. METHODS: Vascular consultants/registrars working in the British National Health Service were questioned about the causes of preventable AEs through survey and semi-structured interview (response rates 77% and 83%, respectively)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150140/visual-pathways-from-the-perspective-of-cost-functions-and-multi-task-deep-neural-networks
#19
REVIEW
H Steven Scholte, Max M Losch, Kandan Ramakrishnan, Edward H F de Haan, Sander M Bohte
Vision research has been shaped by the seminal insight that we can understand the higher-tier visual cortex from the perspective of multiple functional pathways with different goals. In this paper, we try to give a computational account of the functional organization of this system by reasoning from the perspective of multi-task deep neural networks. Machine learning has shown that tasks become easier to solve when they are decomposed into subtasks with their own cost function. We hypothesize that the visual system optimizes multiple cost functions of unrelated tasks and this causes the emergence of a ventral pathway dedicated to vision for perception, and a dorsal pathway dedicated to vision for action...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149849/biobanking-in-israel-2016-17-expressed-perceptions-versus-real-life-enrollment
#20
Gideon Koren, Daniella Beller, Daphna Laifenfeld, Iris Grossman, Varda Shalev
BACKGROUND: As part of the preparations to establish a population-based biobank in a large Israeli health organization, we aimed to investigate through focus groups the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of insured Israelis, toward biobanking, and then, after input from focus groups' participants, to empirically assess the impact of a revised recruitment process on recruitment rates. METHODS: 1) Six Focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 per group) with individuals who had routine blood laboratory tests taken in the last 2 years...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
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